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TEACHINGS OF THE BUDDHA 


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Middle Length 

Discourses 


A New Translation of the 

Majjhima Nikaya 

# 

Translated by 

Bhikkhu Nanarnoli and Bhikkhu Bodh 





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TEACHINGS OF THE BUDDHA 


A New Translation of the 

Vfaiihima Nikava 


Translated from the Pali 


Original translation 

by 

Bhikkhu Nanamoli 


Translation edited and revised 

by 

Bhikkhu Bodhi 


Buddhist Publication Society 




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First published in 1995 
Wisdom Publications 
361 Newbury Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 02115 USA 


Publis.i • N. 

Buddhist Pu. 

P.O. L 

54, Sangharaja Mawab jy, Sri Lanka 
Copies of this publication are for sale in Asia only. 

© 1995 Bhikkhu Bodhi . 


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Tipitaka. Suttapitaka. Majjhimanikaya. English 

The middle length discourses of the Buddha : a new translation of 
the Majjhima Nikaya / original translation by Bhikkhu Nanamoli ; 
trahslation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi. 
p. cm. — (Teachings of the Buddha) 

Includes bibliographical references and index. 

ISBN 0-86171-072-X 

I. Nanamoli, Bhikkhu, d. 1960. II. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. 

III. Series. 

BQ1312.E5N36 1995 

294.3'823— dc20 * k 7 636 

ISBN 955-24-C 

00 99 98 97 
6 5 4 3 2 

Designed by: LJ-SAWLit 1 

Set in DPalatino 10 on 12.4 point by John Bullitt an .. awlit 

This book is printed on acid-free paper and meets the guidelines 
for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book 
Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. 

Printed in the United States of America 


II 


Contents 


Preface 13 

Introduction 19 

Summary of the 152 Suttas 61 


part one: the root fifty discourses ( Mulapannasapali ) 

1 THE division of the discourse on the root 
(Mulapariyayavagga) 

1 Mulapariyaya Sutta : The Root of All Things 83 

2 Sabbasava Sutta: All the Taints 91 

3 Dhammadayada Sutta : Heirs in Dhamma 97 

4 Bhayabherava Sutta: Fear and Dread 102 

5 Anangana Sutta: Without Blemishes 108 

6 Akankheyya Sutta: If a Bhikkhu Should Wish 115 

7 Vatthupama Sutta: The Simile of the Cloth 118 

8 Sallekha Sutta: Effacement 123 

9 Sammaditthi Sutta: Right View 132 

10 Satipatthana Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness 145 

2 the division of the lion's roar ( Slhanadavagga ) 

11 Culasihanada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on 

the Lion's Roar 159 

12 Mahaslhanada Sutta: The Greater Discourse on 

the Lion's Roar 164 

13 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 

Mass of Suffering 179 

14 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the 

Mass of Suffering 186 


5 


6 The Majjhima Nikdya 


15 Anumana Sutta : Inference 190 

16 Cetokhila Sutta : The Wilderness in the Heart 194 

17 Vanapattha Sutta : Jungle Thickets 198 

18 Madhupindika Sutta-. The Honey Ball 201 

19 Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Kinds of Thought 207 

20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta: The Removal of Distracting 

Thoughts 211 

3 the third division ( Tatiyavagga ) 

21 KakacQpama Sutta: The Simile of the Saw 217 

22 Alagaddupama Sutta: The Simile of the Snake 224 

23 Vammika Sutta: The Ant-hill 237 

24 Rathavinita Sutta: The Relay Chariots 240 

25 Nivapa Sutta: The Bait 246 

26 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: The Noble Search 253 

27 Culahatthipadopama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the 

Simile of the Elephant's Footprint 269 

28 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 

Simile of the Elephant's Footprint 278 

29 Mahasaropama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile 

of the Heartwood 286 

30 Culasaropama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of 

the Heartwood 291 

4 the great division of Pairs ( Mahayamakavagga ) 

» 

31 Culagosinga Sutta: The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga 301 

32 MahUgosinga Sutta: The Greater Discourse in Gosinga 307 

33 Mahagopdlaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 

Cowherd 313 

34 Culagopdlaka Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the 

Cowherd 319 

35 Culasaccaka Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 322 

36 Mahasaccaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 332 

37 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the 

Destruction of Craving 344 

38 MaMtanhasankhaya Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 

Destruction of Craving 349 

39 Maha-Assapura Sutta: The Greater Discourse at 

Assapura 362 


Table of Contents 7 


40 Cula-Assapura Sutta: The Shorter Discourse at 

Assapura 372 

5 the shorter division of pairs ( Culayamakavagga ) 

41 Saleyyaka Sutta : The Brahmins of Sala 379 

42 Veranjaka Sutta: The Brahmins of Veranja 386 

43 Mahavedalla Sutta: The Greater Series of Questions and 

Answers 387 

44 Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Series of Questions and 

Answers 396 

45 Culadhammasamadana Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on 

Ways of Undertaking Things 405 

46 Mahadhammasamadana Sutta: The Greater Discourse on 

Ways of Undertaking Things 408 

47 Vtmamsaka Sutta: The Inquirer 415 

48 Kosambiya Sutta: The Kosambians 419 

49 Brahmanimantanika Sutta: The Invitation of a Brahma 424 

50 Maratajjamya Sutta: The Rebuke to Mara 431 

PART TWO: THE middle FIFTY discourses ( Majjhimapannasapali ) 

1 the division on householders ( Gahapativagga ) 

51 Kandaraka Sutta: To Kandaraka 443 

52 Atthakanagara Sutta: The Man from Atthakanagara 454 

53 Sekha Sutta: The Disciple in Higher Training 460 

54 Potaliya Sutta: To Potaliya 466 

55 Jtvaka Sutta: To Jlvaka 474 

56 Upali Sutta: To Upali 477 

57 Kukkuravatika Sutta: The Dog-duty Ascetic 493 

58 Abhayarajakumara Sutta: To Prince Abhaya 498 

59 Bahuvedamya Sutta: The Many Kinds of Feeling 502 , 

60 Apannaka Sutta: The Incontrovertible Teaching 506 

2 the division on bhikkhus (Bhikkhuvagga) 

61 Ambalatthikarahulovada Sutta: Advice to Rahula at 

Ambalatthika 523 

62 Maharahulovada Sutta: The Greater Discourse of Advice to 

Rahula 527 


8 The Majjhima Nikaya 


63 Culamalunkya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to 

Malunkyaputta 533 

64 Mahamalunkya Sutta: The Greater Discourse to 

Malunkyaputta 537 

65 Bhaddali Sutta: To Bhaddali 542 

66 Latukikopama Sutta: The Simile of the Quail 551 

67 Catumd Sutta: At Catuma 560 

68 Nalakapana Sutta: At Nalakapana 566 

69 Gulissani Sutta: Gulissani 572 

70 Kitdgiri Sutta: At Kltagiri 577 

3 the division on wanderers ( Paribbajakavagga ) 

71 Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on the Threefold 

True Knowledge 587 

72 Aggivacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire 590 

73 Mahavacchagotta Sutta: The Greater Discourse to 

Vacchagotta 595 

74 Dighanakha Sutta: To Dlghanakha 603 

75 Magandiya Sutta: To Magandiya 607 

76 Sandaka Sutta: To Sandaka 618 

77 Mahasakuludayi Sutta: The Greater Discourse to 

Sakuludayin 629 

78 Samanamandika Sutta: Samanamandikaputta -648 

79 Culasakuludayi Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to 

Sakuludayin 654 

80 Vekhanassa Sutta: To Vekhanassa 663 

4 the division on kings ( Rajavagga ) 

81 Ghatikara Sutta: Ghatlkara the Potter 669 

82 Ratthapala Sutta: On Ratthapala 677 

83 Makhadeva Sutta: King Makhadeva 692 

84 Madhura Sutta: At Madhura 698 

85 Bodhirajakumara Sutta: To Prince Bodhi 704 

86 Angulimala Sutta: On Angulimala 710 

87 Piyajatika Sutta: Born from Those Who Are Dear 718 

88 Bahitika Sutta: The Cloak 723 

89 Dhammacetiya Sutta: Monuments to the Dhamma 728 

90 Kannakatthala Sutta: At Kannakatthala 734 


Table of Contents 9 


5 the division on brahmins ( Brahmanavagga ) 

91 Brahmayu Sutta : Brahmayu 743 

92 Sela Sutta : To Sela 755 

93 Assalayana Sutta-. To Assalayana 763 

94 Ghotamukha Sutta : To Ghotamukha 771 

95 CankT Sutta: With Cankl 775 

96 Esukart Sutta: To Esukarl 786 

97 Dhananjani Sutta: To Dhananjani 791 

98 Vasettha Sutta: To Vasettha 798 

99 Subha Sutta: To Subha 808 

100 Sangarava Sutta: To Sangarava 819 


part three: the final fifty discourses ( Uparipannasapali ) 

1 the division at devadaha ( Devadahavagga ) 

101 Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha 827 

102 Pahcattaya Sutta: The Five and Three 839 

103 Kind Sutta: What Do You Think About Me? 847 

104 SamagUma Sutta: At Samagama 853 

105 Sunakkhatta Sutta: To Sunakkhatta 861 

106 Anehjasappaya Sutta: The Way to the Imperturbable 869 

107 GanakamoggallUna Sutta: To Ganaka Moggallana 874 

108 Gopakamoggallana Sutta: With Gopaka Moggallana 880 

109 Mahapunnama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 

Full-moon Night 887 

110 Culapunnama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the 

Full-moon Night 892 

2 the division of one by one ( Anupadavagga ) 

111 Anupada Sutta: One by One As They Occurred 899 

112 Chabbisodhana Sut ta: The Sixfold Purity 903 

113 Sappurisa Sutta: The True Man 909 

114 Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta: To Be Cultivated and Not To Be 

Cultivated 913 

115 Bahudhatuka Sutta: The Many Kinds of Elements 925 

116 Isigili Sutta: Isigili: The Gullet of the Seers 931 

117 Mahacattarlsaka Sutta: The Great Forty 934 


10 The Majjhima Nikaya 


118 Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing 941 

119 Kayagatasati Sutta: Mindfulness of the Body 949 

120 Sankharupapatti Sutta : Reappearance by Aspiration 959 

3 the division on voidness ( Suhnatavagga ) 

121 Culasunnata Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on 

Voidness 965 

122 Mahasunnata Sutta: The Greater Discourse on 

Voidness 971 

123 Acchariya-abbhuta Sutta: Wonderful and Marvellous 979 

124 Bakkula Sutta: Bakkula 985 

125 Dantabhumi Sutta: The Grade of the Tamed 989 

126 Bhumija Sutta: Bhumija 997 

127 Anuruddha Sutta: Anuruddha 1002 

128 Upakkilesa Sutta: Imperfections 1008 

129 Balapandita Sutta: Fools and Wise Men 1016 

130 Devaduta Sutta: The Divine Messengers 1029 

4 THE DIVISION of expositions (V ibhangavagga) 

131 Bhaddekaratta Sutta: One Fortunate Attachment 1039 

132 Anandabhaddekaratta Sutta: Ananda and One Fortunate 

Attachment 1042 

133 Mahakaccanabhaddekaratta Sutta: Maha Kaccana and One 

Fortunate Attachment 1044 

134 Lomasakangiyabhaddekaratta Sutta: Lomasakangiya and One 

Fortunate Attachment , 1050 

135 Culakammavibhanga Sutta: The Shorter Exposition of 

Action 1053 

136 Mahdkammavibhanga Sutta: The Greater Exposition of 

Action 1058 

137 Salayatanavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Sixfold 

Base 1066 

138 Uddesavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of a Summary 1074 

139 Aranavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Non-conflict 1080 

140 Dhdtuvibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the 

Elements 1087 

141 Saccavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Truths 1097 

142 Dakkhinavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Offerings 1102 


Table of Contents 11 


5 the division of the sixfold base ( Salayatanavagga ) 

143 Anathapindikovada Sutta: Advice to Anathapindika 1109 

144 Channovada Sutta: Advice to Channa 1114 

145 Punnovada Sutta: Advice to Punna 1117 

146 Nandakovada Sutta: Advice from Nandaka 1120 

147 Culardhulovada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse of Advice to 

Rahula 1126 

148 Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sets of Six 1129 

149 Mahasalayatanika Sutta: The Great Sixfold Base 1137 

150 Nagaravindeyya Sutta: To the Nagaravindans 1140 

151 PindapatapHrisuddhi Sutta: The Purification of 

Almsfood 1143 

152 Indriyabhavana Sutta: The Development of the 

Faculties 1147 

Bibliography 1155 
List of Abbreviations 1159 
Notes 1161 

Pali-English Glossary 1361 
Index of Subjects 1377 
Index of Proper Names 1401 
Index of Similes 1407 
Index of Pali Terms Discussed in Introduction 
and Notes 1411 



Preface 


The present work offers a complete translation of the Majjhima 
Nikaya, The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, one of the 
major collections in the Sutta Pitaka or "Basket of Discourses" 
belonging to the Pali Canon. This vast body of scriptures, 
recorded in the ancient Indian language now known as Pali, is 
regarded by the Theravada school of Buddhism as the definitive 
recension of the Buddha-word, and among scholars too it is gen- 
erally considered our most reliable source for the original teach- 
ings of the historical Buddha Gotama. 

This translation is an extensively revised version of an original 
draft translation made by the distinguished English scholar- 
monk, Bhikkhu Nanamoli (1905-1960). During his eleven years' 
life in the Buddhist Order, passed entirely at the Island 
Hermitage in south Sri Lanka, Ven. Nanamoli had rendered into 
English some of the most difficult and intricate texts of Pali 
Buddhism, among them the encyclopaedic Visuddhimagga. 
Following his premature death at the age of 55, three thick 
hand-bound notebooks containing a handwritten translation of 
the entire Majjhima Nikaya were found among his effects. 
However, although all 152 suttas of the Majjhima had been trans- 
lated, the work was obviously still in an ongoing process of revi- 
sion, with numerous crossouts and overwritings and a fair num- 
ber of unresolved inconsistencies. The translation also employed 
an experimental scheme of highly original renderings for Pali 
doctrinal terms that Ven. Nanamoli had come to prefer to his ear- 
lier scheme and had overwritten into the notebooks. He had used 
this new set of renderings in several of his final publications, 
offering an explanation for his choices in an appendix to The 


13 



14 The Majjhima Nikaya 


Minor Readings and The Illustrator of Ultimate Meaning, his transla- 
tion of the Khuddakapatha and its commentary. 

In 1976 Bhikkhu Khantipalo made a selection of ninety suttas 
from the notebooks, which he edited into a fairly consistent and 
readable version rearranged according to a topical sequence he 
himself devised. This was published in Thailand in three vol- 
umes under the title A Treasury of the Buddha's Words. In this 
edition Ven. Khantipalo had endeavoured to make as few 
changes as possible in the original translation by Ven. 
Nanamoli, though he inevitably found it desirable to replace 
some of the latter's innovative renderings with better-known 
equivalents, generally choosing the terminology that Ven. 
Nanamoli had used in The Path of Purification, his excellent 
translation of the Visuddhimagga. 

The present work contains finished translations of all 152 
suttas. In editing the ninety suttas selected by Ven. Khantipalo, 
I have worked from the version found in A Treasury of the 
Buddha's Words, referring to Ven. Nanamoli's notebooks when- 
ever questions arose or problematic passages were encountered. 
The other sixty-two suttas had to be freshly edited from the 
notebooks. The translations of all 152 suttas have been checked 
against the original Pali texts and I hope that all errors and 
omissions have been rectified. 

My aim in editing and revising this material, I must frankly 
state, has not been to reconstruct the suttas in a way that would 
conform as closely as possible to the intentions of the original 
translator. My aim has been, rather, to turn out a translation of 
the Majjhima Nikaya that simultaneously approaches two 
ideals: first, fidelity to the intended meaning of the texts them- 
selves; and second, the expression of that meaning in an idiom 
that would be intelligible to a modern reader seeking in the Pali 
suttas personal guidance in the proper understanding and con- 
duct of life. Terminological exactitude and internal consistency 
have been important guidelines underlying the endeavour to 
achieve those ideals, but care has been taken that their pursuit 
should leave the translation transparent as to the meaning. 

To produce a translation of the Majjhima Nikaya that is both 
technically precise and lucid in expression required numerous 
revisions in the manuscript version. Most were quite minor but 
a few were substantial. Numerous alterations were made in the 


Preface 15 


rendering of Pali doctrinal terms, most of Ven. Khantipalo's 
changes having been incorporated. In place of Ven. Nanamoli's 
novel renderings I have in most cases returned to the clearer and 
better established terminology he employed in The Path of 
Purification. When doubts arose I always turned for help to Ven. 
Nyanaponika Mahathera, whose wise advice helped to steer 
this translation closer towards its two guiding ideals. The han- 
dling of several important technical terms is discussed at the 
end of the Introduction, to which is attached a list showing the 
terminological changes that were made for this edition. By con- 
sulting the list the reader can obtain some idea of how the man- 
uscript translation read. A glossary in the back gives the 
English renderings used for the major Pali doctrinal terms 
found in the Majjhima Nikaya as well as Pali words and mean- 
ings not included in the Pali Text Society's Pali-English 
Dictionary. The subject index also includes, for most entries, the 
Pali term after its chosen English rendering. Botanical names 
that could not be easily rendered by familiar English equiva- 
lents have been left untranslated. 

Ven. Nanamoli's translation was based primarily on the Pali 
Text Society's roman-script edition of the Majjhima Nikaya, 
published in three volumes, the first edited by V. Trenckner 
(1888), the second two by Robert Chalmers (1898, 1899). This 
edition was also used to check the translation, but on problemat- 
ic passages I consulted as well two other editions: the Burmese 
Buddhasasana Samiti's Sixth Buddhist Council edition in 
Burmese script and the Sinhala-script Buddha Jayanti edition 
published in Sri Lanka. Instances are not unusual where the 
reading in one or the other of these editions was preferred to 
that of the PTS edition, though only occasionally are these men- 
tioned in the notes. Seldom too do the notes refer to I. B. 
Horner's long-standing English translation of the Majjhima 
Nikaya, The Collection of the Middle Length Sayings, with which I 
sometimes compared Ven. Nanamoli's translation. Since the first 
volume of that translation was published in 1954, and the next 
two in 1957 and 1959, while Ven. Nanamoli's manuscript indi- 
cates that he did his revised translation between 1953 and 1956, 
it seems unlikely that he had consulted Horner's version in 
preparing his own; at most, he might have had access to the first 
volume after he had completed his first volume. 


16 The Majjhima Nikaya 


The text of the translation is divided into numerical sections. 
These divisions were introduced by Ven. Nanamoli into his 
manuscript version of the suttas and are not found in the PTS 
edition of the Majjhima Nikaya. Sometimes, when logic seemed 
to dictate it, I have made minor alterations in the divisions. The 
section numbers are included in the sutta references in the 
Introduction, Notes, and Indexes. Thus, for example, a reference 
to MN 26.18 means Majjhima Sutta No. 26, section 18. 

The numbers at the top of the pages refer to the volume and 
page number of the PTS edition of the Majjhima Nikaya, as do 
the bracketed numbers embedded in the text (except for MN 92 
and MN 98, wherein the numbers refer to the PTS edition of the 
Sutta Nipata). 

The Introduction aims to provide the reader with a thorough 
study guide to the Majjhima Nikaya by systematically surveying 
the principal teachings of the Buddha contained in this collec- 
tion along with references to the suttas where fuller expositions 
of those teachings can be found. More elementary information 
on the Pali Canon and on Pali Buddhism in general will be 
found in Maurice Walshe's introduction to his recent translation 
of the complete Dlgha Nikaya, Thus Have I Heard, which the .pre- 
sent publication is intended to parallel. As a way of easing the 
reader's entrance into the canonical texts themselves, a sum- 
mary of the Majjhima's 152 suttas follows the Introduction. 

To clarify difficult passages in the suttas and to shed addition- 
al light on passages whose meaning is richer than appears at 
first sight, a copious set of back notes has been provided. Many 
of these notes are drawn from the commentaries on the 
Majjhima, of which there are two. One is the commentary prop- 
er, the Majjhima Nikaya Atthakatha, also known as the 
Payahcasudani. This was composed in the fifth century by the 
great Buddhist commentator,.Acariya Buddhaghosa, who based 
it on the ancient commentaries (no longer extant) that had been 
preserved for centuries by the Sangha of the Mahavihara at 
Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. The commentary is of value not 
only for elucidating the meaning of the texts but also for filling 
in the background of events that led to the promulgation of the 
discourses. The other commentarial work is the subcommen- 
tary, the Majjhima Nikaya Tlka, ascribed to Acariya Dhammapala, 


Preface 17 


who probably lived and worked in South India a century or 
more later than Acariya Buddhaghosa. The main purpose of the 
Tlka is to clear up obscure or difficult points in the Atthakatha, 
but in doing so the author often sheds additional light on the 
meaning of the canonical text. In order to keep the notes as con- 
cise as possible, almost always the commentaries have been 
paraphrased rather than quoted directly. 

I am aware that the Notes sometimes repeat things already 
explained in the Introduction, but in a work of this nature such 
repetitions can be of use, particularly as novel ideas briefly treat- 
ed in the Introduction may slip the reader's memory at the time 
of reading a sutta to which they pertain. 

In conclusion I want to mention the contributions that others 
have made to the completion of this project. 

First, I wish to thank Ven. Nyanaponika Mahathera for first 
encouraging me to take up this task, which seemed so daunting 
at the outset, and then for providing valuable advice at every 
crucial turn along the way. Not only was he always ready to dis- 
cuss difficult points, but despite deteriorating vision, which 
drastically reduced the time he had available for reading, he still 
read through the Introduction, the Notes, and the knottier sut- 
tas, offering helpful suggestions. 

Second, I thank Ven. Khantipalo (now Laurence Mills) for per- 
mission to use his versions of the ninety suttas in A Treasury of 
the Buddha's Words as the working basis for this edition. The 
work he did on those suttas almost two decades ago greatly 
facilitated the preparation of this volume. 

Third, I must mention the tremendous help received from 
Ayya Nyanasirl, who subedited the initial draft, made numer- 
ous suggestions for minor improvements, and typed out the 
entire manuscript. Even though, as my conception of the 
editorial task changed, several suttas had , to be typed a second 
time, and a few a third time, this was always done with patience 
and understanding. 

Fourth, I thank two fellow bhikkhus, Ven. Thanissaro (U.S.A.) 
and Ven. Dhammaviharl (Sri Lanka), for reading portions of the 
manuscript and suggesting minor improvements. 

Finally, I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. Nicholas 
Ribush for his encouragement and helpfulness and to Wisdom 


18 The Majjhima Nikaya 


Publications for doing such a fine job of production. I am par- 
ticularly grateful to John Bullitt for his careful and precise 
management of this project. 

For any errors or defects that remain, I myself am fully 
responsible. 

BHIKKHU BODHI 
Forest Hermitage 
Kandy, Sri Lanka 


Introduction 


THE MAJJHIMA NIKAYA AS A COLLECTION 

The Majjhima NikAya is the second collection of the Buddha's 
discourses found in the Sutta Pitaka of the Pali Canon. Its title 
means literally the Middle Collection, and it is so called because 
the suttas it contains are generally of middle length, compared 
with the longer suttas of the Digha Nikaya, which precedes it, 
and the shorter suttas making up the two major collections that 
follow it, the Samyutta Nikaya and the Anguttara Nikaya. 

The Majjhima Nikaya consists of 152 suttas. These are divided 
into three parts called Sets of Fifty ( pannasa ), though the last set 
actually contains fifty-two suttas. Within each part the suttas are 
further grouped into chapters or divisions ( vagga ) of ten suttas 
each, the next to the last division containing twelve suttas. The 
names assigned to these divisions are often derived solely from 
the titles of their opening sutta (or, in some cases, pair of suttas) 
and thus are scarcely indicative of the material found within the 
divisions themselves. A partial exception is the Middle Fifty, 
where the division titles usually refer to the principal type of 
interlocutor or key figure in each of the suttas they contain. 
Even then the connection between the title and the contents is 
sometimes tenuous. The entire system of classification appears 
to have been devised more for the purpose of convenience than 
because of any essential homogeneity of subject matter in the 
suttas comprised under a single division. 

There is also no particular pedagogical sequence in the suttas, 
no unfolding development of thought. Thus while different suttas 
illuminate each other and one will fill in ideas merely suggested 
by another, virtually any sutta may be taken up for individual 


19 


20 The Majjhima Nikaya 


study and will be found comprehensible on its own. Of course, 
the study of the entire compilation will naturally yield the richest 
harvest of understanding. 

If the Majjhima Nikaya were to be characterised by a single 
phrase to distinguish it from among the other books of the Pali 
Canon, this might be done by describing it as the collection that 
combines the richest variety of contextual settings with the 
deepest and most comprehensive assortment of teachings. Like 
the Dlgha Nikaya, the Majjhima is replete with drama and nar- 
rative, while lacking much of its predecessor's tendency 
towards imaginative embellishment and profusion of legend. 
Like the Samyutta, it contains some of the profoundest discourses 
in the Canon, disclosing the Buddha's radical insights into the 
nature of existence; and like the Anguttara, it covers a wide 
range of topics of practical applicability. In contrast to those two 
Nikayas, however, the Majjhima sets forth this material not in 
the form of short, self-contained utterances, but in the context of 
a fascinating procession of scenarios that exhibit the Buddha's 
resplendence of wisdom, his skill in adapting his teachings to 
the needs and proclivities of his interlocutors, his wit and gentle 
humour, his majestic sublimity, and his compassionate humanity. 

• Naturally the greatest number of discourses in the Majjhima 
are addressed to the bhikkhus - the monks - since they lived in 
closest proximity to the Master and had followed him into 
homelessness to take upon themselves his complete course of 
training. But in the Majjhima we do not meet the Buddha only in 
his role as head of the Order .> Repeatedly we see him engaged in 
living dialogue with people from the many different strata of 
ancient Indian society - with kings and princes, with brahmins 
and ascetics, with simple villagers and erudite philosophers, 
with earnest seekers and vain disputants. It is perhaps in this 
scripture above all others that the Buddha emerges in the role 
ascribed to him in the canonical verse of homage to the Blessed 
One as "the incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, the 
teacher of gods and humans." 

It is not the Buddha alone who appears in the Majjhima in the 
role of teacher. The work also introduces us to the accomplished 
disciples he produced who carried on the transmission of his 
teaching. Of the 152 suttas in the collection, nine are spoken by 
the venerable Sariputta, the General of the Dhamma; three of 


Introduction 21 


these (MN 9, MN 28, MN 141) have become basic texts for the 
study of Buddhist doctrine in monastic schools throughout the 
Theravada Buddhist world. The venerable Ananda, the 
Buddha's personal attendant during the last twenty-five years of 
his life, delivers seven suttas and participates in many more. 
Four suttas are spoken by the venerable Maha Kaccana, who 
excelled in elaborating upon the brief but enigmatic sayings of 
the Master, and two by the second chief disciple, the venerable 
Maha Moggallana, one of which (MN 15) has been recommended 
for a monk's daily reflections. A dialogue between the venerable 
Sariputta and the venerable Punna Mantaniputta (MN 24) 
explores a scheme of seven stages of purification that was to 
form the outline for Acariya Buddhaghosa's great treatise on the 
Buddhist path, the Visuddhimagga. Another dialogue (MN 44) 
introduces the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna, whose replies to a 
series of probing questions were so adroit that the Buddha 
sealed them for posterity with the words "I would have 
explained it to you in the same way." 

The formats of the suttas are also highly variegated. The 
majority take the form of discourses proper, expositions of the 
teaching that pour forth uninterrupted from the mouth of the 
Enlightened One. A few among these are delivered in a series of 
unadorned instructional propositions or guidelines to practice, 
but most are interlaced with striking similes and parables, 
which flash through and light up the dense mass of doctrine in 
ways that impress it deeply upon the mind. Other suttas unfold 
in dialogue and discussion, and in some the dramatic or narra- 
tive element predominates. Perhaps the best known and most 
widely appreciated among these is the Angulimdla Sutta 
(MN 86), which relates how the Buddha subdued the notorious 
bandit Angulimala and transformed him into an enlightened 
saint. Equally moving, though in a different way, is the story of 
Ratthapala (MN 82), the youth of wealthy family whose preco- 
cious insight into the universality of suffering was so compelling 
that he was prepared to die rather than accept his parents' 
refusal to permit him to go forth into homelessness. Several sut- 
tas centre upon debate, and these highlight the Buddha's wit 
and delicate sense of irony as well as his dialectical skills. 
Particular mention might be made of MN 35 and MN 56, with 
their subtle humour leavening the seriousness of their contents. 


22 The Majjhima Nikaya 


In a class of its own is the Brahmanimantanika Sutta (MN 49), in 
which the Buddha visits the Brahma-world to detach a deluded 
deity from his illusions of grandeur and soon finds himself 
locked in a gripping contest with Mara the Evil One - an incon- 
ceivable alliance of Divinity and Devil defending the sanctity of 
being against the Buddha's call for deliverance into Nibbana, 
the cessation of being. 

THE BUDDHA IN THE MAJJHIMA NIKAYA 

Biographical information for its own sake was never an overrid- 
ing concern of the redactors of the Pali Canon, and thus the data 
the Majjhima provides on the life of the Buddha is scanty and 
uncoordinated, included principally because of the light it sheds 
on the Buddha as the ideal exemplar of the spiritual quest and 
the fully qualified teacher. Nevertheless, though it subordinates 
biography to other concerns, the Majjhima does give us the 
fullest canonical account of the Master's early life as a 
Bodhisatta, a seeker of enlightenment. With the Dlgha it shares 
the miraculous story of his conception and birth (MN 123), but 
its version of his great renunciation has been stripped to bare 
essentials and related in the stark terms of existential realism. In 
his youth, having seen through the sensual delights to which his 
princely status entitled him (MN 75.10), the Bodhisatta decided 
that it was futile to pursue things subject like himself to ageing 
and death and thus, with his parents weeping, he left the home 
life and went in search of the ageless and deathless, Nibbana 
(MN 26.13). MN 26 tells of his discipleship under two accom- 
plished meditation teachers of the day, his mastery of their sys- 
tems, and his consequent disillusionment. MN 12 and MN 36 
describe his ascetic practices during his six hard years of striv- 
ing, a path he pursued almost to the point of death. MN 26 and 
MN 36 both relate in lean and unembellished terms his attain- 
ment of enlightenment, which they view from different angles, 
while MN 26 takes us past the enlightenment to the decision to 
teach and the instruction of his first disciples. From that point 
on connected biography breaks off in the Majjhima and can only 
be reconstructed partially and hypothetically. 

Again, despite the absence of any systematic account, the 
Majjhima offers a sufficient number of cameo portraits of the 


Introduction 23 


Buddha for us to obtain, with the aid of information provided 
by other sources, a fairly satisfactory picture of his daily activi- 
ties and annual routine during the forty-five years of his min- 
istry. A commentarial text shows the Buddha's daily schedule 
as having been divided between periods of instructing the 
bhikkhus, giving discourses to the laity, and secluded medita- 
tion, during which he usually dwelt either in the "abode of 
voidness" (MN 121.3, MN 122.6) or in the attainment of great 
compassion. The day's single meal was always taken in the 
forenoon, either received by invitation or collected on alms- 
round, and his sleep was restricted to a few hours per night, 
except in the summer, when he rested briefly during the middle 
of the day (MN 36.46). The annual routine was determined by 
the Indian climate, which divided the year into three seasons - 
a cold season from November through February, a hot season 
from March through June, and a rainy season from July 
through October. As was customary among the ascetics of 
ancient India, the Buddha and his monastic community would 
remain at a fixed residence during the rainy season, when tor- 
rential rains and swollen rivers made travel almost impossible. 
During the rest of the year he would wander through the 
Ganges Valley expounding his teachings to all who were pre- 
pared to listen. 

The Buddha's main seats of residence for the rains retreat 
(vassa) were located at SavatthI in the state of Kosala and Raja- 
gaha in the state of Magadha. At SavatthI he would usually stay 
at Jeta's Grove, a park offered to him by the wealthy merchant 
Anathapindika, and accordingly a great number of Majjhima 
discourses are recorded as having been given there. 
Occasionally at SavatthI he would reside instead at the Eastern 
Park, offered by the devout lay-woman Visakha, also known as 
"Migara's mother." In Rajagaha he often stayed at the Bamboo 
Grove, offered by the king of Magadha, Seniya Bimbisara, or for 
greater seclusion, on Vulture Peak outside the city. His wander- 
ings, during which he was usually accompanied by a large ret- 
inue of bhikkhus, ranged from the Angan country (close to 
modern West Bengal) to the Himalayan foothills and the Kuru 
country (modem Delhi). Occasionally, when he saw that a spe- 
cial case required his individual attention, he would leave the 
Sangha and travel alone (see MN 75, MN 86, MN 140). 



24 The Majjhima Nikaya 


Although the Canon is precise and reliable in affording such 
details, for the early Buddhist community interest focuses upon 
the Buddha not so much in his concrete historical particularity 
as in his archetypal significance. Whereas outsiders might view 
him as merely one among the many spiritual teachers of the 
day - as "the recluse Gotama" - to his disciples "he is vision, he 
is knowledge, he is the Dhamma, he is the holy one,... the giver 
of the Deathless, the lord of the Dhamma, the Tathagata" 
(MN 18.12). The last term in this series is the epithet the Buddha 
uses most often when referring to himself and it underscores his 
significance as the Great Arrival who brings to fulfilment a cos- 
mic, repetitive pattern of events. The Pali commentators explain 
the word as meaning "thus come" (tatha agata) and "thus gone" 
(tatha gata), that is, the one who comes into our midst bearing the 
message of deathlessness to which he has gone by his own prac- 
tice of the path. As the Tathagata he possesses the ten powers of 
knowledge and the four intrepidities, which enable him to roar 
his "lion's roar" in the assemblies (MN 12.9-20). He is not merely 
a wise sage or a benevolent moralist but the latest in the line of 
Fully Enlightened Ones, each of whom arises singly in an age of 
spiritual darkness, discovers the deepest truths about the nature 
of existence, and establishes a Dispensation ( sasana ) through 
which the path to deliverance again becomes accessible to the 
world. Even those of his disciples who have attained unsurpass- 
able vision, practice, and deliverance still honour and venerate 
the Tathagata as one who, enlightened himself, teaches others 
for the sake of their enlightenment (MN 35.26). Looking back at 
him following his demise, the first generation of monks could 
say: "The Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the 
producer of the unproduced path, the declarer of the undeclared 
path; he was the knower of the path, the finder of the path, the 
one skilled in the path," which is followed by and attained to 
afterwards by his disciples (MN 108.5). 

THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 

The Buddha's teaching is called the Dhamma, a word that can 
signify both the truth transmitted by the teaching and the con- 
ceptual-verbal medium by which that truth is expressed in order 
that it can be communicated and made comprehensible. The 


Introduction 25 


Dhamma is not a body of immutable dogmas or a system of 
speculative thought. It is essentially a means, a raft for crossing 
over from the "near shore" of ignorance, craving, and suffering 
to the "far shore" of transcendental peace and freedom 
(MN 22.13). Because his aim in setting forth his teaching is a 
pragmatic one - deliverance from suffering - the Buddha can 
dismiss the whole gamut of metaphysical speculation as a futile 
endeavour. Those committed to it he compares to a man struck 
by a poisoned arrow who refuses the surgeon's help until he 
knows the details about his assailant and his weaponry 
(MN 63.5). Being struck by the arrow of craving, afflicted by 
ageing and death, humanity is in urgent need of help. The rem- 
edy the Buddha brings as the surgeon for the world (MN 105.27) 
is the Dhamma, which discloses both the truth of our existential 
plight and the means by which we can heal our wounds. 

The Dhamma that the Buddha discovered and taught consists 
at its core in Four Noble Truths: 

• the noble truth of suffering (dukkha) 

• the noble truth of the origin of suffering ( dukkhasamudaya ) 

• the noble truth of the cessation of suffering ( dukkhanirodha ) 

• the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffer- 
ing (dukkhanirodhagamini patipada) 

It is these four truths that the Buddha awakened to on the night 
of his enlightenment (MN 4.31, MN 36.42), made known to the 
world when he set rolling the matchless Wheel of the Dhamma 
at Benares (MN 141.2), and held aloft through the forty-five 
years of his ministry as "the teaching special to the Buddhas" 
(MN 56.18). In the Majjhima Nikaya the Four Noble Truths are 
expounded concisely at MN 9.14-18 and in detail in MN 141, 
while in MN 28 the venerable Sariputta develops an original 
exposition of the truths unique to that sutta. Yet, though they 
may be brought forth explicitly only on occasion, the Four 
Noble Truths structure the entire teaching of the Buddha, con- 
taining its many other principles just as the elephant's footprint 
contains the footprints of all other animals (MN 28.2). 

The pivotal notion around which the truths revolve is that of 
dukkha, translated here as "suffering." The Pali word originally 
meant simply pain and suffering, a meaning it retains in the 
texts when it is used as a quality of feeling: in these cases it has 


26 The Majjhima Nikaya 


been rendered as "pain" or "painful." As the first noble truth, 
however, dukkha has a far wider significance, reflective of a 
comprehensive philosophical vision. While it draws its affective 
colouring from its connection with pain and suffering, and cer- 
tainly includes these, it points beyond such restrictive meanings 
to the inherent unsatisfactoriness of everything conditioned. 
This unsatisfactoriness of the conditioned is due to its imperma- 
nence, its vulnerability to pain, and its inability to provide com- 
plete and lasting satisfaction. 

The notion of impermanence ( aniccata ) forms the bedrock for 
the Buddha's teaching, having been the initial insight that 
impelled the Bodhisatta to leave the palace in search of a path to 
enlightenment. Impermanence, in the Buddhist view, comprises 
the totality of conditioned existence, ranging in scale from the 
cosmic to the microscopic. At the far end of the spectrum the 
Buddha's vision reveals a universe of immense dimensions 
evolving and disintegrating in repetitive cycles throughout 
beginningless time - "many aeons of world-contraction, many 
aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and 
expansion" (MN 4.27). In the middle range the mark of imper- 
manence comes to manifestation in our inescapable mortality, 
our condition of being bound to ageing, sickness, and death 
(MN 26.5), of possessing a body that is subject "to being worn 
and rubbed away, to dissolution and disintegration" (MN 74.9). 
And at the close end of the spectrum, the Buddha's teaching dis- 
closes the radical impermanence uncovered only by sustained 
attention to experience in its living immediacy: the fact that all 
the constituents of our being, bodily and mental, are in constant 
process, arising and passing away in rapid succession from 
moment to moment without any persistent underlying sub- 
stance. In the very act of observation they are undergoing 
"destruction, vanishing, fading away, and ceasing" (MN 74.11). 

This characteristic of impermanence that marks everything 
conditioned leads directly to the recognition of the universality 
of dukkha or suffering. The Buddha underscores' this all- 
pervasive aspect of dukkha when, in his explanation of the first 
noble truth, he says, "In short, the five aggregates affected by 
clinging are suffering." The five aggregates affected by clinging 
(pane 'upadanakkhandha). are a classificatory scheme that the 
Buddha had devised for demonstrating the composite nature of 


Introduction 27 


personality. The scheme comprises every possible type of condi- 
tioned state, which it distributes into five categories - material 
form, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness. 
The aggregate of material form (rupa) includes the physical body 
with its sense faculties as well as external material objects. The 
aggregate of feeling ( vedana ) is the affective element in experi- 
ence, either pleasant, painful, or neutral. Perception ( sanna ), the 
third aggregate, is the factor responsible for noting the qualities 
of things and also accounts for recognition and memory. The 
formations aggregate ( sankhara ) is an umbrella term that 
includes all volitional, emotive, and intellective aspects of men- 
tal life. And consciousness ( vinnam ), the fifth aggregate, is the 
basic awareness of an object indispensable to all cognition. As 
the venerable Sariputta shows in his masterly analysis of the 
first noble truth, representatives of all five aggregates are pre- 
sent on every occasion of experience, arising in connection with 
each of the six sense faculties and their objects (MN 28.28). 

The Buddha's statement that the five aggregates are dukkha 
thus reveals that the very things we identify with and hold to as 
the basis for happiness, rightly seen, are the basis for the suffer- 
ing that we dread. Even when we feel ourselves comfortable 
and secure, the instability of the aggregates is itself a source of 
oppression and keeps us perpetually exposed to suffering in its 
more blatant forms. The whole situation becomes multiplied 
further to dimensions beyond calculation when we take into 
account the Buddha's disclosure of the fact of rebirth. All beings 
in whom ignorance and craving remain present wander on in 
the cycle of repeated existence, samsara, in which each turn 
brings them the suffering of new birth, ageing, illness, and 
death. All states of existence within samsara, being necessarily 
transitory and subject to change, are incapable of providing last- 
ing security. Life in any world is unstable, it is swept away, it 
has no shelter and protector, nothing of its own (MN 82.36). 

THE TEACHING OF NON-SELF 

Inextricably tied up with impermanence and suffering is a third 
principle intrinsic to all phenomena of existence. This is the 
characteristic of non-self ( anatta ), and the three together are 
called the three marks or characteristics ( tilakkhana ). The Buddha 


28 The Majjhima Nikaya 


teaches, contrary to our most cherished beliefs, that our person- 
ality - the five aggregates - cannot be identified as self, as an 
enduring and substantial ground of personal identity. The notion 
of self has only a conventional validity, as a convenient short- 
hand device for denoting a composite insubstantial situation. It 
does not signify any ultimate immutable entity subsisting at the 
core of our being. The bodily and mental factors are transitory 
phenomena, constantly arising and passing away, processes cre- 
ating the appearance of selfhood through their causal continuity 
and interdependent functioning. Nor does the Buddha posit a 
self outside and beyond the five aggregates. The notion of self- 
hood, treated as an ultimate, he regards as a product of igno- 
rance, and all the diverse attempts to substantiate this notion by 
identifying it with some aspect of the personality he describes as 
"clinging to a doctrine of self." 

In several suttas in the Majjhima Nikaya, the Buddha gives 
forceful expression to his repudiation of views of self. In 
MN 102 he undertakes a far-reaching survey of the various 
propositions put forth about the self, declaring them all to be 
"conditioned and gross." In MN 2.8 six views of self are branded 
as "the thicket of views, the wilderness of views, the contortion 
of views, the vacillation of views, the fetter of views." In MN 11 
he compares his teaching point by point with those of other 
recluses and brahmins and shows that beneath their apparent 
similarities, they finally diverge on just this one crucial point - 
the rejection of views of self - which undermines the agree- 
ments. MN 22 offers a series of arguments against the view, of 
self, culminating in the Buddha's declaration that he does not see 
any doctrine of self that would not lead to sorrow, lamentation, 
pain, grief, and despair. In his map of the steps to liberation, 
personality view ( sakkayaditthi ), the positing of a self in relation 
to the five aggregates, is held to be the first fetter to be broken 
with the arising of the "vision of the Dhamma." 

The principle of non-self is shown in the suttas to follow logi- 
cally from the two marks of impermanence and suffering. The 
standard formula states that what is impermanent is pain or suf- 
fering, and what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to 
change cannot be regarded as mine, I, or self (MN 22.26, 
MN 35.20, etc.). Other passages highlight the relationship 
among the three characteristics from different angles. MN 28 


Introduction 29 


points out that when the external physical elements - earth, 
water, fire, and air - vast as they are, are periodically destroyed 
in cosmic cataclysms, there can be no considering this transitory 
body as self. MN 148 demonstrates by a reductio ad absurdum 
argument that impermanence implies non-self: when all the fac- 
tors of being are clearly subject to rise and fall, to identify any- 
thing among them with self is to be left with the untenable thesis 
that self is subject to rise and fall. MN 35.19 connects the mark of 
non-self with that of dukkha by arguing that because we cannot 
bend the five aggregates to our will, they cannot be taken as 
mine, I, or self. 

THE ORIGIN AND CESSATION OF SUFFERING 

The second of the Four Noble Truths makes known the origin or 
cause of suffering, which the Buddha identifies as craving 
(tanha) in its three aspects: craving for sensual pleasures; craving 
for being, that is, for continued existence; and craving for non- 
being, that is, for personal annihilation. The third truth states the 
converse of the second truth, that with the elimination of crav- 
ing the suffering that originates from it will cease without 
remainder. 

The Buddha's discovery of the causal link between craving 
and suffering accounts for the apparent "pessimistic" streak that 
emerges in several suttas of the Majjhima Nikaya: in MN 13 
with its disquisition on the dangers in sensual pleasures, form, 
and feeling; in MN 10 and MN 119 with their cemetery medita- 
tions; in MN 22, MN 54, and MN 75 with their shocking similes 
for sensual pleasures. Such teachings are part of the Buddha's 
tactical approach to guiding his disciples to liberation. By its 
own inherent nature craving springs up and thrives wherever it 
finds something that appears pleasant and delightful. It prolifer- 
ates through mistaken perception - the perception of sense 
objects as enjoyable - and thus to break the grip of craving on 
the mind, exhortation is often not enough. The Buddha must 
make people see that the things they yearn for and frantically 
pursue are really suffering, and he does this by exposing the 
dangers concealed beneath their sweet and charming exteriors. 

Although the second and third noble truths have an immedi- 
ate psychological validity, they also have a deeper aspect 


30 The Majjhima Nikaya 


brought to light in the suttas. The middle two truths as stated in 
the general formulation of the Four Noble Truths are actually 
telescoped versions of a longer formulation that discloses the 
origin and cessation of bondage in samsara. The doctrine in 
which this expanded version of the two truths is set forth is 
called paticca samuppada, dependent origination. In its fullest 
statement the doctrine spells out the origination and cessation of 
suffering in terms of twelve factors connected together in eleven 
propositions. This formulation, laid down schematically, will be 
found at MN 38.17 in its order of arising and at MN 38.20 in its 
order of ceasing. MN 115.11 includes both sequences together 
preceded by a statement of the general principle of conditionality 
that underlies the applied doctrine. A more elaborate version 
giving a factorial analysis of each term in the series is presented 
at MN 9.21-66, and a version exemplified in the course of an 
individual life at MN 38.26-40. Condensed versions are also 
found, notably at MN 1.171, MN 11.16, and MN 75.24-25. The 
venerable Sariputta quotes the Buddha as saying that one who 
sees dependent origination sees the Dhamma and one who sees 
the Dhamma sees dependent origination (MN 28.28). 

According to the usual interpretation, the series of twelve fac- 
tors extends over three lives and divides into causal and resul- 
tant phases. The gist of it can be briefly explained as follows. 
Because of ignorance ( avijja ) - defined as non-knowledge of the 
Four Noble Truths - a person engages in volitional actions or 
kamma, which may be bodily, verbal, or mental, wholesome or 
unwholesome. These kammic actions are the formations 
(s ankhara), and they ripen in states of consciousness (vinhana) - 
first as the rebirth-consciousness at the moment of conception 
and thereafter as the passive states of consciousness resulting 
from kamma that matures in the course of a lifetime. Along with 
consciousness there arises mentality-materiality ( namarupa ), the 
psychophysical organism, which is equipped with the sixfold 
base ( salayatana ), the five physical sense faculties and mind as 
the faculty of the higher cognitive functions. Via the sense facul- 
ties contact ( phassa ) takes place between consciousness and its 
objects, and contact conditions feeling ( vedana ). The links from 
consciousness through feeling are the products of past kamma, 
of the causal phase represented by ignorance and formations. 
With the next link the kammically active phase of the present 


Introduction 31 


life begins, productive of a new existence in the future. 
Conditioned by feeling, craving ( tanha ) arises, this being the sec- 
ond noble truth. When craving intensifies it gives rise to cling- 
ing ( upadana ), through which one again engages in volitional 
actions pregnant with a renewal of existence ( bhava ). The new 
existence begins with birth (jati ), which inevitably leads to ageing 
and death ( jaramarana ). 

The teaching of dependent origination also shows how the 
round of existence can be broken. With the arising of true 
knowledge, full penetration of the Four Noble Truths, ignorance 
is eradicated. Consequently the mind no longer indulges in 
craving and clinging, action loses its potential to generate 
rebirth, and deprived thus of its fuel, the round comes to an end. 
This marks the goal of the teaching signalled.by the third noble 
truth, the cessation of suffering. 

NIBBANA 

The state that supervenes when ignorance and craving have 
been uprooted is called Nibbana (Sanskrit, Nirvana), and no con- 
ception in the Buddha's teaching has proved so refractory to 
conceptual pinning down as this one. In a way such elusiveness 
is only to be expected, since Nibbana is described precisely as 
"profound, hard to see and hard to understand,... unattainable 
by mere reasoning" (MN 26.19). Yet in this same passage the 
Buddha also says that Nibbana is to be experienced by the wise 
and in the suttas he gives enough indications of its nature to 
convey some idea of its desirability. 

The Pali Canon offers sufficient evidence to dispense with the 
opinion of some interpreters that Nibbana is' sheer annihilation; 
even the more sophisticated view that Nibbana is merely the 
destruction of defilements and the extinction of existence cannot 
stand up under scrutiny. Probably the most compelling testi- 
mony against that view is the well-known passage from the 
Udana that declares with reference to Nibbana that "there is an 
unborn, unbecome, unmade, unconditioned," the existence of 
which makes possible "escape from the born, become, made, 
and conditioned" (Ud 8:3/80). The Majjhima Nikaya characteris- 
es Nibbana in similar ways. It is "the unborn, unageing, unail- 
ing, deathless, sorrowless, undefiled supreme security from 


32 The Majjhima Nikaya 


bondage," which the Buddha attained to on the night of his 
enlightenment (MN 26.18). Its pre-eminent reality is affirmed by 
the Buddha when he calls Nibbana the supreme foundation of 
truth, whose nature is undeceptive and which ranks as the 
supreme noble truth (MN 140.26). Nibbana cannot be perceived 
by those who live in lust and hate, but it can be seen with the 
arising of spiritual vision, and by fixing the mind upon it in the 
depths of meditation, the disciple can attain the destruction of 
the taints (MN 26.19, MN 75.24, MN 64.9). 

The Buddha does not devote many words to a philosophical 
definition of Nibbana. One reason is that Nibbana, being uncon- 
ditioned, transcendent, and supramundane, does not easily lend i 
itself to definition in terms of concepts that are inescapably tied 
to the conditioned, manifest, and mundane. Another is that the j 
Buddha's objective is the practical one of leading beings to I 
release from suffering, and thus his principal approach to the j 
characterisation of Nibbana is to inspire the incentive to attain it 
and to show what must be done to accomplish this. To show 
Nibbana as desirable, as the aim of striving, he describes it as 
the highest bliss, as the supreme state of sublime peace, as the 
ageless, deathless, and sorrowless, as the supreme security from 
bondage. To show what must be done to attain Nibbana, to indi- 
cate that the goal implies a definite task, he describes it as the 
stilling of all formations, the relinquishing of all attachments, t 
the destruction of craving, dispassion (MN 26.19). Above all, ; 
Nibbana is the cessation of suffering, and for those who seek an 
end to suffering such a designation is enough to beckon them 
towards the path. j 

THE WAY TO THE CESSATION OF SUFFERING j 

The fourth noble truth completes the pattern established by 
the first three truths by revealing the means to eliminate crav- 
ing and thereby bring an end to suffering. This truth teaches 
the "Middle Way" discovered by the Buddha, the Noble 
Eightfold Path: 

1. right view ( samma ditthi) 

2. right intention ( samma sankappa) I 

3. right speech ( samma vaca) j 


Introduction 33 


4. right action (samma kammanta) 

5. right livelihood ( samma ajiva) 

6. right effort ( samma vayama ) 

7. right mindfulness ( samma sati) 

8. right concentration ( samma samadhi ) 

Mentioned countless times throughout the Majjhima Nika y a, 
the Noble Eightfold Path is explained in detail in two full suttas. 
MN 141 gives a factorial analysis of the eight components of the 
path using the definitions that are standard in the Pali Canon; 
MN 117 expounds the path from a different angle under the 
rubric of "noble right concentration with its supports and its 
requisites." The Buddha there makes the important distinction 
between the mundane and supramundane stages of the path, 
defines the first five factors for both stages, and shows how the 
path factors function in unison in the common task of providing 
an outlet from suffering. Other suttas explore in greater detail 
individual components of the path. Thus MN 9 provides an in- 
depth exposition of right view, MN 10 of right mindfulness, 
MN 19 of right intention. MN 44.11 explains that the eight fac- 
tors can be incorporated into three " aggregates " of training. 
Right speech, right action, and right livelihood make up the 
aggregate of virtue or moral discipline (sila)} right effort, right 
mindfulness, and right concentration make up the aggregate of 
concentration (samadhi)} and right view and right intention make 
up the aggregate of understanding or wisdom ( pahha ). This 
threefold sequence in turn serves as the basic outline for the 
gradual training, to be discussed later. 

In the Pali Canon the practices conducing to Nibbana are often 
elaborated into a more complex set comprising seven groups 
of intersecting factors. The later tradition designates them the 
thirty-seven requisites of enlightenment ( bodhipakkhiya dhamma), 
but the Buddha himself simply speaks of them without a collec- 
tive name as "the things that I have taught you after directly 
knowing them" (MN 103.3, MN 104.5). Towards the end of his 
life he stressed to the Sangha that the long duration of his teach- 
ing in the world depends upon the accurate preservation of 
these factors and their being practised by his followers in har- 
mony, free from contention. 


34 The Majjhima Nikaya 


The constituents of this set are as follows: 

• the four foundations of mindfulness ( satipatthana ) 

• the four right kinds of striving ( sammappadhana ) 

• the four bases for spiritual power ( iddhipada ) 

• the five faculties ( indriya ) 

• the five powers ( bala ) 

• the seven enlightenment factors ( bojjhanga ) 

• the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya atthangika magga) 

Each group is defined in full at MN 77.15-21. As examination 
will show, most of these groups are simply subdivisions or 
rearrangements of factors of the eightfold path made to high- 
light different aspects of the practice. Thus, for example, the four 
foundations of mindfulness are an elaboration of right mindful- 
ness; the four right kinds of striving, an elaboration of right 
effort. The development of the groups is therefore integral and 
not sequential. MN 118, for example, shows how the practice of 
the four foundations of mindfulness fulfils the development of 
the seven enlightenment factors, and MN 149.10 states that one 
engaged in insight meditation on the senses brings to maturity 
all thirty-seven requisites of enlightenment. 

Factorial analysis of the thirty-seven requisites of enlighten- 
ment brings to light the central importance of four factors 
among them - energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. 
From this a clear picture of the essential practice can be 
sketched. One begins with a conceptual understanding of the 
Dhamma and an intention to' achieve the goal, the first two path 
factors. Then, out of faith, one accepts the moral discipline regu- 
lating speech, action, and livelihood. With virtue as a basis one 
energetically applies the mind to cultivating the four foundations 
of mindfulness. As mindfulness matures it issues in deepened 
concentration, and the concentrated mind, by investigation, 
arrives at wisdom, a penetrative understanding of the principles 
originally grasped only conceptually. 

THE GRADUAL TRAINING 

In the Majjhima Nikaya the Buddha often expounds the practice 
of the path as a gradual training ( anupubbasikkha ), which unfolds 
in stages from the first step to the final goal. This gradual training 


Introduction 35 


is a finer subdivision of the threefold division of the path into 
virtue, concentration, and wisdom. Invariably in the suttas the 
sequence on the gradual training is shown to start with the going 
forth into homelessness and the adoption of the lifestyle of a 
bhikkhu, a Buddhist monk. This immediately calls attention to 
the importance of the monastic life in the Buddha's Dispensation. 
In principle the entire practice of the Noble Eightfold Path is 
open to people from any mode of life, monastic or lay, and the 
Buddha confirms that many among his lay followers were 
accomplished in the Dhamma and had attained the first three of 
the four supramundane stages (MN 68.18-23; MN 73.9-22; the 
Theravadin position is that lay followers can also attain the 
fourth stage, arahantship, but having done so they immediately 
seek the going forth or pass away). However, the fact remains 
that the household life inevitably tends to impede the single- 
hearted quest for deliverance by fostering a multitude of worldly 
concerns and personal attachments. Hence the Buddha himself 
went forth into homelessness as the preliminary step in his own 
noble quest, and after his enlightenment he established the 
Sangha, the order of bhikkhus and bhikkhunls, as the resort for 
those who wish to devote themselves fully to the practice of his 
teaching undeflected by the cares of household life. 

The main paradigm for the gradual training found in the 
Majjhima Nikaya is that laid out in MN 27 and MN 51; alterna- 
tive versions are found at MN 38, MN 39, MN 53, MN 107, and 
MN 125, and some of the more important variations will be 
briefly noted. The sequence opens with the appearance of a 
Tathagata in the world and his exposition of the Dhamma, hear- 
ing which the disciple acquires faith and follows the Teacher 
into homelessness. Having gone forth, he undertakes and 
observes the rules of discipline that promote the purification of 
conduct and livelihood. The next three steps - contentment, 
restraint of the sense faculties, and mindfulness and full aware- 
ness - are intended to internalise the process of purification and 
thereby bridge the transition from virtue to concentration. 
Alternative versions (MN 39, MN 53, MN 107, MN 125) insert 
two additional steps here, moderation in eating and devotion to 
wakefulness. 

The direct training in concentration comes to prominence in 
the section on the abandonment of the five hindrances. The five 


36 The Majjhima Nikaya 


hindrances - sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restless- 
ness and remorse, and doubt - are the primary obstacles to med- 
itative development and their removal is therefore essential for 
the mind to be brought to a state of calm and unification. In the 
sequence on the gradual training the overcoming of the hin- 
drances is treated only schematically; other parts of the Canon 
provide more practical instruction, amplified still more in the 
commentaries. The passage on the hindrances is graced in 
MN 39 by a series of similes illustrating the contrast between the 
bondage imposed by the hindrances and the joyful sense of free- 
dom that is won when they are abandoned. 

The next stage in the sequence describes the attainment of the 
jhanas, profound states of concentration in which the mind 
becomes fully absorbed in its object. The Buddha enumerates 
four jhanas, named simply after their numerical position in the 
series, each more refined and elevated than its predecessor. The 
jhanas are always described by the same formulas, which in sev- 
eral suttas (MN 39, MN 77, MN 119) are augmented by similes 
of great beauty. Although in the Theravada tradition the jhanas 
are not regarded as indispensable to the attainment of enlighten- 
ment, the Buddha invariably includes them in the full gradual 
training because of the contribution they make to the intrinsic 
perfection of the path and because the deep concentration they 
induce provides a solid base for the cultivation of insight. While 
still mundane the jhanas are the "footsteps of the Tathagata" 
(MN 27.19-22) and foretokens of the bliss of Nibbana that lies at 
the training's end. 

From the fourth jhana three alternative lines of further devel- 
opment become possible. In a number of passages outside the 
sequence on the gradual training (MN 8, MN 25, MN 26, MN 66, 
etc.) the Buddha mentions four meditative states that continue 
the mental unification established by the jhanas. These states, 
described as "the liberations that are peaceful and immaterial," 
are, like the jhanas, also mundane. Distinguished from the jhanas 
by their transcendence of the subtle mental image that forms the 
object in the jhanas, they are named after their own exalted 
objects: the base of infinite space, the base of infinite conscious- 
ness, the base of nothingness, and the base of neither-perception- 
nor-non-perception. In the Pali commentaries these states came 
to be called the immaterial or formless jhanas (arupaj jhana). 


Introduction 37 


A second line of development disclosed by the suttas is the 
acquisition of supernormal knowledge. The Buddha frequently 
mentions six types as a group, which come to be called the six 
kinds of direct knowledge ( chalabhinna ; the expression does not 
occur in the Majjhima). The last of these, the knowledge of the 
destruction of the taints, is supramundane and thus properly 
belongs to the third line of development. But the other five are 
all mundane, products of the extraordinarily powerful degree of 
mental concentration achieved in the fourth jhana: the super- 
normal powers, the divine ear, the ability to read the minds of 
others, the recollection of past lives, and the divine eye (MN 6, 
MN 73, MN 77, MN 108). 

The jhanas and the mundane types of direct knowledge by 
themselves do not issue in enlightenment and liberation. As 
lofty and peaceful as these attainments are, they can only sup- 
press the defilements that sustain the round of rebirths but cannot 
eradicate them. To uproot the defilements at the most fundamen- 
tal level, and thereby yield the fruits of enlightenment and 
deliverance, the meditative process must be redirected along a 
third line of development, one which does not necessarily pre- 
suppose the former two. This is the contemplation of "things as 
they actually are," which results in increasingly deeper insights 
into the nature of existence and culminates in the final goal, the 
attainment of arahantship. 

This line of development is the one the Buddha pursues in the 
sequence on the gradual training, though he precedes it by 
descriptions of two of the direct knowledges, the recollection of 
past lives and the divine eye. The three together, which figured 
prominently in the Buddha's own enlightenment (MN 4.27-30), 
are collectively called the three true knowledges ( tevijja ). 
Although the first two among these are not essential to the reali- 
sation of arahantship, we may assume that the Buddha includes 
them here because they reveal the truly vast and profound 
dimensions of suffering in samsara and thereby prepare the 
mind for the penetration of the Four Noble Truths, in which that 
^suffering is diagnosed and surmounted. 

The process of contemplation by which the meditator devel- 
ops insight is not explicitly shown as such in the sequence on 
the gradual training. It is only implied by the exhibiting of its 
final fruit, here called the knowledge of the destruction of the 


38 The Majjhima Nikaya 


taints. The asavas or taints are a classification of defilements con- 
sidered in their role of sustaining the samsaric round. The 
commentaries derive the word from a root su meaning "to 
flow." Scholars differ as to whether the flow implied by the pre- 
fix a is inward or outward; hence some have rendered it as 
"influxes" or "influences," others as "outflows" or "effluents." 
A stock passage in the suttas indicates the term's real signifi- 
cance independently of etymology when it describes the asavas 
as states "that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen 
in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death" 
(MN 36.47, etc.). Thus other translators, bypassing the literal 
meaning, have rendered it "cankers," "corruptions," or "taints," 
the latter being the choice of Ven. Nanamoli. The three taints 
mentioned in the suttas are virtual synonyms for craving for 
sensual pleasures, craving for being, and the ignorance that 
appears at the head of the formula for dependent origination. 
When the disciple's mind has been liberated from the taints by 
the completion of the path of arahantship, he reviews his newly 
won freedom and roars his lion's roar: "Birth is destroyed, the 
holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, 
there is no more coming to any state of being." 

APPROACHES TO MEDITATION 

The methods of meditation taught by the Buddha in the Pali 
Canon fall into two broad systems. One is the development of 
serenity ( samatha ), which 'aims at concentration ( samadhi ); the 
other is the development of insight ( vipassana ), which aims at 
understanding or wisdom ( pahha ). In the Buddha's system of 
mental training the role of serenity is subordinated to that of 
insight because the latter is the crucial instrument needed to 
uproot the ignorance at the bottom of samsaric bondage. The 
attainments possible through serenity meditation were known 
to Indian contemplatives long before the advent of the Buddha. 
The Buddha himself mastered the two highest stages under his 
early teachers but found that they only led to higher planes of 
rebirth, not to genuine enlightenment (MN 26.15-16). However, 
because the unification of mind induced by the practice of con- 
centration contributes to clear understanding, the Buddha incor- 
porated the techniques of serenity meditation and the resulting 


Introduction 39 


levels of absorption into his own system, treating them as a 
foundation and preparation for insight and as a "pleasant abid- 
ing here and now." 

The attainments reached by the practice of serenity meditation 
are, as mentioned in the preceding section, the eight absorptions 
- the four jhanas and the four immaterial states - each of which 
serves as the basis for the next. Strangely, the suttas do not 
explicitly prescribe specific meditation subjects as the means for 
attaining the jhanas, but the commentarial literature such, as the 
Visuddhimagga enables us to make the connections. Among the 
meditation topics enumerated in the suttas, eight of the ten 
kasinas (MN 77.24) are recognised as suitable for attaining all four 
jhanas, the last two being the respective supports for the first two 
immaterial attainments. The eight bases for transcendence seem 
to be a more finely differentiated treatment of meditation on the 
colour kasinas, as are the first three of the eight liberations 
(MN 77.22-23). Mindfulness of breathing, to which the Buddha 
devotes an entire sutta (MN 118), provides an ever accessible 
meditation subject that can be pursued through all four jhanas 
and also used to develop insight. Another method for attaining 
the jhanas mentioned in the suttas is the four divine abodes 
(brahmavihara) - boundless loving-kindness, compassion, appre- 
ciative joy (i.e., gladness at others' success), and equanimity 
(MN 7, MN 40, etc.). Tradition holds the first three to be capable 
of leading to the three lower jhanas, the last of inducing the 
fourth jhana. The immaterial attainments are to be reached by 
fixing the mind on the specific object of each attainment - infinite 
space, infinite consciousness, nothingness, and the state that can 
only be described as neither percipient nor as non-percipient. 

Whereas in serenity meditation the meditator attempts to 
focus upon a single uniform object abstracted from actual expe- 
rience, in insight meditation the endeavour is made to contem- 
plate, from a position of detached observation, the ever-shifting 
flux of experience itself in order to penetrate through to the 
essential nature of bodily and mental phenomena. The Buddha 
% teaches that the craving and clinging that hold us in bondage are 
sustained by a network of "conceivings" ( mannita ) - deluded 
views, conceits, and suppositions that the mind fabricates by an 
internal process of mental commentary or "proliferation" 
ipapanca) and then projects out upon the world, taking them to 


40 The Majjhima Nikaya 


possess objective validity. The task of insight meditation is to 
sever our attachments by enabling us to pierce through this net 
of conceptual projections in order to see things as they really are. 

To see things as they really are means to see them in terms of 
the three characteristics - as impermanent, as painful or suffer- 
ing, and as not self. Since the three characteristics are closely 
interlinked, any one of them can be made the main portal for 
entering the domain of insight, but the Buddha's usual 
approach is to show all three together - impermanence implying 
suffering and the two in conjunction implying the absence of 
self. When the noble disciple sees all the factors of being as 
stamped with these three marks, he no longer identifies with 
them, no longer appropriates them by taking them to be mine, I, 
or self. Seeing thus, he becomes disenchanted with all forma- 
tions. When he becomes disenchanted, his lust and attachment 
fade away and his mind is liberated from the taints. 

Instructions for the development of insight in the Majjhima 
Nikaya, though concise, are many and diverse. The single most 
important lesson on the practice conducing to insight is the 
Satipatthana Sutta, the Discourse on the Foundations of 
Mindfulness (MN 10; also found in the Digha Nikaya with an 
amplified section on the Four Noble Truths). The sutta sets forth 
a comprehensive system called satipatthana designed to train the 
mind to see with microscopic precision the true nature of the 
body, feelings, states of mind, and mental objects. The system is 
sometimes taken to be the .paradigm for the practice of "bare 
insight" - the direct contemplation of mental and bodily phe- 
nomena without a prior foundation of jhana - and, while several 
exercises described in the sutta can also lead to the jhanas, the 
arousing of insight is clearly the intent of the method. 

Other suttas in the Majjhima Nikaya describe approaches to 
developing insight that either elaborate upon the satipatthana 
contemplations or reach them from a different starting point. 
Thus MN 1 18 shows how the practice of mindfulness of breath- 
ing fulfils all four foundations of mindfulness, not the first alone 
as shown in MN 10. Several suttas - MN 28, MN 62, MN 140 - 
present more detailed instructions on the contemplation of the 
elements. MN 37, MN 74, and MN 140 contain illuminating pas- 
sages on the contemplation of feeling. In some suttas the 
Buddha uses the five aggregates as the groundwork for insight 


Introduction 41 


contemplation (e.g., MN 22, MN 109); in some, the six sense 
bases (e.g., MN 137, MN 148, MN 149); in some, the two com- 
bined (MN 147). MN 112 has sections dealing with insight based 
on the five aggregates, the six elements, and the six sense bases, 
and as resulting from the gradual training. MN 52 and MN 64 
show that insight can also be aroused with the jhanas, the imma- 
terial attainments, and the divine abodes as its objects: the disci- 
ple enters any of these states and contemplates its constituent 
factors as subject to the three characteristics. 

Several sequences of meditative states mentioned in the 
Majjhima culminate in an attainment called the cessation of per- 
ception and feeling {sannavedayitanirodha). Although this state 
always follows the last immaterial attainment, it is not, as may be 
supposed, merely one higher step in the scale of concentration. 
Strictly speaking, the attainment of cessation pertains neither to 
serenity nor to insight. It is a state reached by the combined pow- 
ers of serenity and insight in which all mental processes are tem- 
porarily suspended. The attainment is said to be accessible only 
to non-returners and arahants who have also mastered the 
jhanas and immaterial states. Detailed canonical discussions of it 
are found in MN 43 and MN 44. 

THE FOUR PLANES OF LIBERATION 

The practice of the Buddhist path evolves in two distinct stages, 
a mundane ( lokiya ) or preparatory stage and a supramundane 
( lokuttara ) or consummate stage. The mundane path is devel- 
oped when the disciple undertakes the gradual training in 
virtue, concentration, and wisdom. This reaches its peak in the 
practice of insight meditation, which deepens direct experience 
of the three characteristics of existence. When the practitioner's 
faculties have arrived at an adequate degree of maturity, the 
mundane path gives birth to the supramundane path, so called 
because it leads directly and infallibly out of ( uttara ) the world 
% (/ofca) comprising the three realms of existence to the attainment 
of "the deathless element," Nibbana. 

Progress along the supramundane path is marked by four 
major breakthroughs, each of which ushers the disciple through 
two subordinate phases called the path ( magga ) and its fruit 
( phala ). The phase of path has the special function of eliminating 


42 The Majjhima Nikaya 


a determinate number of defilements to which it is directly 
opposed, the mental impediments that hold us in bondage to 
the round of rebirths. When the work of the path has been com- 
pleted, the disciple realises its corresponding fruit, the degree of 
liberation made accessible by that particular path. The canonical 
formula of homage to the Sangha refers obliquely to these four 
planes of liberation - each with its phase of path and fruit - 
when it extols the Blessed One's community of noble disciples 
as comprising "the four pairs of persons, the eight types of indi- 
viduals" (MN 7.7). These four pairs are obtained by taking, for 
each stage, the one who has entered upon the way to realisation 
of the fruit and the one who has attained the fruit. 

In the suttas the Buddha highlights the specific characteristics 
of each supramundane stage in two ways: by mentioning the 
defilements that are abandoned on each plane and the conse- 
quences its attainment bears on the process of rebirth (see, e.g., 
MN 6.11-13, 19; MN 22.42-45, etc.). He handles the elimination of 
the defilements by classifying these into a tenfold group called 
the ten fetters ( samyojana ). The disciple enters upon the first 
supramundane path either as a Dhamma-follower 
(dhammanusarin) or as a faith-follower ( saddhdnusarin ); the former 
is one in whom wisdom is the dominant faculty, the latter one 
who progresses by the impetus of faith. This path, the path of 
stream-entry, has the task of eradicating the grossest three fetters: 
personality view, i.e., the view of a self among the five aggre- 
gates; doubt in the Buddha and his teaching; and adherence to 
external rules and observances, either ritualistic or ascetic, in the 
belief that they can bring purification. When the disciple realises 
the fruit of this path he becomes a stream-enterer ( sotapanna ), who 
has entered the "stream" of the Noble Eightfold Path that will 
carry him irreversibly to Nibbana. The stream-enterer is bound to 
reach final liberation in a maximum of seven more births, which 
all occur either in the human world or in the heavenly realms. 

The second supramundane path attenuates to a still greater 
degree the root defilements of lust, hatred, and delusion, though 
without yet eradicating them. On realising the fruit of this path 
the disciple becomes a once-retumer ( sakadagamin ), who is due 
to return to this world (i.e., the sense-sphere realm) only one 
more time and then make an end of suffering. The third path 
eradicates the next two fetters, sensual desire and ill will; it 


Introduction 43 


issues in the fruit of the non-retumer ( anagamin ), who is due to 
reappear by spontaneous birth in one of the special celestial 
realms called the Pure Abodes, and there attain final Nibbana 
without ever returning from that world. 

The fourth and last supramundane path is the path of ara- 
hantship. This path eradicates the five higher fetters: desire for 
rebirth in the fine-material realm and in the immaterial realm, 
conceit, restlessness, and ignorance. By realisation of the fruit of 
this path the practitioner becomes an arahant, a fully liberated 
one, who "here and now enters upon and abides in the deliver- 
ance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with 
the destruction of the taints." The arahant will be discussed fur- 
ther in the next section. 

The commentaries (often referred to in the notes to this trans- 
lation) develop an interpretation of the paths and fruits based 
upon the systemisation of the Buddha's teachings known as the 
Abhidhamma. Drawing upon the Abhidhamma depiction of the 
mind as a sequence of discrete momentary acts of conscious- 
ness, called cittas, the commentaries understand each supra- 
mundane path to be a single occasion of consciousness arising at 
the climax of a series of insights into the Dhamma. Each of the 
four momentary path cittas eliminates its own fixed set of defile- 
ments, to be followed immediately by its fruition, which consists 
of a string of momentary cittas that enjoy the bliss of Nibbana 
made accessible by the breakthrough of the path. Though this 
conception of the paths and fruits is regularly employed by the 
commentators as an hermeneutical tool for interpreting the sut- 
tas, it is not explicitly formulated as such in the old Nikayas and 
at times there even appears to be a tension between the two (for 
example, in the passage at MN 142.5 describing the four persons 
on the path as distinct recipients of offerings). 

THE ARAHANT 

The ideal figure of the Majjhima Nikaya, as of the Pali Canon as 
% whole, is the arahant. The word "arahant" itself derives from a 
root meaning "to be worthy." Ven. Nanamoli renders it "accom- 
plished" and "Accomplished One" when it is used as an epithet 
of the Buddha, probably to be consistent with his practice of 
translating all the Buddha's epithets. In its other occurrences he 



44 The Majjhima Nikaya 


leaves it untranslated. The word seems to have been of pre- 
Buddhist coinage but was taken over by the Buddha to desig- 
nate the individual who has reached the final fruit of the path. 

The suttas employ a stock description of the arahant that 
summarises his accomplishments: he is "one with taints 
destroyed, who has lived the holy life, done what had to be 
done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed 
the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final 
knowledge" (MN 1.51, etc.). Variant descriptions emphasise dif- 
ferent aspects of the arahant's attainment. Thus one sutta offers 
a series of metaphorical epithets that the Buddha himself inter- 
prets as representing the arahant's abandoning of ignorance, 
craving, and conceit, his eradication of fetters, and his freedom 
from the round of births (MN 22.30-35). Elsewhere the Buddha 
ascribes a different set of epithets to the arahant - several of 
brahmanical currency - deriving these terms by imaginative ety- 
mology from the arahant's elimination of all evil unwholesome 
states (MN 39.22-29). 

The Majjhima records differences of type among the arahants, 
which are ascribed to the diversity in their faculties. In MN 70 
the Buddha introduces a basic distinction between those ara- 
hants who are "liberated-in-both-ways" and those who are 
"liberated-by-wisdom"; whereas the former are capable of abid- 
ing in the immaterial attainments, the latter lack that capacity. 
Arahants are further distinguished as those who possess, 
besides the knowledge of the destruction of the taints necessary 
to all arahants, all three of the true knowledges and all six of the 
direct knowledges. In MN 108 the venerable Ananda indicates 
that those arahants who possessed the six direct knowledges 
were accorded special veneration and authority in the Sangha 
following the Buddha's passing away. 

Beneath these incidental differences, however, all arahants 
alike share the same essential accomplishments - the destruction 
of all defilements and the freedom from future rebirths. They 
possess three unsurpassable qualities - unsurpassable vision, 
unsurpassable practice of the way, and unsurpassable deliver- 
ance (MN 35.26). They are endowed with the ten factors of one 
beyond training - the eight factors of the Noble Eightfold Path 
augmented by right knowledge and right deliverance 
(MN 65.34, MN 78.14). They possess the four foundations - the 


Introduction 45 


foundations of wisdom, of truth, of relinquishment, and of 
peace (MN 140.11). And by the eradication of lust, hate, and 
delusion all arahants have access to a unique meditative 
attainment called the fruition attainment of arahantship, 
described as the unshakeable deliverance of mind, the immea- 
surable deliverance of mind, the void deliverance of mind, the 
deliverance of mind through nothingness, and the signless 
deliverance of mind (MN 43.35-37). 

KAMMA AND REBIRTH 

According to the Buddha's teaching, all beings except the ara- 
hants are subject to "renewal of being in the future" ( punabbhava ), 
that is, to rebirth. Rebirth, in the Buddhist conception, is not the 
transmigration of a self or soul but the continuation of a process, 
a flux of becoming in which successive lives are linked together 
by causal transmission of influence rather than by substantial 
identity. The basic causal pattern underlying the process is that 
defined by the teaching of dependent origination (see above, 
pp. 30-31), which also demonstrates how rebirth is possible 
without a reincarnating self. 

The process of rebirth, the Buddha teaches, exhibits a definite 
lawfulness essentially ethical in character. This ethical character 
is established by the fundamental dynamism that determines 
the states into which beings are reborn and the circumstances 
they encounter in the course of their lives. That dynamism is 
kamma, volitional action of body, speech, and mind. Those 
beings who engage in bad actions - actions motivated by the 
three unwholesome roots of greed, hate, and delusion - generate 
unwholesome kamma that leads them to rebirth into lower 
states of existence and, if it ripens in the human world, brings 
them pain and misfortune. Those beings who engage in good 
actions - actions motivated by the three wholesome roots of 
non-greed, non-hate, and non-delusion - generate wholesome 
kamma that leads them to higher states of existence and ripens 
in the human world as pleasure and good fortune. Because the 
deeds a person performs in the course of a single life can be 
extremely varied, the type of rebirth that lies ahead of him can 
be very unpredictable, as the Buddha shows in MN 136. But 
despite this empirical variability, an invariable law governs the 


46 The Majjhima Nikaya 


direct relationship between types of actions and the types of 
results they yield, the basic correlations being sketched by the 
Buddha in MN 57 and laid out in greater detail in MN 135. 

In several suttas of the Majjhima Nikaya the Buddha refers to 
various planes of existence into which rebirth can occur and he 
also gives some indication of the types of kamma that lead to 
those planes. This cosmological typography is not, from the 
Buddhist standpoint, the product of conjecture or fantasy but a 
matter directly known to the Buddha through his "Tathagata's 
powers of knowledge" (MN 12.36); to some extent the process is 
also verifiable by those who gain the divine eye (e.g., MN 39.20). 
A brief overview may be given here of the planes of rebirth recog- 
nised in Buddhist cosmology and of their kammic antecedents, as 
systematised in the developed Theravada tradition. 

The Buddhist cosmos is divided into three broad realms - the 
sense-sphere realm, the fine-material realm, and the immaterial 
realm. Each of these comprises a range of subsidiary planes, 
amounting to a total of thirty-one planes of existence. 

The sense-sphere realm, so called because sensual desire pre- 
dominates there, consists of eleven planes divided into two 
groups, the bad destinations and the good destinations. The bad 
destinations or "states of deprivation" ( apaya ) are four in num- 
ber: the hells, which are states of intense torment as described in 
MN 129 and MN 130; the animal kingdom; the sphere of ghosts 
( peta ), beings afflicted with incessant hunger and thirst; and the 
sphere of titans ( asura ), beings involved in constant combat (not 
mentioned as a separate plane in the Majjhima). The courses of 
kamma leading to rebirth into these planes are classified into a 
set of ten - three of body, four of speech, and three of mind. 
These are enumerated briefly at MN 9.4 and explicated in 
MN 41. Gradations in the gravity of the evil intentions responsi- 
ble for these deeds account for specific differences in the mode 
of rebirth resulting from such actions. 

The good destinations in the sense-sphere realm are the 
human world and the heavenly planes. The latter are sixfold: the 
gods under the Four Great Kings; the gods of the Thirty-three 
(tavatimsa), who are presided over by Sakka, a Buddhist meta- 
morphosis of Indra, depicted as a devotee of the Buddha, faith- 
ful, but prone to negligence (MN 37); the Yama gods; the gods of 
the Tusita heaven, the abode of the Bodhisatta before his final 


Introduction 47 


birth (MN 123); the gods who delight in creating; and the gods 
who wield power over others' creations. The last is said to be 
the abode of Mara, the Tempter in Buddhism, who besides being 
a symbol for Desire and Death, is also regarded as a powerful 
deity with evil designs, keen to prevent beings from escaping the 
net of samsara. The kammic cause for rebirth into the good 
destinations of the sense-sphere realm is the practice of the ten 
courses of wholesome action, defined at MN 9.8 and in MN 41. 

In the fine-material realm the grosser types of matter are 
absent and the bliss, power, luminosity, and vitality of its 
denizens are far superior to those in the sense-sphere realm. The 
fine-material realm consists of sixteen planes, which are the 
objective counterparts of the four jhanas. Attainment of the first 
jhana leads to rebirth among Brahma's Assembly, the Ministers 
of Brahma and the Maha Brahmas, according to whether it is 
developed to an inferior, middling, or superior degree. Baka the 
Brahma (MN 49) and Brahma Sahampati (MN 26, MN 67) seem 
to be residents of the last-named plane. The suttas mention espe- 
cially the divine abodes as the path to the company of Brahma 
(MN 99.24-27). Attainment of the second jhana in the same three 
degrees leads respectively to rebirth among the gods of Limited 
Radiance, of Immeasurable Radiance, and of Streaming 
Radiance; the third jhana to rebirth among the gods of Limited 
Glory, of Immeasurable Glory, and of Refulgent Glory. The 
fourth jhana ordinarily leads to rebirth among the gods of Great 
Fruit, but if it is developed with a desire to attain an insentient 
mode of existence, it will conduce to rebirth among the non- 
percipient beings, for whom consciousness is temporarily sus- 
pended. The fine-material realm also contains five special planes 
that are exclusively for the rebirth of non-returners. These are 
the Pure Abodes - the Aviha, the Atappa, the Sudassa, the 
Sudassi, and the Akanittha. In each of these planes in the fine- 
material realm the lifespan is said to be of enormous duration 
and to increase significantly in each higher plane. 

The third realm of being is the immaterial realm, where 
matter has become non-existent and only mental processes 
exist. This realm consists of four planes, which are the objective 
counterparts of the fopr immaterial meditative attainments, 
from which they result and whose names they share: the 
bases of infinite space, infinite consciousness, nothingness. 



48 The Majjhima Nikaya 


and neither-perception-nor-non-perception. The lifespans 
ascribed to them are respectively 20,000; 40,000; 60,000; and 
84,000 great aeons. 

In Buddhist cosmology existence in every realm, being the 
product of a kamma with a finite potency, is necessarily imper- 
manent. Beings take rebirth in accordance with their deeds, 
experience the good or bad results, and then, when the genera- 
tive kamma has spent its force, they pass away to take rebirth 
elsewhere as determined by still another kamma that has found 
the opportunity to ripen. Hence the torments of hell as well as 
the bliss of heaven, no matter how long they may last, are bound 
to pass. For this reason the Buddha does not locate the final goal 
of his teaching anywhere within the conditioned world. He 
guides those whose spiritual faculties are still tender to aspire 
for a heavenly rebirth and teaches them the lines of conduct that 
conduce to the fulfilment of their aspirations (MN 41, MN 120). 
But for those whose faculties are mature and who can grasp the 
unsatisfactory nature of everything conditioned, he urges deter- 
mined effort to put an end to wandering in samsara and to reach 
Nibbana, which transcends all planes of being. 

THE BUDDHA AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES 

The Middle Country of India in which the Buddha lived and 
taught in the fifth century B.C. teemed with a luxuriant variety 
of religious and philosophical beliefs propagated by teachers 
equally varied in their ways of life. The main division was into 
the brahmins and the non-brahmanic ascetics, the samanas or 
"recluses." The brahmins were the hereditary priesthood of 
India, the custodians of the ancient orthodoxy. They accepted 
the authority of the Vedas, which they studied, chanted at 
countless rituals, sacrifices, and ceremonies, and turned to as the 
source of their philosophical speculations. Thus they are charac- 
terised in the suttas as traditionalists (anussavika), who teach 
their doctrines on the basis of oral tradition (MN 100.7). The Pali 
Canon generally depicts them as living a comfortably settled 
life, as marrying and begetting progeny, and in some cases as 
enjoying royal patronage. The more learned among them gath- 
ered a company of students - ail necessarily of brahmin birth - 
to whom they taught the Vedic hymns. 


Introduction 49 


The samanas, on the other hand, did not accept the authority 
of the Vedas, for which reason from the perspective of the brah- 
mins they stood in the ranks of heterodoxy. They were usually 
celibate, lived a life of mendicancy, and acquired their status by 
voluntary renunciation rather than by birth. The samanas 
roamed the Indian countryside sometimes in company, some- 
times as solitaries, preaching their doctrines to the populace, 
debating with other ascetics, engaging in their spiritual prac- 
tices, which often involved severe austerities (see MN 51.8). 
Some teachers in the samana camp taught entirely on the basis 
of reasoning and speculation, while others taught on the basis of 
their experiences in meditation. The Buddha placed himself 
among the latter, as one who teaches a Dhamma that he has 
directly known for himself (MN 100.7). 

The Buddha's encounters with brahmins were usually friend- 
ly, their conversations marked by courtesy and mutual regard. 
Several suttas in the Majjhima Nikaya concern the brahmins' 
claim to superiority over those in other social classes. In the 
Buddha's age the caste system was only beginning to take shape 
in northeast India and had not yet spawned the countless 
subdivisions and rigid regulations that were to manacle Indian 
society through the centuries. Society was divided into four 
broad social classes: the brahmins, who performed the priestly 
functions; the khattiyas, the nobles, warriors, and administrators; 
the vessas, the merchants and agriculturalists; and the suddas, the 
menials and serfs. From the Pali suttas it appears that the brah- 
mins, while vested with authority in religious matters, had not 
yet risen to the position of unchallengeable hegemony they were 
to gain after the promulgation of the Laws of Manu. They had, 
however, already embarked on their drive for domination and 
did so by propagating the thesis that brahmins are the highest 
caste, the fairest caste, the divinely blessed offspring of Brahma 
who are alone capable of purification. Anxiety that this claim of 
the brahmins might actually be true seems to have spread 
among the royalty, who must have been fearful of the threat it 
posed to their own power (see MN 84.4, MN 90.9-10). 

Contrary to certain popular notions, the Buddha did not explic- 
itly repudiate the class divisions of Indian society or appeal for 
the abolition of this social system. Within the Sangha, however, all 
caste distinctions were abrogated from the moment of ordination. 



50 The Majjhima Nikaya 


Thus people from any of the four castes who went forth under the 
Buddha renounced their class titles and prerogatives and instead 
became known simply as disciples of the Sakyan son (see 
Ud 5:5/55). Whenever the Buddha or his disciples were 
confronted with the brahmins' claim to superiority, they argued 
vigorously against them, maintaining that all such claims were 
groundless. Purification, they contended, was the result of con- 
duct, not of birth, and was thus accessible to those of all four 
castes (MN 40.13-14, MN 84, MN 90.12, MN 93). The Buddha 
even stripped the term "brahmin" of its hereditary accretions, and 
hearkening back to its original connotation of holy man, he 
defined the true brahmin as the arahant (MN 98). Those among 
the brahmins who were not yet hampered by class prejudice 
responded appreciatively to the Buddha's teaching. Some of the 
most eminent brahmins of the time, in whom there still burned 
the ancient Vedic yearning for light, knowledge, and truth, recog- 
nised in the Buddha the All-Enlightened One for whom they 
longed and declared themselves his disciples (see especially 
MN 91.34). Several even renounced their class privileges and with 
their retinues entered the Sangha (MN 7.22, MN 92.15-24). 

The samanas were a much more diversified group which, 
lacking a common scriptural authority, promulgated a plethora 
of philosophical doctrines ranging from the diabolical to the 
superdivine. The Pali Canon frequently mentions six teachers in 
particular as contemporaries of the Buddha, and as they are 
each described as "the head, of an order. . .regarded by many as a 
saint" (MN 77.5), they must have been quite influential at the 
time. The Majjhima Nikaya mentions both the set of six and, 
separately, states their individual doctrines; it does not, however, 
correlate the names with the doctrines. The connections between 
names and doctrines are made in the Samannaphala Sutta of the 
Digha Nikaya. 

Purana Kassapa, who is always mentioned first in the list, 
taught a doctrine of inaction ( akiriyavada ) that denied the validi- 
ty of moral distinctions (MN 60.13, MN 76.10). Makkhali Gosala 
was the leader of the sect known as the Ajivakas (or Ajlvikas), 
which survived in India down into the medieval period. He 
taught a doctrine of fatalism that denied causality ( ahetukavada ) 
and claimed that the entire cosmic process is rigidly controlled 
by a principle called fate or destiny ( niyati ); beings have no 


Introduction 51 


volitional control over their actions but move helplessly caught 
in the grip of fate (MN 60.21, MN 76.13). Ajita Kesakambalin 
was a moral nihilist ( natthikavada ) who propounded a material- 
ist philosophy that rejected the existence of an afterlife and 
kammic retribution (MN 60.5, MN 76.7); his doctrine is always 
cited by the Buddha as the paradigmatic instance of wrong 
view among the unwholesome courses of action. Pakudha 
Kaccayana advocated an atomism on the basis of which he 
repudiated the basic tenets of morality (MN 76.16). Sanjaya 
Belatthiputta, a sceptic, refused to take a stand on the crucial 
moral and philosophical issues of the day, probably claiming 
that such knowledge was beyond our capacity for verification 
(MN 76.30). The sixth teacher, the Nigantha Nataputta, is iden- 
tified with Mahavlra, the historical progenitor of Jainism. He 
taught that there exists a plurality of monadic souls entrapped 
in matter by the bonds of past kamma and that the soul is to be 
liberated by exhausting its kammic bonds through the practice 
of severe self-mortification. 

Whereas the Pali suttas are generally cordial but critical towards 
the brahmins, they are trenchant in their rejection of the rival doc- 
trines of the samaras. In one sutta (MN 60) the Buddha contends 
that the firm adoption of any of the first three doctrines (and by 
implication the fourth) entails a chain of unwholesome states gen- 
erating evil kamma strong enough to bring a descent into the 
lower realms. Similarly the venerable Ananda describes these 
views as four "negations of the holy life" (MN 76). The scepticism 
of Sanjaya, while not regarded as so pernicious, is taken as an indi- 
cation of its proponent's dullness and confusion; it is described as 
"eel-wriggling" ( amaravikkhepa ) because of its evasiveness and 
classified among the types of holy life that are without consolation 
(MN 76.30-31). The Jain doctrine, though sharing certain similari- 
ties with the Buddha's teaching, was held to be sufficiently 
mistaken in basic assumptions as to call for refutation, which the 
Buddha undertook on several occasions (MN 14, MN 56, MN 101). 
The repudiation of these erroneous views was seen, from the 
Buddhist perspective, to be a necessary measure not only to sound 
a clear warning against tenets that werepspiritually detrimental, 
but also to cut away the obstacles agaihst the acceptance of right 
view, which as the forerunner of the Buddha's path (MN 117.4) 
was a prerequisite to progress along the road to final deliverance. 


52 The Majjhima Nikaya 


TECHNICAL NOTES 

There remain to be discussed only a few technical points con- 
cerning this translation: first a general problem inevitably facing 
any translator from the Pali Canon, then certain changes that 
have been made in Ven. Nanamoli's renderings of important 
doctrinal terms. 

THE REPETITIONS 

Readers of Pali suttas, particularly in the original language, will 
immediately be struck by the frequency and length of the repeti- 
tive passages. The repetitions, if examined, will be found to be 
of different kinds and thus probably stem from different 
sources. We may consider three main types. 

First are the narrative repetitions within a single sutta as well as 
the repetition of statements in ordinary conversation. These 
doubtlessly originate from the method of oral transmission by 
which the suttas were preserved for the first four centuries of 
their existence, such repetition serving as a useful mnemonic 
device to ensure that details would not be lost. In this translation 
these repetitions have usually been bridged over with ellipsis 
points and occasionally the liberty was taken of contracting them. 

A second type of repetition stems from the use of stock for- 
mulas to describe fixed sets of doctrinal categories or aspects 
of the training. A commoq example of this is the formulas for 
the four jhanas and the three true knowledges. These formulas 
were almost certainly part of the Buddha's repertory of 
instructions, employed by him in the countless discourses he 
gave during his forty-five years' ministry in order to preserve 
the unity and consistency of his teaching. Here the shorter 
stereotyped formulas have generally been allowed to stand 
except when they play a subordinate role to a larger theme, in 
which case only the main clauses have been retained; an exam- 
ple is the treatment of the jhana formula at MN 53.18. The 
longer formulas that appear very often have been abridged, 
with references usually given to the passages where they 
appear in full; examples are the treatment of the first two true 
knowledges at MN 27.23-24 and of the gradual training at 
MN 38.31-38. 


Introduction 53 


A third type of repetition stems from the Buddha's application 
of an identical method of exposition to a series of doctrinal terms 
belonging to a fixed set. Examples are the formula for insight that 
is attached to each of the exercises in the Satipatthana Sutta 
(MN 10.5), and the exposition on the three characteristics applied 
to each of the five aggregates (MN 22.26). These repetitions, con- 
trary to modernistic suppositions, were very likely integral to the 
Buddha's own pedagogical method and served to drive home the 
points he wanted to convey. We can well imagine that such repe- 
titions, delivered by a fully enlightened teacher to those earnestly 
striving for awakening, must have sunk down deep into the 
minds of those who heard them and in many cases triggered off a 
glimpse of the truth. In the translation this type of repetition has 
usually been handled by repeating the method of exposition only 
for the first and last terms in the set - as is often done in the Pali 
editions of the texts - except when the method of exposition is 
especially long (as at MN 118.37-39), in which case it is shown in 
full only for the first term and in much abbreviated form for the 
rest. Those who read the suttas as an exercise in contemplation, 
and not merely for information, may try mentally filling in the 
entire sequence and exploring its range of implications. 

DHAMMA 

In his later translations Ven. Nanamoli appears to have set him- 
self two goals: to render virtually every Pali word into English 
(arahant and bodhisatta are rare exceptions); and to do so in obedi- 
ence to a very rigorous standard of consistency. In effect the prin- 
ciple that guided his work was: one Pali word, one correspond- 
ing English word. This principle he also applied to his treatment 
of the multiplex word dhamma, of which he wrote elsewhere that 
"the need for unity in the rendering is so great as to be almost 
desperate" ( Minor Readings and Illustrator, p. 331). He chose as his 
root rendering the word "idea," which he atte mpted to deploy for 
the Pali word in all its diverse occurrences. Even when dhamma is 
used in the suttas to signify the Buddha's teaching, he still 
remained faithful to his choice by translating it "the True Idea." 

Needless to say, this experiment was not successful. Recog- 
nising this, Ven. Khantipalo, in his edition of the ninety suttas, 
opted instead to retain the Pali word in most of its occurrences. 


54 The Majjhima Nikaya 


This decision, however, seems to have been unnecessary when 
the relinquishing of the demand for strict consistency allows for 
smooth and reliable translation without loss of meaning. While 
the many different uses of the Pali word dhamma may originally 
have had some underlying connection of meaning, by the time 
of the Pali Canon such connection had already receded so far 
into the background as to be virtually irrelevant to the under- 
standing of the texts. The commentaries ascribe at least ten dif- 
ferent contextual meanings to the word as it occurs in the Canon 
and they do not try to read any philosophical significance into 
this variability of application. The goal of lucid translation there- 
fore seems to require that the word be rendered differently 
according to its context, which generally makes the intended 
meaning clear. 

In revising Ven. Nanamoli's translation I have retained the 
Pali word Dhamma only when it refers to the Buddha's teaching, 
or in several cases to a rival teaching with which the Buddha's is 
contrasted (as at MN 11.13 and MN 104.2). In its other uses the 
context has been allowed to decide the rendering. Thus when 
dhamma occurs in the plural as a general ontological reference 
term it has been rendered "things" (as at MN 1.2 and MN 2.5). 
When it acquires a more technical nuance, in the sense either of 
the phenomena of existence or of mental constituents, it has 
been rendered “states" (as at MN 64.9 and MN 111.4). This term, 
however, must be divested of its overtone of staticity, dhammas 
being events within a dynamic process, and it must also not be 
taken to refer to some persisting entity that undergoes the states, 
entities themselves being nothing but connected series of dham- 
mas. The last two meanings of dhamma are not always separable 
in the texts and sometimes naturalness of English diction had to 
be used as the factor for deciding which should be selected. 

As the fourth foundation of mindfulness and as the sixth 
external sense base ( ayatana ), dhamma has been rendered "mind- 
objects" (even here "ideas" is too narrow). In still other con- 
texts it has been rendered as factors (MN 10.5), qualities 
(MN 15.3, MN 48.6) and teachings (MN 46.2, MN 47.3). When 
used as a suffix it acquires the idiomatic sense of "to be subject 
to" and so it has been translated, e.g., viparinamadhamma as 
"subject to change." 


Introduction 55 


sankhAra 

Although this word as used in the suttas has different specific 
references in different contexts, unlike dhamma it retains enough 
unity of meaning to permit, with rare exceptions, a uniform ren- 
dering. The problem, however, is to decide which of the many 
proposed renderings is the most adequate, or, if none are found 
fitting, to coin a new one that is. 

The root idea suggested by the word sankhara is "making 
together." The Pali commentators explain that the word allows 
for both an active and a passive sense. Thus the sankharas are 
either factors (or forces) that function together in producing an 
effect, or they are the things that are produced by a combina- 
tion of co-operating factors. In his translation of the 
Visuddhimagga Ven. Nanamoli had rendered sankharas as "for- 
mations," a rendering favoured by many other translators. In his 
later translation scheme he had experimented with rendering it 
as "determinations" and had attempted to incorporate that new 
choice into his manuscript of the Majjhima. In editing the 
manuscript Ven. Khantipalo chose to return to the translator's 
earlier and better known "formations," and in this edition I have 
followed suit. Though this word has the disadvantage of accen- 
tuating the passive aspect of sankharas, it avoids the problems 
into which "determinations" runs and seems colourless enough 
to take on the meaning determined by the context. 

The word sankhara occurs in four major contexts in the Pali 
suttas: (1) As the second factor in the formula of dependent orig- 
ination it is used to mean volitional actions, suggesting their 
active role of generating results in the process of rebirth. (2) As 
the fourth of the five aggregates the sankharas comprise all the 
mental factors not included in the other three mental aggregates; 
this group is probably assigned the name sankharakkhandha after 
its chief member, volition ( cetana ), which is responsible for form- 
ing all the other aggregates. (3) Sankhara is also used in a very 
comprehensive sense to signify everything produced by condi- 
tions. In this sense it comprises all five aggregates (as at MN 35.4 
and MN 115.12). Here the word bears the passive sense, being 
explained by the commentators as sankhatasankhdra, "formations 
consisting in the conditioned." This usage comes close in meaning 


56 The Majjhima Nikaya 


to the ontological use of dhamma, except that the latter is wider 
in range since it includes the unconditioned element Nibbana 
and concepts ( pahnatti ), both of which are excluded from 
s ankhara. (4) In still another context the word s ankhara is used in 
relation to kaya, vaci, and citta - body, speech, and mind - to 
mean the bodily formation, which is in-and-out breathing; the 
verbal formation, which is applied thought and sustained 
thought; and the mental formation, which is perception and 
feeling. The first and third are things that are dependent respec- 
tively upon the body and the mind, the second the things that 
activate speech. This triad is discussed at MN 44.13-15. 

Sankhara is also employed outside these major contexts, and in 
one such case Ven. Nanamoli's sense of "determination" has 
been retained. This is where it occurs in the compound 
padhanasankhara, which has been rendered "determined striv- 
ing" (as at MN 16.26). The rare and involved idiom, s ankhararh 
padahati, has similarly been rendered "he strives with determi- 
nation" (MN 101.23). In another case (MN 120), following the 
commentarial gloss, sankhara is rendered "aspiration." 

NAMARtiPA 

Ven. Nanamoli had translated this compound literally as 
"name-and-form." In this edition the compound has been 
changed back to the rendering used in his translation of the 
Visuddhimagga, "mentality-materiality," though with regret that 
this cumbersome Latinate expression lacks the concision and 
punch of "name-and-form." The word ndma originally meant 
"name," but in the Pali suttas it is used in this compound as a 
collective term for the mental factors associated with conscious- 
ness, as will be seen in the definition at MN 9.54. The commen- 
taries explain ndma here as deriving from the word namati, to 
bend, and as being applied to the mental factors because they 
"bend" towards the object in the act of cognizing it. Rttpa is used 
in two major contexts in the suttas: as the first of the five aggre- 
gates and as the specific object of eye-consciousness. The former 
is a broader category that includes the latter as one among many 
other species of rupa. Ven. Nanamoli, aiming at consistency in 
his manuscript translation, had used "form" for rupa as visible 
object (in preference to the "visible-datum" used in his earlier 


Introduction 57 


translation scheme). But when rupa is used to signify the first of 
the five aggregates, it has been changed to "material form." This 
rendering should indicate more precisely the meaning of rupa in 
that context while preserving the connection with rupa as visible 
object. Occasionally in the texts the word seems to straddle both 
meaning without allowing an exclusive delimitation, as in the 
context of certain meditative attainments such as the first two 
liberations (MN 77.22). 

BRAHMA 

The word brahma provided Ven. Nanamoli with another chal- 
lenge to his endeavour to achieve complete consistency. The 
word itself, going back to the Vedic period, originally meant 
holy power, the sacred power that sustains the cosmos and that 
was contacted through the prayers and rituals of the Vedas. 
Though the word retained its significance of "holy" or "sacred," 
by the Buddha's time it had undergone two distinct lines of 
development. One culminated in the conception of Brahman 
(neuter) as an impersonal absolute reality hidden behind and 
manifesting through the changing phenomena of the world. 
This conception is the keynote of the Upanishads, but the word 
brahma never appears in this sense in the Pali Canon. The other 
line of development culminated in the conception of Brahma 
(masculine singular) as an eternal personal God who creates and 
regulates the world. This conception was held by the brahmins 
as depicted in the Pali suttas. The Buddhists themselves asserted 
that Brahma was not a single creator God but a collective name 
for several classes of high deities whose chiefs, forgetting that 
they are still transient beings in the grip of kamma, were prone 
to imagine themselves to be the omnipotent everlasting creator 
(see MN 49). 

Ven. Nanamoli attempted to fulfil his guideline of consistency 
by rendering the word brahma in its various occurrences by 
"divine" or its cognates. Thus Brahma the deity was rendered 
"the Divinity," brahmana (= brahmin) was rendered "divine" (as a 
noun meaning a priestly theologian), and the expression brahma- 
cariya, in which brahma functions as an adjective, was rendered 
"the Life Divine." The result of this experiment was again the 
sacrifice of clarity for the sake of consistency, even at the risk of 


58 The Majjhima Nikaya 


generating misunderstanding, and therefore in the revisionary 
process I decided to treat these expressions in line with more 
conventional practices. Thus Brahma and brahmin have been 
left untranslated (the latter word is probably already more 
familiar to modern readers than the archaic noun "divine"). The 
word brahma, as it appears in compounds, has usually been ren- 
dered "holy" - e.g., brahmacariya as "the holy life" except when 
it is used to signify total sexual abstinence, in which case it has 
been rendered in accordance with its intended meaning as 
"celibacy." The word "divine" has, however, been retained in 
the expression brahmavihara, rendered "divine abode" (MN 83.6) 
with reference to the "immeasurable" meditations on loving- 
kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity, which 
are the dwellings of the divinity Brahma (MN 55.7) and the path 
to rebirth in the Brahma-world (MN 99.22). 

A NOTE ON PRONUNCIATION 

The pronunciation of Pali words and names is quite easy provid- 
ing the following simple rules are heeded. Among the vowels: 

a i u as in "but," "pin," "duke"; 

a l u as in "father," "keen," "pool"; 

e and o as in "way" and "home." 

Among the consonants, g is pronounced as in "girl," c as in 
"church," h as in "canyon." The cerebrals -t,d,n,l- are spoken 
with the tongue on the roof of the mouth; the dentals - f, d,n, l - 
with the tongue on the upper teeth, m is a nasal as in "sing." The 
aspirates - kh, gh, ch, jh, th, dh, th, dh, ph, and bh - are single con- 
sonants pronounced with a slight outward puff of breath, e.g., th 
as in "Thomas" (not as in "that"), ph as in "top hat" (not as in 
"phone"). Double consonants are always enunciated separately, 
e.g., dd as in "mad dog," gg as in "big gun." 

An o and an e always carry a stress, otherwise the stress falls 
on a long vowel -a,i, or u- or on a double consonant, or on m. 


Introduction 59 


MAJOR CHANGES IN TERMINOLOGY 

This list shows the most important of the changes in Ven. 
Nanamoli's manuscript terminology that were made for this 
edition. Changes marked with an asterisk were already intro- 
duced by Ven. Khantipalo in A Treasury of the Buddha's Words. 


PALI TERM 

MS RENDERING 

REVISED RENDERING 

akusala 

unprofitable 

unwholesome 

ajjhosana 

cleaving 

holding 

abhinivesa 

insistence 

adherence 

arupa 

formless 

immaterial 

*asekha 

the Adept 

one beyond training 

iddhi 

success 

(1) supernormal power; 

(2) spiritual power; 

(3) success 

uddhacca-kukkucca 

agitation and 

restlessness and 


worry 

remorse 

upadhi 

essentials of 

(1) attachment; 


existence 

(2) object of attachment 

ottappa 

shame 

fear of wrongdoing 

kama 

sensual desires 

sensual pleasures 

kusala 

profitable 

wholesome 

khaya 

exhaustion 

destruction 

*citta 

cognizance 

mind 

chanda 

zeal 

(1) desire; 

(2) zeal 

*jhdna 

illumination 

jhana 

*tathagata 

the Perfect One 

the Tathagata 

thlna-middha 

lethargy and 
drowsiness 

sloth and torpor 

*dhamma 

the True Idea 

the Dhamma 

dhamma 

ideas 

(1) things, states, 
factors; 

(2) mind-objects; , 

(3) qualities; / 

(4) teachings 

nandi 

relishing 

delight 

nama 

name 

mentality 



60 The Majjhima Nikaya 


PALI TERM 

MS RENDERING 

REVISED RENDERING 

namarupa 

name-and-form 

mentality-materiality 

*nibbclna 

extinction 

Nibbana 

nibbida 

dispassion 

disenchantment 

pahha 

understanding 

wisdom 

patigha 

resistance 

(1) sensory impact; 

(2) aversion 

padhana 

endeavour 

striving 

papahca 

diversification 

proliferation 

paritassana 

anguish 

agitation 

piti 

happiness 

rapture 

*buddha 

the Enlightened 
One 

the Buddha 

brahma 

divine 

holy, divine 

brahma 

the Divinity 

Brahma 

brahmana 

divine (caste) 

brahmin 

bhavana 

maintaining in 
being 

development 

mudita 

gladness 

appreciative joy 

rupa 

form 

(1) form; 

(2) material form, 
materiality; 

(3) fine-material (being) 

vicara 

pondering 

sustained thought 

vicikiccha 

uncertainty 

doubt 

vitakka 

thought) thinking 

thought, applied 
thought 

viraga 

fading away of lust dispassion 

sakkaya 

embodiment 

personality 

*sankhara 

determinations 

formations 

*sangha 

the Community 

the Sangha 

*satta 

creatures 

beings 

samana 

monk 

recluse 

*s ekha 

the Initiate 

the disciple in higher 
training 

hiri 

conscience 

shame 


A Summary of the 152 Suttas 


PART one: THE ROOT FIFTY DISCOURSES 

1 Mulapariyaya Sutta: The Root of All Things. The Buddha 
analyses the cognitive processes of four types of indi- 
viduals - the untaught ordinary person, the disciple in 
higher training, the arahant, and the Tathagata. This is one 
of the deepest and most difficult suttas in the Pali Canoii, 
and it is therefore suggested that the earnest student read 
it only in a cursory manner on a first reading of the 
Majjhima Nikaya, returning to it for an in-depth study 
after completing the entire collection. 

2 Sabbasava Sutta : All the Taints. The Buddha teaches the 
bhikkhus seven methods for restraining and abandoning 
the taints, the fundamental defilements that maintain 
bondage to the round df'birth and death. 

3 Dhammadayada Sutta: Heirs in Dharnma. The Buddha 
enjoins the bhikkhus to be heirs in Dharnma, not heirs in 
material things. The venerable Sariputta then continues on 
the same theme by explaining how disciples should train 
themselves to become the Buddha's heirs in Dharnma. 

4 Bhayabherava Sutta: Fear and Dread. The Buddha describes to 
a brahmin the qualities required of a monk who wishes to 
live alone in the forest. He then relates an account of his own 
attempts to conquer fear when striving for enlightenment. 

5 Anangana Sutta: Without Blemishes. The venerable 
Sariputta gives a discourse to the bhikkhus on the meaning 
of blemishes, explaining that a bhikkhu becomes blem- 
ished when he falls under the sway of evil wishes. 

6 Akankheyya Sutta: If a Bhikkhu Should Wish. The Buddha 
begins by stressing the importance of virtue as the founda- 
tion for a bhikkhu 's training; he then goes on to enumerate 


61 


62 The Majjhima Nikaya 


the benefits that a bhikkhu can reap by properly fulfilling 
the training. 

7 Vatthupama Sutta : The Simile of the Cloth. With a simple 
simile the Buddha illustrates the difference between a 
defiled mind and a pure mind. 

8 Sallekha Sutta: Effacement. The Buddha rejects the view 
that the mere attainment of the meditative absorptions is 
effacement and explains how effacement is properly prac- 
tised in his teaching. 

9 Sammaditthi Sutta: Right View. A long and important dis- 
course by the venerable Sariputta, with separate sections 
on the wholesome and the unwholesome, nutriment, the 
Four Noble Truths, the twelve factors of dependent origi- 
nation, and the taints. 

10 Satipatthana Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness. This is 
one of the fullest and most important suttas by the Buddha 
dealing with meditation, with particular emphasis on the 
development of insight. The Buddha begins by declaring 
the four foundations of mindfulness to be the direct path 
for the realisation of Nibbana, then gives detailed instruc- 
tions on the four foundations: the contemplation of the 
body, feelings, mind, and mind-objects. 

11 Culasihanada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Lion's 
Roar. The Buddha declares that only in his Dispensation 
can the four grades of noble individuals be found, explain- 
ing how his teaching can be distinguished from other 
creeds through its unique rejection of all doctrines of self. 

12 Mahasihanada Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Lion's 
Roar. The Buddha expounds the ten powers of a Tathagata, 
his four kinds of intrepidity, and other superior qualities, 
which entitle him to "roar his lion's roar in the assemblies." 

13 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 
Mass of Suffering. The Buddha explains the full under- 
standing of sensual pleasures, material form, and feelings; 
there is a long section on the dangers in sensual pleasures. 

14 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the 
Mass of Suffering. A variation on the preceding, ending in 
a discussion with Jain ascetics on the nature of pleasure 
and pain. 


A Summary of the 152 Suttas 63 


15 Anumana Sutta: Inference. The venerable Maha Mog- 
gallana enumerates the qualities that make a bhikkhu diffi- 
cult to admonish and teaches how one should examine 
oneself to remove the defects in one's character. 

16 Cetokhila Sutta: The Wilderness in the Heart. The Buddha 
explains to the bhikkhus the five "wildernesses in the 
heart" and the five "shackles in the heart." 

17 Vanapattha Sutta: Jungle Thickets. A discourse on the con- 
ditions under which a meditative monk should remain liv- 
ing in a jungle thicket and the conditions under which he 
should go elsewhere. 

18 Madhupindika Sutta: The Honey Ball. The Buddha utters a 
deep but enigmatic statement about "the source through 
which perceptions and notions tinged by mental prolifera- 
tion beset a man." This statement is elucidated by the ven- 
erable Maha Kaccana, whose explanation is praised by the 
Buddha. 

19 Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Kinds of Thought. With reference 
to his own struggle for enlightenment, the Buddha 
explains the way to overcome unwholesome thoughts and 
replace them by wholesome thoughts. 

20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta: The Removal of Distracting 
Thoughts. The Buddha teaches five methods for dealing 
with the unwholesome thoughts that may arise in the 
course of meditation. 

21 Kakacupama Sutta: The Simile of the Saw. A discourse on 
the need to maintain patience when addressed with dis- 
agreeable words. 

22 Alagaddupama Sutta: The Simile of the Snake. A bhikkhu 

named Arittha gives rise to a pernicious view that conduct 
prohibited by the Buddha is not really an obstruction. The 
Buddha reprimands him and, with a series of memorable 
similes, stresses the dangers in misapplying and misrepre- 
senting the Dhamma. The sutta culminates in one of the 
most impressive disquisitions on non-self found in the 
Canon. ✓ 

23 Vammika Sutta: The Ant-hill. A deity presents a monk with 
an obscure riddle, which is unravelled for him by the 
Buddha. 


64 The Majjhima Nikaya 



24 Rathavimta Sutta : The Relay Chariots. The venerable Punna 
Mantaniputta explains to Sariputta that the goal of the 
holy life, final Nibbana, is to be reached by way of the 
seven stages of purification. 

25 Nivdpa Sutta : The Bait. The Buddha uses the analogy of 
deer-trappers to make known to the bhikkhus the obsta- 
cles that confront them in their effort to escape from 
Mara's control. 

26 Ariyapariyesand Sutta: The Noble Search. The Buddha gives 
the bhikkhus a long account of his own quest for enlight- 
enment from the time of his life in the palace up to his 
transmission of the Dhamma to his first five disciples. 

27 Culahatthipadopama Sutta : The Shorter Discourse on the 
Simile of the Elephant's Footprint. Using the analogy of a 
woodsman tracking down a big bull elephant, the Buddha 
explains how a disciple arrives at complete certainty of the 
truth of his teaching. The sutta presents a full account of 
the step-by-step training of the Buddhist monk. 

28 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 
Simile of the Elephant's Footprint. The venerable Sariputta 
begins with a statement of the Four Noble Truths, which he 
then expounds by way of the contemplation of the four ele- 
ments and the dependent origination of the five aggregates. 

29 Mahasaropama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile 

of the Heartwood. 

30 Culasaropama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of 

the Heartwood. 

These two discourses emphasise that the proper goal of 
the holy life is the unshakeable deliverance of the mind, to 
which all other benefits are subsidiary. 

31 Culagosinga Sutta: The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga. The 
Buddha meets three bhikkhus who are living in concord, 
"blending like milk and water," and inquires how they 
' succeed in living together so harmoniously. 

32 Mahagosinga Sutta: The Greater Discourse in Gosinga. On a 
beautiful moonlit night a number of senior disciples meet 
together in a sala-tree wood and discuss what kind of 
bhikkhu could illuminate the wood. After each has 
answered according to his personal ideal, they go to the 
Buddha, who provides his own answer. 


A Summary of the 152 Suttas 65 


33 Mahagopalaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 
Cowherd. The Buddha teaches eleven qualities that pre- 
vent a bhikkhu's growth in the Dhamma and eleven quali- 
ties that contribute to his growth. 

34 Culagopalaka Sutta : The Shorter Discourse on the 
Cowherd. The Buddha explains the types of bhikkhus 
who "breast Mara's stream" and get safely across to the 
further shore. 

35 Culasaccaka Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka. The 
debater Saccaka boasts that in debate he can shake the 
Buddha up and down and thump him about, but when he 
finally meets the Buddha their discussion takes some 
unexpected turns. 

36 Mahasaccaka Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Saccaka. The 
Buddha meets again with Saccaka and in the course of a 
discussion on "development of body" and "development 
of mind" he relates a detailed narrative on his own spiri- 
tual quest. 

37 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the 
Destruction of Craving. The venerable Maha Moggallana 
overhears the Buddha give a brief explanation to Sakka, 
ruler of gods, as to how a bhikkhu is liberated through the 
destruction of craving. Wishing to know if Sakka under- 
stood the meaning, he makes a trip to the heaven of the 
Thirty-three to find out. 

38 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the 
Destruction of Craving. A bhikkhu named Sati promul- 
gates the pernicious view that the same consciousness 
transmigrates from life to life. The Buddha reprimands 
him with a lengthy discourse on dependent origination, 
showing how all phenomena of existence arise and cease 
through conditions. 

39 Maha-Assapura Sutta: The Greater Discourse at Assapura. 
The Buddha elucidates "the things that make one a 
recluse" with a discourse covering many aspects of the 
bhikkhu's training. 

40 Cula-Assapura Sutta: The Shorter Discourse at Assapura. 
The Buddha explains "the way proper to|the recluse" to be 
not the mere outward practice of ai/sterities but the 
inward purification from defilements. / 


66 The Majjhima Nikaya 


41 Sdleyyaka Sutta: The Brahmins of Sala. 

42 Veranjaka Sutta : The Brahmins of Veranja. 

In these two nearly identical suttas the Buddha explains to 
groups of brahmin householders the courses of conduct 
leading to rebirth in lower realms and the courses leading 
to higher rebirth and deliverance. 

43 Mahavedalla Sutta : The Greater Series of Questions and 

Answers. 

44 Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Series of Questions and 

Answers. 

These two discourses take the form of discussions on vari- 
ous subtle points of Dhamma, the former between the ven- 
erable Maha Kotthita and the venerable Sariputta, the latter 
between the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna and the lay follower 
Visakha. 

45 Culadhammasamadana Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on 

Ways of Undertaking Things. 

46 MahadhammasamUdana Sutta: The Greater Discourse on 

Ways of Undertaking Things. 

The Buddha explains, differently in each of the two suttas, 
four ways of undertaking things, distinguished according 
to whether they are painful or pleasant now and whether 
they ripen in pain or pleasure in the future. 

47 Vimamsaka Sutta: The Inquirer. The Buddha invites the 
bhikkhus to make a thorough investigation of himself in 
order to find out whether or not he can be accepted as 
fully enlightened. 

48 Kosambiya Sutta: The Kosambians. During the period when 
the bhikkhus at Kosambi are divided by a dispute, the 
Buddha teaches them the six qualities that create love and 
respect and conduce to unity. He then explains seven 
extraordinary knowledges possessed by a noble disciple 
who has realised the fruit of stream-entry. 

49 Brahmanimantanika Sutta: The Invitation of a Brahma. Baka 
the Brahma, a high divinity, adopts the pernicious view 
that the heavenly world over which he presides is eternal 
and that there is no higher state beyond. The Buddha visits 
him to dissuade him from that wrong view and engages 
him in a contest of Olympian dimensions. 


A Summary of the 152 Suttas 67 


50 Maratajjaniya Sutta : The Rebuke to Mara. Mara attempts to 
harass the venerable Maha Moggallana, but the latter 
relates a story of the distant past to warn Mara of the dan- 
gers in creating trouble for a disciple of the Buddha. 

PART TWO: THE MIDDLE EIFTY DISCOURSES 

51 Kandaraka Sutta : To Kandaraka. The Buddha discusses four 
kinds of persons found in the world - the one who tor- 
ments himself, the one who torments others, the one who 
torments both himself and others, and the one who tor- 
ments neither but lives a truly holy life. 

52 Atthakanagara Sutta : The man from Atthakanagara. The 
venerable Ananda teaches eleven "doors to the Death- 
less" by which a bhikkhu can attain the supreme security 
from bondage. 

53 Sekha Sutta : The Disciple in Higher Training. At the 
Buddha's request the venerable Ananda gives a discourse 
on the practices undertaken by a disciple in higher training. 

54 Potaliya Sutta: To Potaliya. The Buddha teaches a presump- 
tuous interlocutor the meaning of "the cutting off of 
affairs" in his discipline. The sutta offers a striking series 
of similes on the dangers in sensual pleasures. 

55 Jlvaka Sutta: To Jivaka. The Buddha explains the regula- 
tions he has laid down concerning meat-eating and 
defends his disciples against unjust accusations. 

56 Upali Sutta: To Upali. The wealthy and influential house- 
holder Upali, a prominent supporter of the Jains, proposes 
to go to the Buddha and refute his doctrine. Instead, he 
finds himself converted by the Buddha's "converting 
magic." 

57 Kukkuravatika Sutta: The Dog-Duty Ascetic. The Buddha 
meets two ascetics, one who imitates the behaviour of a 
dog, the other who imitates the behaviour of an ox. He 
reveals to them the futility of their practices and gives 
them a discourse on kamma and its fruit. 

58 Abhayarajakumara Sutta: To Prince Abhaya. The Jain leader, 
Nigantha Nataputta, teaches Prince Abhaya a "two- 
horned question" with which' he can refute the Bfuddha's 




what kind of speech he would and would not utter. 

59 Bahuvedamya Sutta : The Many Kinds of Feeling. After 
resolving a disagreement about the classification of feel- 
ings, the Buddha enumerates the different kinds of pleasure 

and joy that beings can experience. | 

60 Apannaka Sutta: The Incontrovertible Teaching. The Buddha | 
gives a group of brahmin householders an "incontrovert- f 
ible teaching" that will help them steer clear of the tangle in 

contentious views. i 

I 

61 Ambalatthikarahulovdda Sutta: Advice to Rahula at 
Ambalatthika. The Buddha admonishes his son, the novice 
Rahula, on the dangers in lying and stresses the importance 
of constant reflection on one's motives. 

62 Maharahulovada Sutta: The Greater Discourse of Advice to 
Rahula. The Buddha teaches Rahula the meditation on the 
elements, on mindfulness of breathing, and other topics. 

63 Culamalunkya Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Malunkya- 
putta. A bhikkhu threatens to leave the Order unless the 
Buddha answers his metaphysical questions. With the simile 
of the man struck by a poisoned arrow, the Buddha makes 
plain exactly what he does and does not teach. 

64 Mahamalunkya Sutta: The Greater Discourse to 
Malunkyaputta. The Buddha teaches the path to the aban- 
doning of the five lower fetters. 

65 Bhaddali Sutta: To Bhaddali. The Buddha admonishes a 
recalcitrant monk and explains the disadvantages of refus- 
ing to submit to the training. 

66 Latukikopama Sutta: The Simile of the Quail. The Buddha 
drives home the importance of abandoning all fetters, no 
matter how harmless and trifling they may seem. 

67 Catumd Sutta: At Catuma. The Buddha teaches a group of 
newly ordained monks four dangers to be overcome by 
those who have gone forth into homelessness. 

68 Nalakapana Sutta: At Nalakapana. The Buddha explains 
why, when his disciples die, he declares their level of 
attainment and plane of rebirth. 

69 Gulissdni Sutta: Gulissani. The venerable Sariputta gives a dis- 
course on the proper training of a forest-dwelling bhikkhu. 



A Summary of the 152 Suttas 69 


70 Kltagiri Sutta : At Kltagiri. The Buddha admonishes a group 
of disobedient monks, in the course of which he presents 
an important sevenfold classification of noble disciples. 

71 Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on the Threefold 
True Knowledge. The Buddha denies possessing complete 
knowledge of everything at all times and defines the three- 
fold knowledge he does possess. 

72 Aggivacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire. The Buddha 
explains to a wanderer why he does not hold any specula- 
tive views. With the simile of an extinguished fire he tries 
to indicate the destiny of the liberated being. 

73 Mahavacchagotta Sutta: The Greater Discourse to Vaccha- 
gotta. The story of the wanderer Vacchagotta's full conver- 
sion to the Dhamma, his going forth, and his attainment of 
arahantship. 

74 Dlghanakha Sutta: To Dlghanakha. The Buddha counters the 
disclaimers of a sceptic and teaches him the way to libera- 
tion through the contemplation of feelings. 

75 Magandiya Sutta: To Magandiya, The Buddha meets the 
hedonist philosopher Magandiya and points out to him the 
dangers in sensual pleasures, the benefits of renunciation, 
and the meaning of Nibbana. 

76 Sandaka Sutta: To Sandaka. The venerable Ananda teaches a 
group of wanderers four ways that negate the living of the 
holy life and four kinds of holy life without consolation. 
Then he explains the holy life that is truly fruitful. 

77 Mahasakuludayi Sutta: The Greater Discourse to 
Sakuludayin. The Buddha teaches a group of wanderers the 
reasons why his disciples venerate him and look to him for 
guidance. 

78 Samanamandika Sutta: Samanamandikaputta. The Buddha 
explains how a man is "one who has attained to the 
supreme attainment." 

79 Culasakuludayi Sutta: The Shorter Discourse to Sakuludayin. 

The Buddha examines the doctrine of a wandering ascetic, 
using the simile of "the most beautiful girl in the country" to 
expose the folly of his claims. / 

80 Vekhanassa Sutta: To Vekhanassa. A discourse parley similar 
to the preceding one, with an additional section on sensual 
pleasure. 







i 



81 Ghatikara Suffer. Ghatikara the Potter. The Buddha recounts 
the story of the chief lay supporter of the past Buddha 
Kassapa. 

82 Ratthapala Sutta: On Ratthapala. The story of a young man 
who goes forth into homelessness against the wishes of his 
parents and later returns to visit them. 

83 Makhadeva Sutta: King Makhadeva. The story of an ancient 
lineage of kings and how their virtuous tradition was bro- 
ken due to negligence. 

84 Madhura Sutta: At Madhura. The venerable Maha 
Kaccana examines the brahmin claim that brahmins are 
the highest caste. 

85 Bodhirajakumara Sutta: To Prince Bodhi. The Buddha coun- 
ters the claim that pleasure is to be gained through pain 
with an account of his own quest for enlightenment. 

86 Angulimala Sutta: On Angulimala. The story of how the 
Buddha subdued the notorious criminal Angulimala and 
led him to the attainment of arahantship. 

87 Piyajatika Sutta: Born from Those Who Are Dear. Why the 
Buddha teaches that sorrow and grief arise from those 
who are dear. 

88 Bahitika Sutta: The Cloak. The venerable Ananda answers 
King Pasenadi's questions on the Buddha's behaviour. 

89 Dhammacetiya Sutta: Monuments to the Dhamma. King 
Pasenadi offers ten reasons why he shows such deep ven- 
eration to the Buddha. 

90 Kannakatthala Sutta: At Kannakatthala. King Pasenadi 
questions the Buddha on omniscience, on caste distinc- 
tions, and on the gods. 

91 Brahmayu Sutta: Brahmayu. An old and erudite brahmin 
learns about the Buddha, goes to meet him, and becomes 
his disciple. 

92 Seta Sutta: To Sela. The brahmin Sela questions the 
Buddha, gains faith in him, and becomes a monk along 
with his company of pupils. 

93 Assaldyana Sutta: To Assalayana. A young brahmin 
approaches the Buddha to argue the thesis that the brah- 
mins are the highest caste. 

94 Ghotamukha Sutta: To Ghotamukha. A discussion between 
a brahmin and a bhikkhu on whether the renunciate life 
accords with the Dhamma. 




A Summary of the 152 Suttas 71 


95 Cankl Sutta: With CankT. The Buddha instructs a young 
brahmin on the preservation of truth, the discovery of 
truth, and the final arrival at truth. 

96 Esukdn Sutta: To Esukarl. The Buddha and a brahmin dis- 
cuss the brahmins' claim to superiority over the other castes. 

97 Dhanahjani Sutta: To Dhananjani. The venerable Sariputta 
admonishes a brahmin who tries to excuse his negligence 
by appeal to his many duties. Later, when he is close to 
death, Sariputta guides him to rebirth in the Brahma-world 
but is reprimanded by the Buddha for having done so. 

98 Vfisettha Sutta: To Vasettha. The Buddha resolves a dispute 
between two young brahmins on the qualities of a true 
brahmin. 

99 Subha Sutta: To Subha. The Buddha answers a young brah- 
min's questions and teaches him the way to rebirth in the 
Brahma- world. 

100 Sangarava Sutta: To Sangarava. A brahmin student ques- 
tions the Buddha about the basis on which he teaches the 
fundamentals of the holy life. 

PART THREE: THE FINAL FIFTY DISCOURSES 

101 Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha. The Buddha examines the 
Jain thesis that liberation is to be attained by self-mortifica- 
tion, proposing a different account of how striving 
becomes fruitful. 

102 Pahcattaya Sutta: The Five and Three. A survey of various 
speculative views about the future and the past and of 
misconceptions about Nibbana. 

103 Kinti Sutta: What Do You Think About Me? The Buddha 
explains how the monks can resolve disagreements about 
the Dhamma. 

104 Samagama Sutta: At Samagama. The Buddha lays down 
disciplinary procedures for the guidance of the Sangha to 
ensure its harmonious functioning after his demise. 

105 Sunakkhatta Sutta: To Sunakkhatta. The Buddha discusses 

the problem of an individual's overestimation of his 
progress in meditation. i 

106 Anehjasappaya Sutta: The Way to the Imperturbable. The 
Buddha explains the approaches to various levels of higher 
meditative states culminating in Nibbana. 



72 The Majjhima Nikaya 


107 Ganakamoggallana Sutta : To Ganaka Moggallana. The 
Buddha sets forth the gradual training of the Buddhist 
monk and describes himself as the "shower of the way." 

108 Gopakamoggallana Sutta: With Gopaka Moggallana. The ven- 
erable Ananda explains how the Sangha maintains its unity 
and internal discipline after the passing away of the Buddha. 

109 Mahdpunnama Sutta : The Greater Discourse on the Full- 
moon Night. A bhikkhu questions the Buddha on the five 
aggregates, clinging, personality view, and the realisation 
of non-self. 

110 Culapunnama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Full- 
moon Night. The Buddha explains the differences between 
an "untrue man" and a "true man." 

111 Anupada Sutta: One by One As They Occurred. The Buddha 
describes the venerable Sariputta's development of insight 
when he was training for the attainment of arahantship. 

112 Chabbisodhana Sutta: The Sixfold Purity. The Buddha 
explains how a bhikkhu should be interrogated when he 
claims final knowledge and how he would answer if his 
claim is genuine. 

113 Sappurisa Sutta: The True Man. The Buddha distinguishes 
the character of a true man from that of an untrue man. 

114 Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta: To Be Cultivated and Not To Be 
Cultivated. The Buddha sets up three brief outlines of 
things to be cultivated and not to be cultivated, and the 
venerable Sariputta fills in the details. 

115 Bahudhatuka Sutta: The Many Kinds of Elements. The 
Buddha expounds in detail the elements, the sense bases, 
dependent origination, and the kinds of situations that are 
possible and impossible in the world. 

116 Isigili Sutta: Isigili: The Gullet of the Seers. An enumeration 
of the names and epithets of paccekabuddhas who former- 
ly dwelt on the mountain Isigili. 

117 Mahdcattansaka Sutta: The Great Forty. The Buddha defines 
the factors of the Noble Eightfold Path and explains their 
inter-relationships . 

118 Andpdnasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing. An exposition 
of sixteen steps in mindfulness of breathing and of the 
relation of this meditation to the four foundations of mind- 
fulness and the seven enlightenment factors. 


A Summary of the 1 52 Suttas 73 


119 Kdyagatasati Sutta: Mindfulness of the Body. The Buddha 
explains how mindfulness of the body should be devel- 
oped and cultivated and the benefits to which it leads. 

120 Sankharupapatti Sutta: Reappearance by Aspiration. The 
Buddha teaches how one can be reborn in accordance with 
one's wish. 

121 Culasuhhata Sutta : The Shorter Discourse on Voidness. The 
Buddha instructs Ananda on the "genuine, undistorted, 
pure descent into voidness." 

122 Mahasuhhata Sutta: The Greater Discourse on Voidness. 
Upon finding that the bhikkhus have grown fond of social- 
ising, the Buddha stresses the need for seclusion in order 
to abide in voidness. 

123 Acchariya-abbhuta Sutta: Wonderful and Marvellous. At a 
gathering of bhikkhus the venerable Ananda recounts the 
wonderful and marvellous events that preceded and 
attended the birth of the Buddha. 

124 Bakkula Sutta: Bakkula. The elder disciple Bakkula enumer- 
ates his austere practices during his eighty years in the 
Sangha and exhibits a remarkable death. 

125 Dantabhumi Sutta: The Grade of the Tamed. By analogy 
with the taming of an elephant, the Buddha explains how 
he tames his disciples. 

126 Bhumija Sutta: Bhumija. The Buddha brings forward a 
series of similes to illustrate the natural fruitfulness of the 
Noble Eightfold Path. 

127 Anuruddha Sutta: Anuruddha. The venerable Anuruddha 
clarifies the difference between the immeasurable deliver- 
ance of mind and the exalted deliverance of mind. 

128 Upakkilesa Sutta: Imperfections. The Buddha discusses the 
various impediments to meditative progress he encoun- 
tered during his quest for enlightenment, with particular 
reference to the divine eye. 

129 Balapandita Sutta: Fools and Wise Men. The sufferings of 
hell and animal life into which a fool is reborn through his 
evil deeds, and the pleasures of heaven that a wise man 
reaps through his good deeds. 

130 Devaduta Sutta: The Divine Messengers. The Buddha 

describes the sufferings of hell that await the evil-doer 
after death. / 


74 The Majjhima Nikaya 


131 Bhaddekaratta Sutta: One Fortunate Attachment. 

132 Anandabhaddekaratta Sutta: Ananda and One Fortunate 

Attachment. 

133 Mahakaccanabhaddekaratta Sutta: Maha Kaccana and One 

Fortunate Attachment. 

134 Lomasakangiyabhaddekaratta Sutta: Lomasakangiya and One 

Fortunate Attachment. 

The above four suttas all revolve around a stanza spoken 
by the Buddha emphasising the need for present effort in 
developing insight into things as they are. 

135 Culakammavibhanga Sutta: The Shorter Exposition of 
Action. The Buddha explains how kamma accounts for the 
fortune and misfortune of beings. 

136 Mahakammavibhanga Sutta: The Greater Exposition of 
Action. The Buddha reveals subtle complexities in the 
workings of kamma that overturn simplistic dogmas and 
sweeping generalizations. 

137 Salayatanavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Sixfold 
Base. The Buddha expounds the six internal and external 
sense bases and other related topics. 

138 Uddesavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of a Summary. The 
venerable Maha Kaccana elaborates upon a brief saying of 
the Buddha on the training of consciousness and the over- 
coming of agitation. 

139 Aranavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Non-conflict. The 
Buddha gives a detailed discourse on things that lead to 
conflict and things tha}: lead away from conflict. 

140 Dhdtuvibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Elements. Stopping 
at a potter's workshop for the night, the Buddha meets a 
monk named Pukkusati and gives him a profound dis- 
course on the elements culminating in the four foundations 
of arahantship. 

141 Saccavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Truths. The ven- 
erable Sariputta gives a detailed analysis of the Four Noble 
Truths. 

142 Dakkhinavibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of Offerings. The 
Buddha enumerates fourteen kinds of personal offerings 
and seven kinds of offerings made to the Sangha. 


A Summary of the 152 Suttas 75 


143 Anathapindikovada Sutta: Advice to Anathapindika. The 
venerable Sariputta is called to Anathapindika's deathbed 
and gives him a stirring sermon on non-attachment. 

144 Channovada Sutta : Advice to Channa. The venerable 
Channa, gravely ill, takes his own life despite the attempts 
of two brother-monks to dissuade him. 

145 Punnovada Sutta: Advice to Punna. The bhikkhu Punna 
receives a short exhortation from the Buddha and decides 
to go live among the fierce people of a remote territory. 

146 Nandakovada Sutta: Advice from Nandaka. The venerable 
Nandaka gives the nuns a discourse on impermanence. 

147 CUlarahulovada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse of Advice to 
Rahula. The Buddha gives Rahula a discourse that leads 
him to the attainment of arahantship. 

148 Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sets of Six. An especially pro- 
found and penetrating discourse on the contemplation of 
all the factors of sense experience as not-self. 

149 Mahdsalayatanika Sutta: The Great Sixfold Base. How wrong 
view about the six kinds of sense experience leads to future 
bondage, while right view about them leads to liberation. 

150 Nagaravindeyya Sutta: To the Nagaravindans. The Buddha 
explains to a group of brahmin householders what kind of 
recluses and brahmins should be venerated. 

151 Pindapataparisuddhi Sutta: The Purification of Almsfood. 
The Buddha teaches Sariputta how a bhikkhu should 
review himself to make himself worthy of almsfood. 

152 Indriyabhavana Sutta: The Development of the Faculties. 
The Buddha explains the supreme development of control 
over the sense faculties and the arahant's mastery over his 
perceptions. 



bMajjhima NikAya 

The Middle Length Discourses 
of the Buddha 


NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO 
ARAHATO SAMMASAMBUDDHASSA 

HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED ONE, 
ACCOMPLISHED AND FULLY ENLIGHTENED 




Part One 


The Root Fifty Discourses 

(MulapannasapaH) 




1 

The Division of the Discourse 
on the Root 

(Mulapariyayavagga) 



1 Mulapariyaya Sutta 
The Root of All Things 


[1] 1. Thus have I heard. 1 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living in Ukkattha in the Subhaga Grove at the root of a royal 
sala tree. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." 2 - 
"Venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on the root of all 
things. 3 Listen and attend closely to what I shall say." - "Yes, 
venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this: 

(the ordinary person) 

3. "Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, 4 who has no 
regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their 
Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and 
undisciplined in their Dhamma, perceives earth as earth. 5 
Having perceived earth as earth, he conceives [himself as] earth, 
he conceives [himself] in earth, he conceives [himself apart] 
from earth, he conceives earth to be 'mine/ he delights in earth. 6 
Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 7 

4. "He perceives water as water. Having perceived water as 
water, he conceives [himself as] water, he conceives [himself] in 
water, he conceives [himself apart] from water, he conceives 
water to be 'mine/ he delights in water. Why is that? Because he 
has not fully understood it, I say. 

5. "He perceives fire as fire. Having perceived fire as fire, he 
conceives [himself as] fire, he conceives [himself] in fire, he con- 
ceives [himself apart] from fire, he conceives fire to be 'mine/ he 
delights in fire. Why is that? Because he has not fully under- 
stood it, I say. 

6- "He perceives air as air. Having perceived air as air, he con- 
ceives [himself as] air, he conceives [himself] in air, he conceives 


84 Mulapariyaya Sutta: Sutta 1 



i; 

II 



i 2 


[himself apart] from air, he conceives air to be 'mine,' he 
delights in air. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood 
it, I say. [2] 

7. "He perceives beings as beings. 8 Having perceived beings 
as beings, he conceives beings, he conceives [himself] in beings, 
he conceives [himself apart] from beings, he conceives beings to 
be 'mine,' he delights in beings. Why is that? Because he has not 
fully understood it, I say. 

8. "He perceives gods as gods. 9 Having perceived gods as 
gods, he conceives gods, he conceives [himself] in gods, he con- 
ceives [himself apart] from gods, he conceives gods to be 'mine/ 
he delights in gods. Why is that? Because he has not fully under- 
stood it, I say. 

9. "He perceives Pajapati as Pajapati. 10 Having perceived 
Pajapati as Pajapati, he conceives Pajapati, he conceives [him- 
self] in Pajapati, he conceives [himself apart] from Pajapati, he 
conceives Pajapati to be 'mine/ he delights in Pajapati. Why is 
that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

10. "He perceives Brahma as Brahma. 11 Having perceived 
Brahma as Brahma, he conceives Brahma, he conceives [himself] 
in Brahma, he conceives [himself apart] from Brahma, he con- 
ceives Brahma to be 'mine/ he delights in Brahma. Why is that? 
Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

11. "He perceives the gods of Streaming Radiance as the gods 
of Streaming Radiance. 12 Having perceived the gods of 
Streaming Radiance as the gods of Streaming Radiance, he con- 
ceives the gods of Streaming Radiance, he conceives [himself] in 
the gods of Streaming Radiance, he conceives [himself apart] 
from the gods of Streaming Radiance, he conceives the gods of 
Streaming Radiance to be 'mine,' he delights in the gods of 
Streaming Radiance. Why is that? Because he has not fully 
understood it, I say. 

12. "He perceives the gods of Refulgent Glory as the gods of 
Refulgent Glory. 13 Having perceived the gods of Refulgent 
Glory as the gods of Refulgent Glory, he conceives the gods of 
Refulgent Glory, he conceives [himself] in the gods of Refulgent 
Glory, he conceives [himself apart] from the gods of Refulgent 
Glory, he conceives the gods of Refulgent Glory to be 'mine/ he 
delights in the gods of Refulgent Glory. Why is that? Because he 
has not fully understood it, I say. 


i 3 


The Root of All Things 85 


13. "He perceives the gods of Great Fruit as the gods of Great 
Fruit. 14 Having perceived the gods of Great Fruit as the gods of 
Great Fruit, he conceives the gods of Great Fruit, he conceives 
[himself] in the gods of Great Fruit, he conceives [himself apart] 
from the gods of Great Fruit, he conceives the gods of Great 
Fruit to be 'mine,' he delights in the gods of Great Fruit. Why is 
that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

14. "He perceives the Overlord as the Overlord. 15 Having per- 
ceived the Overlord as the Overlord, he conceives the Overlord, 
he conceives [himself] in the Overlord, he conceives [himself 
apart] from the Overlord, he conceives the Overlord to be 
'mine/ he delights in the Overlord. Why is that? Because he has 
not fully understood it, I say. 

15. "He perceives the base of infinite space as the base of infi- 
nite space. 16 Having perceived the base of infinite space as the 
base of infinite space, he conceives [himself as] the base of infi- 
nite space, he conceives [himself] in the base of infinite space, he 
conceives [himself apart] from the base of infinite space, he con- 
ceives the base of infinite space to be 'mine,' he delights in the 
base of infinite space. Why is that? Because he has not fully 
understood it, I say. 

16. "He perceives the base of infinite consciousness as the 
base of infinite consciousness. Having perceived the base of 
infinite consciousness as the base of infinite consciousness, [3] 
he conceives [himself as] the base of infinite consciousness, he 
conceives [himself] in the base of infinite consciousness, he con- 
ceives [himself apart] from the base of infinite consciousness, he 
conceives the base of infinite consciousness to be 'mine/ he 
delights in the base of infinite consciousness. Why is that? 
Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

17. "He perceives the base of nothingness as the base of noth- 
ingness. Having perceived the base of nothingness as the base of 
nothingness, he conceives [himself as] the base of nothingness, he 
conceives [himself] in the base of nothingness, he conceives [him- 
self apart] from the base of nothingness, he conceives the base of 
nothingness to be 'mine,' he delights in the base of nothingness. 
Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

18. "He perceives the base of neither-perception-nor-non- 
perception as the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. 
Having perceived the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception 


86 Mttlapariyaya Sutta: Sutta 1 


i 3 


as tiie base of neither-perception-nor -non-perception, he conceives 
[himself as] the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, 
he conceives [himself] in the base of neither-perception-nor-non- 
perception, he conceives [himself apart] from the base of 
neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives the base of 
neither-perception-nor-non-perception to be 'mine/ he delights 
in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Why is 
that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

19. "He perceives the seen as the seen. 17 Having perceived the 
seen as the seen, he conceives [himself as] the seen, he conceives 
[himself] in the seen, he conceives [himself apart] from the seen, 
he conceives the seen to be 'mine,' he delights in the seen. Why 
is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

20. "He perceives the heard as the heard. Having perceived 
the heard as the heard, he conceives [himself as] the heard, he 
conceives [himself] in the heard, he conceives [himself apart] 
from the heard, he conceives the heard to be 'mine,' he delights 
in the heard. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood 
it, I say. 

21. "He perceives the sensed as the sensed. Having perceived 
the sensed as the sensed, he conceives [himself as] the sensed, he 
conceives [himself] in the sensed, he conceives [himself apart] 
from the sensed, he conceives the sensed to be 'mine,' he 
delights in the sensed. Why is that? Because he has not fully 
understood it, I say. 

22. "He perceives the cognized as the cognized. Having per- 
ceived the cognized as the ’cognized, he conceives [himself as] 
the cognized, he conceives [himself] in the cognized, he con- 
ceives [himself apart] from the cognized, he conceives the cog- 
nized to be 'mine,' he delights in the cognized. Why is that? 
Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 

23. "He perceives unity as unity. 18 Having perceived unity as 
unity, he conceives [himself as] unity, he conceives [himself] in 
unity, he conceives [himself apart] from unity, he conceives 
unity to be 'mine,' he delights in unity. Why is that? Because he 
has not fully understood it, I say. 

24. "He perceives diversity as diversity. Having perceived 
diversity as diversity, he conceives [himself as] diversity, he 
conceives [himself] in diversity, he conceives [himself apart] 
from diversity, he conceives diversity to be 'mine,' he delights 



i 4 


The Root of All Things 87 


in diversity. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood 
it, I say. 

25. "He perceives all as all. 19 Having perceived all as all, he 
conceives [himself asl all, [4] he conceives [himself] in all, he 
conceives [himself apart] from all, he conceives all to be 'mine,' 
he delights in all. Why is that? Because he has not fully under- 
stood it, I say. 

26. "He perceives Nibbana as Nibbana. 20 Having perceived 
Nibbana as Nibbana, he conceives [himself as] Nibbana, he 
conceives [himself] in Nibbana, he conceives [himself apart] 
from Nibbana, he conceives Nibbana to be 'mine/ he delights 
in Nibbana. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood 
it, I say. 

(the disciple in higher training) 

27. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is in higher training, 21 whose 
mind has not yet reached the goal, and who is still aspiring to 
the supreme security from bondage, directly knows earth as 
earth. 22 Having directly known earth as earth, he should not 
conceive [himself as] earth, he should not conceive [himself] in 
earth, he should not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he 
should not conceive earth to be 'mine/ he should not delight in 
earth. Why is that? So that he may fully understand it, I say. 23 

28-49. "He directly knows water as water... He directly knows 
all as all... 

50. "He directly knows Nibbana as Nibbana. Having directly 
known Nibbana as Nibbana, he should not conceive [himself as] 
Nibbana, he should not conceive [himself] in Nibbana, he 
should not conceive [himself apart] from Nibbana, he should 
not conceive Nibbana to be 'mine/ he should not delight in 
Nibbana. Why is that? So that he may fully understand it, I say. 

(the arahant - 1) 

51. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant with taints 
destroyed, who has lived the holy life, done what had to be 
done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed 
the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final 
knowledge, 24 directly knows earth as earth. Having directly 


known earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he 
does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [him- 
self apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be 'mine/ he 
does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he has fully 
understood it, I say. 25 

52-74. "He directly knows water as water. ..Nibbana as 
Nibbana. . .Why is that? Because he has fully understood it, I say. 

(THE arahant - It) 

75. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant... completely liber- 
ated through final knowledge, [5] directly knows earth as earth. 
Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive [him- 
self as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not 
conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to 
be 'mine/ he does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he is 
free from lust through the destruction of lust. 26 

76-98. "He directly knows water as water. ..Nibbana as 
Nibbana... Why is that? Because he is free from lust through the 
destruction of lust. 

(THE ARAHANT - III) 

99. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant... completely liber- 
ated through final knowledge, directly knows earth as earth. 
Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive [him- 
self as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not 
conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to 
be 'mine/ he does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he is 
free from hate through the destruction of hate. 

100-122. "He directly knows water as water. ..Nibbana as 
Nibbana. . .Why is that? Because he is free from hate through the 
destruction of hate. 

(THE ARAHANT - IV) 

123. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant... completely liber- 
ated through final knowledge, directly knows earth as earth. 
Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive 
[himself as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he 



The Root of All Things 89 


i 6 


does not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not con- 
ceive earth to be 'mine,' he does not delight in earth. Why is 
that? Because he is free from delusion through the destruction of 
delusion. 

124-146. "He directly knows water as water... Nibbana as 
Nibbana. ..Why is that? Because he is free from delusion 
through the destruction of delusion. 

(THE TATHAGATA - 1) 

147. "Bhikkhus, the Tathagata, 27 accomplished and fully enlight- 
ened, directly knows earth as earth. Having directly known 
earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does 
not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [himself 
apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be 'mine/ he 
does not delight in earth. [6] Why is that? Because the Tathagata 
has fully understood it to the end, I say. 28 

148-170. "He directly knows water as water... Nibbana as 
Nibbana... Why is that? Because the Tathagata has fully under- 
stood it to the end, I say. 

(THE TATHAGATA - II) 

171. "Bhikkhus, the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlight- 
ened, directly knows earth as earth. Having directly known 
earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does 
not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [himself 
apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be 'mine,' he 
does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he has under- 
stood that delight is the root of suffering, and that with being [as 
condition] there is birth, and that for whatever has come to be 
there is ageing and death. 29 Therefore, bhikkhus, through the 
complete destruction, fading away, cessation, giving up, and 
relinquishing of cravings, the Tathagata has awakened to 
supreme full enlightenment, I say. 30 

172-194. "He directly knows water as water... Nibbana as 
Nibbana... Why is that? Because he has understood that delight 
is the root of suffering, and that with being [as condition] there is 
birth, and that for whatever has come to be there is ageing and 
death. Therefore, bhikkhus, through the complete destruction, 


90 Mulapariyaya Sutta: Sutta 1 



fading away, cessation, giving up, and relinquishing of crav- 
ings, the Tathagata has awakened to supreme full enlighten- 
ment, I say." 

That is what the Blessed One said. But those bhikkhus did not 
delight in the Blessed One's words. 31 


2 Sabbasava Sutta 
All the Taints 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on the restraint of 
all the taints. 32 [7] Listen and attend closely to what I shall say." 
- "Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

(summary) 

3. "Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints is for one 
who knows and sees, not for one who does not know and see. 
Who knows and sees what? Wise attention and unwise atten- 
tion. 33 When one attends unwisely, unarisen taints arise and 
arisen taints increase. When one attends wisely, unarisen taints 
do not arise and arisen taints are abandoned. 

4. "Bhikkhus, there are taints that should be abandoned by 
seeing. There are taints that should be abandoned by restrain- 
ing. There are taints that should be abandoned by using. There 
are taints that should be abandoned by enduring. There are 
taints that should be abandoned by avoiding. There are taints 
that should be abandoned by removing. There are taints that 
should be abandoned by developing. 34 

(taints to be abandoned by seeing) 

5. "What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by seeing? 35 
Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who has no 
regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their 


91 


92 Sabbasava Sutta: Sutta 2 


i 8 


Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and 
undisciplined in their Dhamma, does not understand what 
things are fit for attention and what things are unfit for atten- 
tion. Since that is so, he attends to those things unfit for atten- 
tion and he does not attend to those things fit for attention. 36 

6. "What are the things unfit for attention that he attends to? 
They are things such that when he attends to them, the unarisen 
taint of sensual desire arises in him and the arisen taint of 
sensual desire increases, the unarisen taint of being arises in him 
and the arisen taint of being increases, the unarisen taint of igno- 
rance arises in him and the arisen taint of ignorance increases. 
These are the things unfit for attention that he attends to. 37 And 
what are the things fit for attention that he does not attend to? 
They are things such that when he attends to them, the unarisen 
taint of sensual desire does not arise in him and the arisen taint 
of sensual desire is abandoned, the unarisen taint of being does 
not arise in him and the arisen taint of being is abandoned, the 
unarisen taint of ignorance does not arise in him and the arisen 
taint of ignorance is abandoned. These are the things fit for 
attention that he does not attend to. [8] By attending to things 
unfit for attention and by not attending to things fit for atten- 
tion, both unarisen taints arise in him and arisen taints increase. 

7. "This is how he attends unwisely: 'Was I in the past? Was I 

not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? 

Having been what, what did I become in the past? Shall I be in 

the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the 

* 

future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what 
shall I become in the future?' Or else he is inwardly perplexed 
about the present thus: 'Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? 
Where has this being come from? Where will it go?' 38 

8. "When he attends unwisely in this way, one of six views 
arises in him. 39 The view 'self exists for me' arises in him as true 
and established; or the view 'no self exists for me' arises in him 
as true and established; or the view 'I perceive self with self' 
arises in him as true and established; or the view 'I perceive not- 
self with self' arises in him as true and established; or the view 'I 
perceive self with not-self ' arises in him as true and established; 
or else he has some such view as this: 'It is this self of mine 
that speaks and feels and experiences here and there the result 
of good and bad actions; but this self of mine is permanent. 


All the Taints 93 


i 9 

everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and it will endure as 
long as eternity.' 40 This speculative view, bhikkhus, is called the 
thicket of views, the wilderness of views, the contortion of 
views, the vacillation of views, the fetter of views. Fettered by 
the fetter of views, the untaught ordinary person is not freed 
from birth, ageing, and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; he is not freed from suffering, I say. 

9. "Bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple, who has regard for 
noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who 
has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their 
Dhamma, understands what things are fit for attention and 
what things are unfit for attention. Since that is so, [9] he does 
not attend to those things unfit for attention and he attends to 
those things fit for attention. 

10. "What are the things unfit for attention that he does not 
attend to? They are things such that when he attends to them, 
the unarisen taint of sensual desire arises in him... (as §6 )... and 
the arisen taint of ignorance increases. These are the things unfit 
for attention that he does not attend to. And what are the things 
fit for attention that he attends to? They are things such that 
when he attends to them, the unarisen taint of sensual desire 
does not arise in him. ..(as §6 ). ..and the arisen taint of ignorance 
is abandoned. These are the things fit for attention that he 
attends to. By not attending to things unfit for attention and by 
attending to things fit for attention, unarisen taints do not arise 
in him and arisen taints are abandoned. 

11. "He attends wisely: 'This is suffering'; he attends wisely: 
"This is the origin of suffering'; he attends wisely: 'This is the 
cessation of suffering'; he attends wisely: 'This is the way lead- 
ing to the cessation of suffering.' 41 When he attends wisely in 
this way, three fetters are abandoned in him: personality view, 
doubt, and adherence to rules and observances. These are called 
the taints that should be abandoned by seeing. 42 

(taints to be abandoned by restraining) 

12. "What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by restrain- 
ing? 43 Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, abides with the eye fac- 
ulty restrained. While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in 
one who abides with the eye faculty unrestrained, there are no 


94 Sabbasava Sutta: Sutta 2 


ilO 


taints, vexation, or fever in one who abides with the eye faculty 
restrained. 44 Reflecting wisely, he abides with the ear faculty 
restrained. . .with the nose faculty restrained. . .with the tongue fac- 
ulty restrained. . .with the body faculty restrained. . .with the mind 
faculty restrained... While taints, vexation, and fever might arise 
in one who abides with the faculties unrestrained, [10] there are 
no taints, vexation, or fever in one who abides with the faculties 
restrained. These are called the taints that should be abandoned 
by restraining. 

(taints to be abandoned by using) 

13. "What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by using? 45 
Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, uses the robe only for protec- 
tion from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from con- 
tact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping 
things, and only for the purpose of concealing the private parts. 

14. "Reflecting wisely, he uses almsfood neither for amusement 
nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attrac- 
tiveness, but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, 
for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy life, considering: 
'Thus I shall terminate old feelings without arousing new feelings 
and I shall be healthy and blameless and shall live in comfort.' 

15. "Reflecting wisely, he uses the resting place only for pro- 
tection from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from 
contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping 
things, and only for the purpose of warding off the perils of cli- 
mate and for enjoying retreat. 

16. "Reflecting wisely, he uses the medicinal requisites only 
for protection from arisen afflicting feelings and for the benefit 
of good health. 

17. "While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who 
does not use the requisites thus, there are no taints, vexation, or 
fever in one who uses them thus. These are called the taints that 
should be abandoned by using. 


J 


(taints to be abandoned by enduring) 

18. "What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by enduring? 
Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, bears cold and heat, hunger and 



ill 


All the Taints 95 


thirst, and contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and 
creeping things; he endures ill-spoken, unwelcome words and 
arisen bodily feelings that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, dis- 
agreeable, distressing, and menacing to life. While taints, vexation, 
and fever might arise in one who does not endure such things, 
there are no taints, vexation, or fever in one who endures them. 
These are called the taints that should be abandoned by enduring. 

(TAINTS TO BE ABANDONED BY AVOIDING) 

19. "What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by avoiding? 
Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, avoids a wild elephant, a wild 
horse, a wild bull, a wild dog, a snake, a stump, [11] a bramble 
patch, a chasm, a cliff, a cesspit, a sewer. Reflecting wisely, he 
avoids sitting on unsuitable seats, wandering to unsuitable 
resorts, 46 and associating with bad friends, since if he were to do 
so wise companions in the holy life might suspect him of evil 
conduct. While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one 
who does not avoid these things, there are no taints, vexation, 
and fever in one who avoids them. These are called the taints 
that should be abandoned by avoiding. 

(TAINTS TO BE ABANDONED BY REMOVING) 

20. "What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by removing? 
Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, does not tolerate an arisen 
thought of sensual desire; he abandons it, removes it, does away 
with it, and annihilates it. He does not tolerate an arisen thought 
of ill will. ..He does not tolerate an arisen thought of 
cruelty... He does not tolerate arisen evil unwholesome states; he 
abandons them, removes them, does away with them, and anni- 
hilates them. 47 While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in 
one who does not remove these thoughts, there are no taints, 
vexation, or fever in one who removes them. These are called 
the taints that should be abandoned by removing. 

(TAINTS TO BE ABANDONED BY DEVELOPING) 

21. "What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by developing? 
Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, develops the mindfulness 


96 SabbSsava Sutta: Sutta 2 


i 12 


enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispas- 
sion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops 
the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor... the energy 
enlightenment factor... the rapture enlightenment factor... the 
tranquillity enlightenment factor... the concentration enlighten- 
ment factor. ..the equanimity enlightenment factor, which is 
supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in 
relinquishment. 48 While taints, vexation, and fever might arise 
in one who does not develop these enlightenment factors, there 
are no taints, vexation, or fever in one who develops them. 
These are called the taints that should be abandoned by devel- 
oping. 49 

(conclusion) 

22. "Bhikkhus, when for a bhikkhu the taints that should be 
abandoned by seeing have been abandoned by seeing, when the 
taints that should be abandoned by restraining have been aban- 
doned by restraining, when the taints that should be abandoned 
by using have been abandoned by using, when the taints that 
should be abandoned by enduring have been abandoned by 
enduring, when the taints that should be abandoned by avoid- 
ing [12] have been abandoned by avoiding, when the taints that 
should be abandoned by removing have been abandoned by 
removing, when the taints that should be abandoned by devel- 
oping have been abandonee] by developing - then he is called a 
bhikkhu who dwells restrained with the restraint of all the taints. 
He has severed craving, flung off the fetters, and with the com- 
plete penetration of conceit he has made an end of suffering/' 50 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



3 Dhammadayada Sutta 
Heirs in Dhamma 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing in Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." 51 - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material 
things. Out of compassion for you I have thought: 'How shall 
my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material 
things?' If you are my heirs in material tilings, not my heirs in 
Dhamma, you will be reproached thus: "The Teacher's disciples 
live as his heirs in material things, not as heirs in Dhamma'; and 
I will be reproached thus: 'The Teacher's disciples live as his 
heirs in material things, not as his heirs in Dhamma.' 

"If you are my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material 
things, you will not be reproached [as it will be said]: 'The 
Teacher's disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma, not as his heirs 
in material things'; and I will not be reproached [as it will be 
said]: 'The Teacher's disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma, not 
as his heirs in material things.' Therefore, bhikkhus, be my heirs 
in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion 
for you I have thought: 'How shall my disciples be my heirs in 
Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?' 

3. "Now, bhikkhus, suppose that I had eaten, refused more 
food, had my fill, finished, had enough, had what I needed, and 
some almsfood was left over to be thrown away. Then two 
bhikkhus arrived [13] hungry and weak, and I told them: 
'Bhikkhus, I have eaten... had what I needed, but there is this 
almsfood of mine left over to be thrown away. Eat if you like; if 
you do not eat then I shall throw it away where there is no 
greenery or drop it into water where there is no life.' Then one 
bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has eaten... had what he 


97 


98 Dhammadayada Sutta: Sutta 3 


i 14 


needed, but there is this almsfood of the Blessed One left over to 
be thrown away; if we do not eat it the Blessed One will throw it 
away. . .But this has been said by the Blessed One: "Bhikkhus, be 
my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things." Now this 
almsfood is one of the material things. Suppose that instead of 
eating this almsfood I pass the night and day hungry and weak.' 
And instead of eating that almsfood he passed that night and day 
hungry and weak. Then the second bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed 
One has eaten. . .had what he needed, but there is this almsfood of 
the Blessed One left over to be thrown away. . .Suppose that I eat 
this almsfood and pass the night and day neither hungry nor 
weak.' And after eating that almsfood he passed the night and 
day neither hungry nor weak. Now although that bhikkhu by 
eating that almsfood passed the night and day neither hungry 
nor weak, yet the first bhikkhu is more to be respected and com- 
mended by me. Why is that? Because that will for long conduce 
to his fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement, easy support, 
and arousal of energy. 52 Therefore, bhikkhus, be my heirs in 
Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion for 
you I have thought: 'How shall my disciples be my heirs in 
Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?'" 

4. That is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the 
Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling. Soon 
after he had left, the venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus 
thus: "Friends, bhikkhus." - "Friend," they replied. [14] The 
venerable Sariputta said this: 

5. "Friends, in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives 
secluded not train in seclusion? And in what way do disciples of 
the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion?" 

"Indeed, friend, we would come from far away to learn from 
the venerable Sariputta the meaning of this statement. It would 
be good if the venerable Sariputta would explain the meaning of 
this statement. Having heard it from him the bhikkhus will 
remember it." 

"Then, friends, listen and attend closely to what I shall say." 

"Yes, friend," the bhikkhus replied. The venerable Sariputta 
said this: 

6. "Friends, in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives 
secluded not train in seclusion? Here disciples of the Teacher who 
lives secluded do not train in seclusion; they do not abandon 



i 15 


Heirs in Dhamma 99 


what the Teacher tells them to abandon; they are luxurious and 
careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion. 

"In this the elder bhikkhus are to be blamed for three rea- 
sons. 53 As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do 
not train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. 
They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: 
they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious 
and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they 
are to be blamed for this third reason. The elder bhikkhus are to 
be blamed for these three reasons. 

"In this the middle bhikkhus are to be blamed for three rea- 
sons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not 
train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. 
They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: 
they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious 
and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they 
are to be blamed for this third reason. The middle bhikkhus are 
to be blamed for these three reasons. 

"In this the new bhikkhus are to be blamed for three reasons. 
As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not train 
in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. They do 
not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to 
be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious and care- 
less, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they are to be 
blamed for this third reason. The new bhikkhus are to be 
blamed for these three reasons. 

"It is in this way that disciples of the Teacher who lives 
secluded do not train in seclusion. 

7. "In what way, friends, do disciples of the Teacher who 
lives secluded [15] train in seclusion? Here disciples of the 
Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion; they abandon 
what the Teacher tells them to abandon; they are not luxurious 
and careless, they are keen to avoid backsliding, and are leaders 
in seclusion. 

"In this the elder bhikkhus are to be commended for three 
reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they 
train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first rea- 
son. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: 
they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not 
luxurious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and 



100 Dhammadayada Sutta: Sutta 3 


i 16 


are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this 
third reason. The elder bhikkhus are to be commended for 
these three reasons. 

"In this the middle bhikkhus are to be commended for three 
reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they 
train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first rea- 
son. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they 
are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxu- 
rious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and are 
leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this third 
reason. The middle bhikkhus are to be commended for these 
three reasons. 

"In this the new bhikkhus are to be commended for three 
reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they 
train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first rea- 
son. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: 
they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not 
luxurious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and 
are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this 
third reason. The new bhikkhus are to be commended for these 
three reasons. 

"It is in this way that disciples of the Teacher who lives 
secluded train in seclusion. 

8. "Friends, the evil herein is greed and hate. 54 There is a 
Middle Way for the abandoning of greed and hate, giving 
vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowl- 
edge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. And what is that Middle 
Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, 
right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right 
effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. This is the 
Middle Way giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to 
peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. 55 

9-15. "The evil herein is anger and revenge... contempt and a 
domineering attitude... envy and avarice... deceit and fraud... ob- 
stinacy [16] and presumption... conceit and arrogance... vanity 
and negligence. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of 
vanity and negligence, giving vision, giving knowledge, which 
leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to 
Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble 
Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech. 


Heirs in Dhamma 101 

right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and 
right concentration. This is the Middle Way giving vision, giv- 
ing knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to 
enlightenment, to Nibbana." 

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The bhikkhus were 
satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta's words. 




4 Bhayabherava Sutta 
Fear and Dread 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Then the brahmin Janussoni 56 went to the Blessed One and 
exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and ami- 
able talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said: "Master 
Gotama, when clansmen have gone forth from the home life into 
homelessness out of faith in Master Gotama, do they have 
Master Gotama for their leader, their helper, and their guide? 
And do these people follow the example of Master Gotama?" 57 

"That is so, brahmin, that is so. When clansmen have gone 
forth from the home life into homelessness out of faith in me, 
they have me for their leader, their helper, and their guide. And 
these people follow my example." 

"But, Master Gotama, remote jungle-thicket resting places in 
the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to practise, and it 
is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles must rob 
a bhikkhu of his mind, if hd has no concentration." [17] 

"That is so, brahmin, that is so. Remote jungle-thicket resting 
places in the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to prac- 
tise, and it is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles 
must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration. 

3. "Before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unen- 
lightened Bodhisatta, I too considered thus: 'Remote jungle-thick- 
et resting places in the forest are hard to endure... the jungles 
must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration.' 

4. "I considered thus: 'Whenever recluses or brahmins unpuri- 
fied in bodily conduct resort to remote jungle-thicket resting 
places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their unpurified 
bodily conduct these good recluses and brahmins evoke 
unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to remote jun- 


102 


i 20 


Fear and Dread 103 


gle-thicket resting places in the forest unpurified in bodily con- 
duct. I am purified in bodily conduct. I resort to remote jungle- 
thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones with 
bodily conduct purified.' Seeing in myself this purity of bodily 
conduct, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest. 

5-7. "I considered thus: 'Whenever recluses or brahmins unpu- 
rified in verbal conduct...unpurified in mental conduct... unpuri- 
fied in livelihood resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in 
the forest.. .they evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But... I am 
purified in livelihood. I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting 
places in the forest as one of the noble ones with livelihood puri- 
fied.' Seeing in myself this purity of livelihood, I found great 
solace in dwelling in the forest. 

8. "I considered thus: 'Whenever recluses or brahmins who 
are covetous and full of lust. . .1 am uncovetous. . .' [18] 

9. "'...with a mind of ill will and intentions of hate... I have a 
mind of loving-kindness . . . ' 

10. "'...overcome by sloth and torpor... I am without sloth and 
torpor...' 

11. "'...overcome with restless and unpeaceful mind. ..I have a 
peaceful mind...' 

12. .uncertain and doubting. . .1 have gone beyond doubt. 

13. '"[19] . . . given to self-praise and disparagement of others. . .1 
am not given to self-praise and disparagement of others . . . ' 

14. '". . .subject to alarm and terror. . .1 am free from trepidation. . .' 

15. "'...desirous of gain, honour, and renown. ..I have few 
wishes...' 

16. .lazy and wanting in energy. . .1 am energetic. . .' 

17. '"...[20] unmindful and not fully aware... I am established 
in mindfulness . . . ' 

18. "'...unconcentrated and with straying minds. ..I am pos- 
sessed of concentration...' 

19. "I considered thus: 'Whenever recluses or brahmins devoid 
of wisdom, drivellers, resort to remote jungle-thicket resting 
places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their being 
devoid of wisdom and drivellers these good recluses and brah- 
mins evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to 
remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest devoid of wis- 
dom, a driveller. I am possessed of wisdom. 58 I resort to remote 
jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble 


104 Bhayabherava Sutta: Sutta 4 


i 21 


ones possessed of wisdom.' Seeing in myself this possession of 
wisdom, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest. 

20. "I considered thus: 'There are the specially auspicious 
nights of the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fort- 
night. 59 Now what if, on such nights as these, I were to dwell in 
such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard shrines, wood- 
land shrines, and tree shrines? Perhaps I might encounter that 
fear and dread.' And later, on such specially auspicious nights 
as the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fortnight, I 
dwelt in such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard 
shrines, woodland shrines, and tree shrines. And while I dwelt 
there, a wild animal would come up to me, or a peacock [21] 
would knock off a branch, or the wind would rustle the leaves. I 
thought: 'What now if this is the fear and dread coming?' I 
thought: 'Why do I dwell always expecting fear and dread? 
What if I subdue that fear and dread while keeping the same 
posture that I am in when it comes upon me?' 60 

"While I walked, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither 
stood nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and 
dread. While I stood, the fear and dread came upon me; I nei- 
ther walked nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear 
and dread. While I sat, the fear and dread came upon me; I nei- 
ther walked nor stood nor lay down till I had subdued that fear 
and dread. While I lay down, the fear and dread came upon me; 
I neither walked nor stood nor sat down till I had subdued that 
fear and dread. 

21. "There are, brahmin 1 , some recluses and brahmins who 
perceive day when it is night and night when it is day. I say that 
on their part this is an abiding in delusion. But I perceive night 
when it is night and day when it is day. Rightly speaking, were 
it to be said of anyone: 'A being not subject to delusion has 
appeared in the world for the welfare and happiness of many, 
out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and hap- 
piness of gods and humans,' it is of me indeed that rightly 
speaking this should be said. 

22. "Tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting 
mindfulness was established, my body was tranquil and untrou- 
bled, my mind concentrated and unified. 61 

23. "Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from 
unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first 


i 22 


Fear and Dread 1 05 


jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, 
with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 62 

24. "With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I 
entered upon and abided in the second jhana, which has self- 
confidence and singleness of mind [22] without applied and sus- 
tained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of concentration. 

25. "With the fading away as well of rapture, I abided in equa- 
nimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with 
the body, I entered upon and abided in the third jhana, on 
account of which noble ones announce: 'He has a pleasant abid- 
ing who has equanimity and is mindful.' 

26. "With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the 
previous disappearance of joy and grief, I entered upon and 
abided in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure 
and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. 

27. "When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the rec- 
ollection of past lives. 63 I recollected my manifold past lives, that 
is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten 
births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hun- 
dred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many 
aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, 
many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: 'There I was so 
named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my 
nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my 
life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; 
and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an 
appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of 
pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from 
there, I reappeared here.' Thus with their aspects and particulars 
I recollected my manifold past lives. 

28. "This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the 
first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true 
knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as 
happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. 

29. "When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the 
passing away and reappearance of beings. 64 With the divine eye, 


106 Bhayabherava Sutta: Sutta 4 


i 23 


which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings pass- 
ing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, 
fortunate and unfortunate. I understood how beings pass on 
according to their actions thus: 'These worthy beings who were 
ill-conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, 
wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their 
actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reap- 
peared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, 
even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well-conducted 
in body, [23] speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right 
in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the 
dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good 
destination, even in the heavenly world.' Thus with the divine 
eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings 
passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and 
ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings 
pass on according to their actions. 

30. "This was the second true knowledge attained by me in 
the second watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true 
knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as 
happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. 

31. "When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the 
destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: 'This is 
suffering'; I directly knew as it actually is: 'This is the origin of 
suffering'; I directly knew as it actually is: 'This is the cessation of 
suffering'; I directly knew as it actually is: "This is the way lead- 
ing to the cessation of suffering.' I directly knew as it actually is: 
'These are the taints'; I directly knew as it actually is: 'This is the 
origin of the taints'; I directly knew as it actually is: "This is the 
cessation of the taints'; I directly knew as it actually is: 'This is 
the way leading to the cessation of the taints.' 65 

32. "When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from 
the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the 
taint of ignorance. When it was liberated, there came the knowl- 
edge: 'It is liberated.' 66 I directly knew: 'Birth is destroyed, the 
holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, 
there is no more coming to any state of being.' 67 


i 24 


Fear and Dread 107 


33. "This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the 
third watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true 
knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as 
happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. 

34. "Now, brahmin, it might be that you think: 'Perhaps the 
recluse Gotama is not free from lust, hate, and delusion even 
today, which is why he still resorts to remote jungle-thicket rest- 
ing places in the forest.' But you should not think thus. It is 
because I see two benefits that I still resort to remote jungle-thicket 
resting places in the forest: I see a pleasant abiding for myself 
here and now, and I have compassion for future generations." 68 

35. "Indeed, it is because Master Gotama is an Accomplished 
One, a Fully Enlightened One, that he has compassion for future 
generations. [24] Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, 
Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in 
many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been 
overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to 
one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those 
with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and 
to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let 
Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to 
him for refuge for life." 



5 Anangana Sutta 
Without Blemishes 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the 
venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus. "Friends, 
bhikkhus." - "Friend," they replied. The venerable Sariputta 
said this: 

2. "Friends, there are these four kinds of persons found exist- 
ing in the world. 69 What four? Here some person with a blem- 
ish does not understand it as it actually is thus: T have a blem- 
ish in myself.' Here some person with a blemish understands it 
as it actually is thus: T have a blemish in myself/ Here some 
person with no blemish does not understand it as it actually is 
thus: T have no blemish in myself.' Here some person with no 
blemish understands it as it actually is thus: 'I have no blemish 
in myself.' 

"Herein, the person with a blemish who does not understand 
it as it actually is thus: 'I have a blemish in myself' is called the 
inferior of these two persons with a blemish. Herein, the person 
with a blemish who understands it as it actually is thus: 'I have a 
blemish in myself' is called the superior of these two persons 
with a blemish. 

"Herein, the person with no blemish [25] who does not under- 
stand it as it actually is thus: 'I have no blemish' is called the 
inferior of these two persons with no blemish. Herein, the per- 
son with no blemish who understands it as it actually is thus: 'I 
have no blemish' is called the superior of these two persons with 
no blemish." 

3. When this was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana asked 
the venerable Sariputta: "Friend Sariputta, what is the cause and 
reason why, of these two persons with a blemish, one is called 
the inferior man and one is called the superior man? What is the 


108 


Without Blemishes 109 


f I 


cause and reason why, of these two persons with no blemish, one 
is called the inferior man and one is called the superior man?" 

4. "Herein, friend, when a person with a blemish does not 
understand it as it actually is thus: 'I have a blemish in myself/ 
it can be expected that he will not arouse zeal, make effort, or 
instigate energy to abandon that blemish, and that he will die 
with lust, hate, and delusion, with a blemish, with mind defiled. 
Suppose a bronze dish were brought from a shop or a smithy 
covered with dirt and stains, and the owners neither used it nor 
had it cleaned but put it away in a dusty corner. Would the 
bronze dish thus get more defiled and stained later on?" - "Yes, 
friend." - "So too, friend, when a person with a blemish does 
not understand it as it actually is thus: 'I have a blemish in 
myself,' it can be expected . . .that he will die. . .with mind defiled. 

5. "Herein, when a person with a blemish understands it as it 
actually is thus: 'I have a blemish in myself/ it can be expected 
that he will arouse zeal, make effort, and instigate energy to 
abandon that blemish, and that he will die without lust, hate, 
and delusion, without blemish, with mind undefiled. Suppose a 
bronze dish were brought from a shop or a smithy covered with 
dirt and stains, and the owners had it cleaned and did not put it 
in a dusty corner. [26] Would the bronze dish thus get cleaner 
and brighter later on?" - "Yes, friend." - "So too, friend, when a 
person with a blemish understands it as it actually is thus: 'I 
have a blemish in myself/ it can be expected... that he will 
die. . .with mind undefiled. 

6. "Herein, when a person with no blemish does not under- 
stand it as it actually is thus: 'I have no blemish in myself/ it can 
be expected that he will give attention to the sign of the beauti- 
ful, 70 that by his doing so lust will infect his mind, and that he 
will die with lust, hate, and delusion, with a blemish, with mind 
defiled. Suppose a bronze dish were brought from a shop or 
smithy clean and bright, and the owners neither used it nor had 
it cleaned but put it in a dusty corner. Would the bronze dish 
thus get more defiled and more stained later on?" - "Yes, 
friend." - "So too, friend, when a person with no blemish does 
not understand it as it actually is thus: 'I have no blemish in 
myself/ it can be expected that he will die. . .with mind defiled. 

7. "Herein, when a person with no blemish understands it as it 
actually is thus: 'I have no blemish in myself, ' it can be expected 



110 Anangana Sutta: Sutta 5 


i 27 


that he will not give attention to the sign of the beautiful, that by 
his not doing so lust will not infect his mind, and that he will die 
without lust, hate, and delusion, without blemish, with mind 
undefiled. Suppose a bronze dish were brought from a shop or 
smithy clean and bright, and the owners used it and had it 
cleaned and did not put it in a dusty corner. Would the bronze 
dish thus get cleaner and brighter later on?" - "Yes, friend." - 
"So too, friend, when a person with no blemish understands it 
as it actually is thus: 'I have no blemish in myself/ it can be 
expected. . .that he will die. . .with mind undefiled. [27] 

8. "This is the cause and reason why, of these two persons 
with a blemish, one is called the inferior man and one is called 
the superior man. This is the cause and reason why, of these two 
persons with no blemish, one is called the inferior man and one 
is called the superior man. 

9. "'Blemish, blemish,' is said, friend, but what is this word 
'blemish' a term for? 'Blemish/ friend, is a term for the spheres 
of evil unwholesome wishes. 

10. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'If I commit 
an offence, let the bhikkhus not know that I have committed an 
offence.’ And it is possible that the bhikkhus come to know that 
that bhikkhu has committed an offence. So he is angry and bitter 
thus: 'The bhikkhus know I have committed an offence.' The 
anger and bitterness are both a blemish. 

11. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'I have com- 
mitted an offence. The bhikkhus should admonish me in private, 
not in the midst of the Sa’ngha.' And it is possible that the 
bhikkhus admonish that bhikkhu in the midst of the Sangha, not 
in private. So he is angry and bitter thus: 'The bhikkhus admon- 
ish me in the midst of the Sangha, not in private.' The anger and 
bitterness are both a blemish. 

12. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'I have 
committed an offence. A person who is my equal should 
admonish me, not a person who is not my equal.' And it is pos- 
sible that a person not his equal admonishes him, not a person 
his equal. So he is angry and bitter thus: 'A person not my 
equal admonishes me, not a person my equal.' The anger and 
bitterness are both a blemish. 

13. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'Oh that the 
Teacher might teach the Dhamma to the bhikkhus by asking a 


Without Blem ishes 111 


i 30 

series of questions of me, not of some other bhikkhu!' And it is 
possible that the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus 
By asking a series of questions of some other bhikkhu, [28] not 
of that bhikkhu. So he is angry and bitter thus: 'The Teacher 
teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus by asking a series of ques- 
tions of some other bhikkhu, not of me.' The anger and bitter- 
ness are both a blemish. 

14. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'Oh that the 
bhikkhus might enter the village for alms putting me in the fore- 
front, not some other bhikkhu!' And it is possible that the 
bhikkhus enter the village for alms putting some other bhikkhu in 
the forefront, not that bhikkhu. So he is angry and bitter thus: 'The 
bhikkhus enter the village for alms putting some other bhikkhu in 
the forefront, not me.' The anger and bitterness are both a blemish. 

15. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'Oh that I 
might get the best seat, the best water, the best almsfood in the 
refectory, not some other bhikkhu!' And it is possible that some 
other bhikkhu gets the best seat. . . 

16. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'Oh that I 
might give the blessing in the refectory after the meal, not some 
other bhikkhu!' And it is possible that some other bhikkhu gives 
the blessing. . . 

17-20. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'Oh that I 
might teach the Dhamma to the bhikkhus. . .that I might teach the 
Dhamma to the bhikkhunls. . .men lay followers. . .women lay fol- 
lowers... visiting the monastery, not some other bhikkhu!' And it 
is possible that some other bhikkhu teaches the Dhamma [29]. . . 

21-24. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'Oh that 
the bhikkhus... bhikkhurus... men lay followers... women lay fol- 
lowers... might honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, not 
some other bhikkhu!' And it is possible that they honour... some 
other bhikkhu. . . 

25-28. "It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: 'Oh that 
I might be the one to get a superior robe, [30]... superior alms- 
food. ..a superior resting place... superior medicinal requi- 
sites... not some other bhikkhu!' And it is possible that some 
other bhikkhu is the one to get superior medicinal requisites, not 
that bhikkhu. So he is angry and bitter thus: 'Another bhikkhu is 
the one to get superior medicinal requisites, not me.' The anger 
and the bitterness are both a blemish. 


112 Anangana Sutta: Sutta 5 


i 31 


"'Blemish/ friend, is a term for the spheres of these evil 
unwholesome wishes. 

29. "If the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen 
and heard to be unabandoned in any bhikkhu, then for all he 
may be a forest dweller, a frequenter of remote abodes, an 
almsfood eater, a house-to-house seeker, a refuse-rag wearer, a 
wearer of rough robes, 71 still his fellows in the holy life do not 
honour, respect, revere, and venerate him. Why is that? Because 
the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and 
heard to be unabandoned in that venerable one. 

"Suppose a metal bowl were brought from a shop or a smithy 
clean and bright; and the owners put the carcass of a snake or a 
dog or a human being in it and, covering it with another bowl, 
went back to the market; then people seeing it said: 'What is that 
you are carrying about like a treasure?' Then, raising the lid and 
uncovering it, they looked in, and as soon as they saw they were 
inspired with such loathing, repugnance, and disgust that even 
those who were hungry would not want to eat, not to speak of 
those who were full. 

"So too, if the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are 
seen and heard to be unabandoned in any bhikkhu, then for 
all he may be a forest dweller. ..[31], ..unabandoned in that 
venerable one. 

30. "If the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen 
and heard to be abandoned in any bhikkhu, then for all he may 
be a village dweller, an acceptor of invitations, a wearer of robes 
given him by householders, 72 yet his fellows in the holy life hon- 
our, respect, revere, and venerate him. Why is that? Because the 
spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and heard to 
be abandoned in that venerable one. 

"Suppose a metal bowl were brought from a shop or a smithy 
clean and bright; and the owners put clean boiled rice and vari- 
ous soups and sauces into it, and, covering it with another bowl, 
went back to the market; then people seeing it said: 'What is that 
you are carrying about like a treasure?' Then raising the lid and 
uncovering it, they looked in, and as soon as they saw they were 
inspired with such liking, appetite, and relish that even those 
who were full would want to eat, not to speak of those who 
were hungry. 


i 32 


Without Blemishes 113 


"So too, friend, if the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes 
are seen and heard to be abandoned in any bhikkhu, then for all 
he may be a village dweller. . .abandoned in that venerable one." 

31. When this was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana said 
to the venerable Sariputta: "A simile occurs to me, friend 
Sariputta." - "State it, friend Moggallana." - "On one occasion, 
friend, I was living at the Hill Fort at Rajagaha. Then, when it 
was morning, I dressed, and taking my bowl and outer robe, I 
went into Rajagaha for alms. Now on that occasion Samlti the 
Cartwright's son was planing a felloe and the Ajlvaka Pandu- 
putta, son of a former cartwright, was standing by. 73 Then this 
thought arose in the Ajlvaka Panduputta's mind: 'Oh that this 
Samlti the Cartwright's son might plane this bend, this twist, this 
fault, out of the felloe so that it would be without bends, twists, 
or faults, and come to consist purely of heartwood.' [32] And 
just as this thought came to pass in his mind, so did Samlti the 
Cartwright's son plane that bend, that twist, that fault, out of the 
felloe. Then the Ajlvaka Panduputta, son of a former cartwright, 
was glad and he voiced his gladness thus: 'He planes just as if 
he knew my heart with his heart!' 

32. "So too, friend, there are persons who are faithless and 
have gone forth from the home life into homelessness not out of 
faith but seeking a livelihood, who are fraudulent, deceitful, 
treacherous, haughty, hollow, personally vain, rough-tongued, 
loose-spoken, unguarded in their sense faculties, immoderate in 
eating, undevoted to wakefulness, unconcerned with recluseship, 
not greatly respectful of training, luxurious, careless, leaders in 
backsliding, neglectful of seclusion, lazy, wanting in energy, 
unmindful, not fully aware, unconcentrated, with straying 
minds, devoid of wisdom, drivellers. The venerable Sariputta 
with his discourse on the Dhamma planes out their faults just as 
if he knew my heart with his heart! 74 

"But there are clansmen who have gone forth out of faith 
from the home life into homelessness, who are not fraudulent, 
deceitful, treacherous, haughty, hollow, personally vain, rough- 
tongued, or loose-spoken; who are guarded in their sense facul- 
ties, moderate in eating, devoted to wakefulness, concerned with 
recluseship, greatly respectful of training, not luxurious or care- 
less, who are keen to avoid backsliding, leaders in seclusion. 


I 


114 Anangana Sulfa: Sulfa 5 


i 32 


energetic, resolute, established in mindfulness, fully aware, 
concentrated, with unified minds, possessing wisdom, not driv- 
ellers. These, on hearing the venerable Sariputta's discourse on 
the Dhamma, drink it in and eat it, as it were, by word and 
thought. Good indeed it is that he makes his fellows in the holy 
life emerge from the unwholesome and establish themselves in 
the wholesome. 

33. "Just as a woman - or a man - young, youthful, fond of 
adornments, with head bathed, having received a garland of 
lotuses, jasmine, or roses, would take it with both hands and 
place it on the head, so too there are clansmen who have gone 
forth out of faith... not drivellers. These, on hearing the vener- 
able Sariputta's discourse on the Dhamma, drink it in and eat it, 
as it were, by word and thought. Good indeed it is that he 
makes his fellows in the holy life emerge from the unwholesome 
and establish themselves in the wholesome." 

Thus it was that these two great beings rejoiced in each other's 
good words. 75 


6 Akankheyya Sutta 
If a Bhikkhu Should Wish 


[33] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living at Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There 
he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, dwell possessed of virtue, possessed of the 
Patimokkha, restrained with the restraint of the Patimokkha, 
perfect in conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest 
fault, train by undertaking the training precepts. 76 

3. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I be dear and agreeable to 
my companions in the holy life, respected and esteemed by 
them/ let him fulfil the precepts, be devoted to internal serenity 
of mind, not neglect meditation, be possessed of insight, and 
dwell in empty huts. 77 

4. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I be one to obtain robes, 
almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites/ let him fulfil 
the precepts... 

5. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May the services of those whose 
robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites I use 
bring them great fruit and benefit,' let him fulfil the precepts. . . 

6. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'When my kinsmen and relatives 
who have passed away and died remember me with confidence 
in their minds, may that bring them great fruit and great bene- 
fit/ let him fulfil the precepts. . . 78 

7. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I become a conqueror of 
discontent and delight, and may discontent and delight not con- 
quer me; may I abide transcending discontent and delight 
whenever they arise/ let him fulfil the precepts... 

8. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I become a conqueror of 
fear and dread, and may fear and dread not conquer me; may I 


116 Akankheyya Sutta: Sutta 6 


i 34 


abide transcending fear and dread whenever they arise/ let him 
fulfil the precepts. . . 

9. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I become one to obtain at 
will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute 
the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now/ 
let him fulfil the precepts. . . 

10. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I contact with the body 
and abide in those liberations that are peaceful and immaterial, 
transcending forms,' let him fulfil the precepts... [34] 79 

11. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I, with the destruction of 
three fetters, become a stream-enterer, no longer subject to 
perdition, bound [for deliverance], headed for enlightenment/ 
let him fulfil the precepts... 80 

12. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I, with the destruction of 
three fetters and with the attenuation of lust, hate, and delusion, 
become a once-returner, returning once to this world to make an 
end of suffering,' let him fulfil the precepts. . . 

13. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I, with the destruction of 
the five lower fetters, become due to reappear spontaneously [in 
the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana, without ever 
returning from that world/ let him fulfil the precepts. . , 81 

14. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 82 'May I wield the various 
kinds of supernormal power: having been one, may I become 
many; having been many, may I become one; may I appear and 
vanish; may I go unhindered through a wall, through an enclo- 
sure, through a mountain ps though through space; may I dive 
in and out of the earth as though it were water; may I walk on 
water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross- 
legged, may I travel in space like a bird; with my hand may I 
touch and stroke the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; 
may I wield bodily mastery, even as far as the Brahma-world/ 
let him fulfil the precepts. . . 

15. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I, with the divine ear ele- 
ment, which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both 
kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as 
well as near,' let him fulfil the precepts. . . 

16. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I understand the minds of 
other beings, of other persons, having encompassed them with 
my own mind. May I understand a mind affected by lust as 
affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by 


If a Bhikkhu Should Wish 11 7 


i 36 

lust; may I understand a mind affected by hate as affected by 
hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; may I 
understand a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion 
and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; 
may I understand a contracted mind as contracted and a dis- 
tracted mind as distracted; may I understand an exalted mind as 
exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; may I understand 
a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as 
unsurpassed; may I understand a concentrated mind as concen- 
trated [35] and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; may 
I understand a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated 
mind as unliberated/ let him fulfil the precepts... 

17. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I recollect my manifold 
past lives, that is, one birth, two births... (as Sutta 4, §27). ..Thus 
with their aspects and their particulars may I recollect my mani- 
fold past lives,' let him fulfil the precepts. . . 

18. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I, with the divine eye, 
which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing 
away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, for- 
tunate and unfortunate; may I understand how beings pass on 
according to their actions thus:'... (as Sutta 4, §29)... let him fulfil 
the precepts... 

19. "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I, by realising for myself 
with direct knowledge, here and now enter upon and abide in 
the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are 
taintless with the destruction of the taints/ 83 [36] let him fulfil 
the precepts, be devoted to internal serenity of mind, not neglect 
meditation, be possessed of insight, and dwell in empty huts. 

20. "So it was with reference to this that it was said: 
'Bhikkhus, dwell possessed of virtue, possessed of the Patimo- 
kkha, restrained with the restraint of the Patimokkha, perfect in 
conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest fault, train by 
undertaking the training precepts.'" 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


7 Vatthupama Sutta 
The Simile of the Cloth 


1. Thus have I heard . 84 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There 
he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, suppose a cloth were defiled and stained, and a 
dyer dipped it in some dye or other, whether blue or yellow or 
red or pink; it would look poorly dyed and impure in colour. 
Why is that? Because of the impurity of the cloth. So too, when 
the mind is defiled, an unhappy destination may be expected. 85 
Bhikkhus, suppose a cloth were pure and bright, and a dyer 
dipped it in some dye or other, whether blue or yellow or red or 
pink; it would look well-dyed and pure in colour. Why is that? 
Because of the purity of the cloth. So too, when the mind is 
undefiled, a happy destination may be expected. 

3. "What, bhikkhus, are the imperfections that defile the 
mind? 86 Covetousness and, unrighteous greed is an imperfection 
that defiles the mind. 87 Ill will... anger... revenge... contempt... a 
domineering attitude.. .envy. . .avarice. . .deceit. . .fraud. . .obstina- 
cy .. .presumption. . .conceit. . . arrogance. . .vanity. . . [37] . . .negli- 
gence is an imperfection that defiles the mind. 

4. "Knowing that covetousness and unrighteous greed is an 
imperfection that defiles the mind, a bhikkhu abandons it. 88 
Knowing that ill will... negligence is an imperfection that defiles 
the mind, a bhikkhu abandons it. 

5. "When a bhikkhu has known that covetousness and 
unrighteous greed is an imperfection that defiles the mind and 
has abandoned it; when a bhikkhu has known that ill will. . .neg- 
ligence is an imperfection that defiles the mind and has aban- 
doned it, he acquires perfect confidence in the Buddha thus: 89 
'The Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in 


118 


i 38 


The Simile of the Cloth 119 


true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, 
incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and 
humans, enlightened, blessed.' 

6. "He acquires perfect confidence in the Dhamma thus: 'The 
Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, visible here 
and now, immediately effective, inviting inspection, onward 
leading, to be experienced by the wise for themselves.' 

7. "He acquires perfect confidence in the Sangha thus: 'The 
Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples is practising the good 
way, practising the straight way, practising the true way, prac- 
tising the proper way, that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight 
types of individuals; this Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples 
is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, 
worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of merit 
for the world.' 

8. "When he has given up, expelled, released, abandoned, and 
relinquished [the imperfections of the mind] in part, 90 he consid- 
ers thus: 'I am possessed of perfect confidence in the Buddha,' 
and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the 
Dhamma, 91 gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. When 
he is glad, rapture is born in him; in one who is rapturous, 
the body becomes tranquil; one whose body is tranquil feels 
pleasure; in one who feels pleasure, the mind becomes con- 
centrated. 92 

9. "He considers thus: 'I am possessed of perfect confidence in 
the Dhamma,' and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains 
inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the 
Dhamma. When he is glad. . .the mind becomes concentrated. [38] 

10. "He considers thus: 'I am possessed of perfect confidence 
in the Sangha,' and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains 
inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the 
Dhamma. When he is glad... the mind becomes concentrated. 

11. "He considers thus: '[The imperfections of the mind] have 
in part been given up, expelled, released, abandoned, and relin- 
quished by me,' and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains 
inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the 
Dhamma. When he is glad, rapture is born in him; in one who is 
rapturous, the body becomes tranquil; one whose body is tran- 
quil feels pleasure; in one who feels pleasure, the mmd becomes 
concentrated. 


120 Vatthupama Sutta: Sutta 7 


i 39 


12. "Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu of such virtue, such a state [of con- 
centration], and such wisdom 93 eats almsfood consisting of 
choice hill rice along with various sauces and curries, even that 
will be no obstacle for him. 94 Just as a cloth that is defiled and 
stained becomes pure and bright with the help of clear water, or 
just as gold becomes pure and bright with the help of a furnace, 
so too, if a bhikkhu of such virtue... eats almsfood... that will be 
no obstacle for him. 

13. "He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued 
with loving-kindness, 95 likewise the second, likewise the third, 
likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, 
and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing 
world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, 
exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. 

14-16. "He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued 
with compassion... with a mind imbued with appreciative 
joy... with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second, 
likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, 
and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading 
the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with equanim- 
ity, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and 
without ill will. 

17. "He understands thus: 'There is this, there is the inferior, 
there is the superior, and beyond there is an escape from this 
whole field of perception.' 96 

18. "When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated 
from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and 
from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes 
the knowledge: 'It is liberated.' He understands: 'Birth is 
destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done 
has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.' 
[39] Bhikkhus, this bhikkhu is called one bathed with the 
inner bathing." 97 

19. Now on that occasion the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja 
was sitting not far from the Blessed One. Then he said to the 
Blessed One: "But does Master Gotama go to the Bahuka River 
to bathe?" 

"Why, brahmin, go to the Bahuka River? What can the Bahuka 
River do?" 


i 39 


The Simile of the Cloth 121 


"Master Gotama, the Bahuka River is held by many to give 
liberation, it is held by many to give merit, and many wash 
away their evil actions in the Bahuka River." 

20. Then the Blessed One addressed the brahmin Sundarika 
Bharadvaja in stanzas: 

"Bahuka and Adhikakka, 

Gaya and Sundarika too, 

Payaga and Sarassatl, 

And the stream Bahumatl - 98 
A fool may there forever bathe 
Yet will not purify dark deeds. 

What can the Sundarika bring to pass? 

What the Payaga? What the Bahuka? 

They cannot purify an evil-doer, 

A man who has done cruel and brutal deeds. 

One pure in heart has evermore 
The Feast of Spring, the Holy Day; 99 
One fair in act, one pure in heart 
Brings his virtue to perfection. 

It is here, brahmin, that you should bathe. 

To make yourself a refuge for all beings. 

And if you speak no falsehood 
Nor work harm for living beings. 

Nor take what is offered not. 

With faith and free from avarice. 

What need for you to go to Gaya? 

For any well will be your Gaya." 

21. When this was said, the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja 
said: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many 
ways, as though he were turning upright what had been over- 
thrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one 
who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with 
eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to 


122 Vatthupama Sutta: Sutta 7 


i 40 


n 

I the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. I would receive the 

going forth under Master Gotama, I would receive the full 
admission." 100 

22. And the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja received the going 
forth under the Blessed One, and he received the full admission. 

[40] And soon, not long after his full admission, dwelling alone, 
withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute, the venerable 
Bharadvaja, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, here 
and now entered upon and abided in that supreme goal of the 
holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from 
the home life into homelessness. He directly knew: "Birth is 
destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has 
been done, there is no more coming to any state of being." And 
the venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 


J 


8 Sallekha Sutta 
Effacement 


1. Thus have I heard. 101 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Maha Cunda 
rose from meditation and went to the Blessed One. After pay- 
ing homage to the Blessed One he sat down at one side and said 
to him: 

3. "Venerable sir, various views arise in the world associated 
either with doctrines of a self or with doctrines about the 
world. 102 Now does the abandoning and relinquishing of those 
views come about in a bhikkhu who is attending only to the 
beginning [of his meditative training]?" 103 

"Cunda, as to those various views that arise in the world asso- 
ciated either with doctrines of a self or with doctrines about the 
world: if [the object] in relation to which those views arise, 
which they underlie, and which they are exercised upon 104 is 
seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This is not mine, 
this I am not, this is npt my self,' then the abandoning and relin- 
quishing of those views comes about. 105 

(the eight attainments) 

4. "It is possible here, Cunda, that quite secluded from sensual 
pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, some bhikkhu 
enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied 
by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure 
born of seclusion. He might think thus: 'I am abiding in efface- 
ment.' But it is not these attainments that are called 'effacement' 
in the Noble One's Discipline: these are called 'pleasant abidings 
here and now' [41] in the Noble One's Discipline. 106 



123 


124 Sallekha Sutta: Sutta 8 


i 41 


5. "It is possible here that with the stilling of applied and sus- 
tained thought, some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the 
second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind 
without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and plea- 
sure born of concentration. He might think thus: 'I am abiding 
in effacement.' But... these are called 'pleasant abidings here and 
now' in the Noble One's Discipline. 

6. "It is possible here that with the fading away as well of rap- 
ture, some bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully 
aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and 
abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones 
announce: 'He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and 
is mindful.' He might think thus: 'I am abiding in effacement.' 
But... these are called 'pleasant abidings here and now' in the 
Noble One's Discipline. 

7. "It is possible here that with the abandoning of pleasure 
and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, 
some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which 
has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to 
equanimity. He might think thus: 'I am abiding in effacement.' 
But it is not these attainments that are called 'effacement' in the 
Noble One's Discipline, these are called 'pleasant abidings here 
and now' in the Noble One's Discipline. 

8. "It is possible here that with the complete surmounting of 
perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of 
sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, 
aware that 'space is infinite/ some bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the base of infinite space. He might think thus: 'I am 
abiding in effacement.' But it is not these attainments that are 
called 'effacement' in the Noble One's Discipline: these are 
called 'peaceful abidings' in the Noble One's Discipline. 

9. "It is possible here that by completely surmounting the base 
of infinite space, aware that 'consciousness is infinite,' some 
bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite con- 
sciousness. He might think thus: 'I am abiding in effacement.' 
But... these are called 'peaceful abidings' in the Noble One's 
Discipline. 

10. "It is possible here that by completely surmounting the 
base of infinite consciousness, aware that 'there is nothing,' some 
bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. He 


Effacement 125 



might think thus: 'I am abiding in effacement.' But... these are 
called 'peaceful abidings' in the Noble One's Discipline. 

11. "It is possible here that by completely surmounting the 
base of nothingness, some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the 
base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. He might think 
thus: 'I am abiding in effacement.' [42] But these attainments are 
not called 'effacement' in the Noble One's Discipline: these are 
called 'peaceful abidings' in the Noble One's Discipline. 

(effacement) 

12. "Now, Cunda, here effacement should be practised by you: 107 

(1) 'Others will be cruel; we shall not be cruel here': efface- 
ment should be practised thus. 108 

(2) 'Others will kill living beings; we shall abstain from killing 
living beings here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(3) 'Others will take what is not given; we shall abstain from tak- 
ing what is not given here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(4) 'Others will be uncelibate; we shall be celibate here': efface- 
ment should be practised thus. 

(5) 'Others will speak falsehood; we shall abstain from false 
speech here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(6) 'Others will speak maliciously; we shall abstain from mali- 
cious speech here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(7) 'Others will speak harshly; we shall abstain from harsh 
speech here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(8) 'Others will gossip; we shall abstain from gossip here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(9) 'Others will be covetous; we shall be uncovetous here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(10) 'Others will have ill will; we shall be without ill will here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(11) 'Others will be of wrong view; we shall be of right view 
here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(12) 'Others will be of wrong intention; we shall be of right 
intention here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(13) 'Others will be of wrong speech; we shall be of right 
speech here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(14) 'Others will be of wrong action; we shall be of right action 

here': effacement should be practised thus. V 



126 Sallekha Sutta: Sutta 8 


i 43 


(15) 'Others will be of wrong livelihood; we shall be of right 
livelihood here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(16) 'Others will be of wrong effort; we shall be of right effort 
here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(17) 'Others will be of wrong mindfulness; we shall be of right 
mindfulness here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(18) 'Others will be of wrong concentration; we shall be of 
right concentration here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(19) 'Others will be of wrong knowledge; we shall be of right 
knowledge here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(20) 'Others will be of wrong deliverance; we shall be of right 
deliverance here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(21) 'Others will be overcome by sloth and torpor; we shall 
be free from sloth and torpor here': effacement should be 
practised thus. 

(22) 'Others will be restless; we shall not be restless here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(23) 'Others will be doubters; we shall go beyond doubt here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(24) 'Others will be angry; we shall not be angry here': efface- 
ment should be practised thus. 

(25) 'Others will be revengeful; we shall not be revengeful 
here': effacement should be practised thus. [43] 

(26) 'Others will be contemptuous; we shall not be contemp- 
tuous here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(27) 'Others will be domineering; we shall not be domineering 
here': effacement should Be practised thus. 

(28) 'Others will be envious; we shall not be envious here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(29) 'Others will be avaricious; we shall not be avaricious 
here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(30) 'Others will be fraudulent; we shall not be fraudulent 
here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(31) 'Others will be deceitful; we shall not be deceitful here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(32) 'Others will be obstinate; we shall not be obstinate here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(33) 'Others will be arrogant; we shall not be arrogant here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(34) 'Others will be difficult to admonish; we shall be easy to 
admonish here': effacement should be practised thus. 


i 43 


Effacement 127 


(35) 'Others will have bad friends; we shall have good friends 
here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(36) 'Others will be negligent; we shall be diligent here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(37) 'Others will be faithless; we shall be faithful here': efface- 
ment should be practised thus. 

(38) 'Others will be shameless; we shall be shameful here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(39) 'Others will have no fear of wrongdoing; we shall be 
afraid of wrongdoing here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(40) 'Others will be of little learning; we shall be of great learn- 
ing here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(41) 'Others will be lazy; we shall be energetic here': efface- 
ment should be practised thus. 

(42) 'Others will be unmindful; we shall be established in 
mindfulness here': effacement should be practised thus. 

(43) 'Others will lack wisdom; we shall possess wisdom here': 
effacement should be practised thus. 

(44) 'Others will adhere to their own views, hold on to them 
tenaciously, and relinquish them with difficulty; 109 we shall 
not adhere to our own views or hold on to them tenaciously, 
but shall relinquish them easily': effacement should be prac- 
tised thus. 

(inclination of mind) 

13. "Cunda, I say that even the inclination of mind towards 
wholesome states is of great benefit, so what should be said of 
bodily and verbal acts conforming [to such a state of mind]? 110 
Therefore, Cunda: 

(1) Mind should be inclined thus: 'Others will be cruel; we 
shall not be cruel here.' 

(2) Mind should be inclined thus: 'Others will kill living 
beings; we shall abstain from killing living beings here.' 

(3-43) Mind should be inclined thus:... 

(44) Mind should be inclined thus: 'Others will adhere to their 
own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and relinquish them 
with difficulty; we shall not adhere to our own views or hold on 
to them tenaciously, but shall relinquish thent easily.' 


128 Sallekha Sutta: Sutta 8 


144 


(avoidance) 

14. "Cunda, suppose there were an uneven path and another even 
path by which to avoid it; and suppose there were an uneven ford 
and another even ford by which to avoid it. [44] So too: 

(1) A person given to cruelty has non-cruelty by which to 
avoid it. 

(2) One given to killing living beings has abstention from 
killing living beings by which to avoid it. 

(3) One given to taking what is not given has abstention from 
taking what is not given by which to avoid it. 

(4) One given to be uncelibate has celibacy by which to avoid it. 

(5) One given to false speech has abstention from false speech 
by which to avoid it. 

(6) One given to malicious speech has abstention from mali- 
cious speech by which to avoid it. 

(7) One given to harsh speech has abstention from harsh 
speech by which to avoid it. 

(8) One given to gossip has abstention from gossip by which 
to avoid it. 

(9) One given to covetousness has uncovetousness by which to 
avoid it. 

(10) One given to ill will has non-ill will by which to avoid it. 

(11) One given to wrong view has right view by which to 
avoid it. 

(12) One given to wrong intention has right intention by 

which to avoid it. ' 

(13) One given to wrong speech has right speech by which to 
avoid it. 

(14) One given to wrong action has right action by which to 
avoid it. 

(15) One given to wrong livelihood has right livelihood by 
which to avoid it. 

(16) One given to wrong effort has right effort by which to 
avoid it. 

(17) One given to wrong mindfulness has right mindfulness 
by which to avoid it. 

(18) One given to wrong concentration has right concentration 
by which to avoid it. 



i 44 


Effacement 129 


(19) One given to wrong knowledge has right knowledge by 
which to avoid it. 

(20) One given to wrong deliverance has right deliverance by 
which to avoid it. 

(21) One given to sloth and torpor has freedom from sloth and 
torpor by which to avoid it. 

(22) One given to restlessness has non-restlessness by which to 
avoid it. 

(23) One given to doubt has the state beyond doubt by which 
to avoid it. 

(24) One given to anger has non-anger by which to avoid it. 

(25) One given to revenge has non-revenge by which to avoid 
it. 

(26) One given to contempt has non-contempt by which to 
avoid it. 

(27) One given to a domineering attitude has a non-domineer- 
ing attitude by which to avoid it. 

(28) One given to envy has non-envy by which to avoid it. 

(29) One given to avarice has non-avarice by which to avoid it. 

(30) One given to fraud has non-fraud by which to avoid it. 

(31) One given to deceit has non-deceit by which to avoid it. 

(32) One given to obstinacy has non-obstinacy by which to 
avoid it. 

(33) One given to arrogance has non-arrogance by which to 
avoid it. 

(34) One given to being difficult to admonish has being easy to 
admonish by which to avoid it. 

(35) One given to making bad friends has making good 
friends by which to avoid it. 

(36) One given to negligence has diligence by which to avoid it. 

(37) One given to faithlessness has faith by which to avoid it. 

(38) One given to shamelessness has shame by which to avoid it. 

(39) One given to fearlessness of wrongdoing has fear of 
wrongdoing by which to avoid it. 

(40) One given to little learning has great learning by which to 
avoid it. 

(41) One given to laziness has the arousal of energy by which 
to avoid it. 

(42) One given to unmindfulness ha^the' establishment of 
mindfulness by which to avoid it. 



130 Sallekha Sutta: Sutta 8 


i 46 


(43) One given to lack of wisdom has the acquisition of wis- 
dom by which to avoid it. 

(44) One given to adhere to his own views, who holds on to 
them tenaciously and relinquishes them with difficulty, has non- 
adherence to his own views, not holding on to them tenaciously 
and relinquishing them easily, by which to avoid it. 

(the way leading upwards) 

15. "Cunda, just as all unwholesome states lead downwards and 
all wholesome states lead upwards, so too: 

(1) A person given to cruelty has non-cruelty to lead him 
upwards. 

(2) One given to killing living beings has abstention from 
killing living beings to lead him upwards. 

(3~ 43) One given to. . .to lead him upwards. 

(44) One given to adhere to his own views, who holds on to 
them tenaciously [45] and relinquishes them with difficulty, has 
non-adherence to his own views, not holding on to them tena- 
ciously and relinquishing them easily, to lead him upwards. 

(the way of extinguishing) 

16. "Cunda, that one who is himself sinking in the mud should 
pull out another who is sinking in the mud is impossible; that 
one who is not himself sinking in the mud should pull out 
another who is sinking in the mud is possible. That one who is 
himself untamed, undisciplined, [with defilements] unextin- 
guished, should tame another, discipline him, and help extin- 
guish [his defilements] is impossible; that one who is himself 
tamed, disciplined, [with defilements] extinguished, should 
tame another, discipline him, and help extinguish [his defile- 
ments] is possible. 111 So too: 

(1) A person given to cruelty has non-cruelty by which to 
extinguish it. 112 

(2) One given to killing living beings has abstention from 
killing living beings by which to extinguish it. 

(3~ 43) One given to . . . [46] . . .by which to extinguish it. 

(44) One given to adhere to his own views, who holds on to 
them tenaciously and relinquishes them with difficulty, has 


i 46 


Effacement 131 


non-adherence to his own views, not holding on to them tena- 
ciously and relinquishing them easily, by which to extinguish it. 

(conclusion) 

17. "So, Cunda, the way of effacement has been taught by me, 
the way of inclining the mind has been taught by me, the way of 
avoidance has been taught by me, the way leading upwards has 
been taught by me, and the way of extinguishing has been 
taught by me. 

18. "What should be done for his disciples out of compassion 
by a teacher who seeks their welfare and has compassion for 
them, that I have done for you, Cunda. 113 There are these roots 
of trees, these empty huts. Meditate, Cunda, do not delay or else 
you will regret it later. This is our instruction to you." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Maha Cunda 
was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


9 Sammaditthi Sutta 
Right View 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the 
venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Friends, 
bhikkhus." - "Friend," they replied. The venerable Sariputta 
said this: 

2. "'One of right view, one of right view/ is said, friends. In 
what way is a noble disciple one of right view, whose view is 
straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has 
arrived at this true Dhamma?" 114 

"Indeed, friend, we would come from far away to learn from 
the venerable Sariputta the meaning of this statement. It would 
be good if the venerable Sariputta would explain the meaning of 
this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will 
remember it." 

"Then, friends, listen and attend closely to what I shall say." 

"Yes, friend," the bhikkhus replied. The venerable Sariputta 
said this: 


(the wholesome and the unwholesome) 

3. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands the unwhole- 
some and the root of the unwholesome, the wholesome and the 
root of the wholesome, [47] in that way he is one of right view, 
whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the 
Dhamma and has arrived at this tine Dhamma. 

4. "And what, friends, is the unwholesome, what is the root of 
the unwholesome, what is the wholesome, what is the root of 
the wholesome? Killing living beings is unwholesome; taking 
what is not given is unwholesome; misconduct in sensual plea- 
sures is unwholesome; false speech is unwholesome; malicious 


132 


47 


Right View 133 


speech is unwholesome; harsh speech is unwholesome; gossip is 
unwholesome; covetousness is unwholesome; ill will is 
unwholesome; wrong view is unwholesome. This is called the 
unwholesome. 115 

5. "And what is the root of the unwholesome? Greed is a root 
of the unwholesome; hate is a root of the unwholesome; delu- 
sion is a root of the unwholesome. This is called the root of the 
unwholesome. 116 

6. "And what is the wholesome? Abstention from killing living 
beings is wholesome; abstention from taking what is not given is 
wholesome; abstention from misconduct in sensual pleasures is 
wholesome; abstention from false speech is wholesome; absten- 
tion from malicious speech is wholesome; abstention from harsh 
speech is wholesome; abstention from gossip is wholesome; 
uncovetousness is wholesome; non-ill will is wholesome; right 
view is wholesome. This is called the wholesome. 117 

7. "And what is the root of the wholesome? Non-greed is a 
root of the wholesome; non-hate is a root of the wholesome; 
non-delusion is a root of the wholesome. This is called the root 
of the wholesome. 

8. "When a noble disciple has thus understood the unwhole- 
some and the root of the unwholesome, the wholesome and the 
root of the wholesome, 118 he entirely abandons the underlying 
tendency to lust, he abolishes the underlying tendency to aver- 
sion, he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and con- 
ceit 'I am/ and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true 
knowledge he here and now makes an end of suffering. 119 In 
that way too a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is 
straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has 
arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(nutriment) 

9. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. ' 

10. "When, friends, a noble disciple understandsmutriment, 
the origin of nutriment, the cessation of nutriment, and the way 


134 Sammaditthi Sutta: Sutta 9 


i 48 


leading to the cessation of nutriment, in that way he is one of 
right view. . .and has arrived [48] at this true Dhamma. 

11. "And what is nutriment, what is the origin of nutriment, 
what is the cessation of nutriment, what is the way leading to 
the cessation of nutriment? There are four kinds of nutriment for 
the maintenance of beings that already have come to be and for 
the support of those seeking a new existence. What four? They 
are: physical food as nutriment, gross or subtle; contact as the 
second; mental volition as the third; and consciousness as the 
fourth. 120 With the arising of craving there is the arising of nutri- 
ment. With the cessation of craving there is the cessation of 
nutriment. The way leading to the cessation of nutriment is just 
this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, 
right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right 
mindfulness, and right concentration. 

12. "When a noble disciple has thus understood nutriment, the 
origin of nutriment, the cessation of nutriment, and the way 
leading to the cessation of nutriment, he entirely abandons the 
underlying tendency to greed, he abolishes the underlying ten- 
dency to aversion, he extirpates the underlying tendency to the 
view and conceit T am/ and by abandoning ignorance and 
arousing true knowledge he here and now makes an end of suf- 
fering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view, 
whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the 
Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(the four noble truths) 

13. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

14. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands suffering, the 
origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the way lead- 
ing to the cessation of suffering, in that way he is one of right 
view... and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

15. "And what is suffering, what is the origin of suffering, 
what is the cessation of suffering, what is the way leading to the 
cessation of suffering? Birth is suffering; ageing is suffering; 


i 49 


Right View 135 


sickness is suffering; death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, 
pain, grief, and despair are suffering; not to obtain what one 
wants is suffering; in short, the five aggregates affected by cling- 
ing are suffering. This is called suffering. 

16. "And what is the origin of suffering? It is craving, which 
brings renewal of being, is accompanied by delight and lust, and 
delights in this and that; that is, craving for sensual pleasures 
[49], craving for being, and craving for non-being. This is called 
the origin of suffering. 

17. "And what is the cessation of suffering? It is the remain- 
derless fading away and ceasing, the giving up, relinquishing, 
letting go, and rejecting of that same craving. This is called the 
cessation of suffering. 

18. "And what is the way leading to the cessation of suffering? It 
is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view... right concen- 
tration. This is called the way leading to the cessation of suffering. 

19. "When a noble disciple has thus understood suffering, the 
origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the way lead- 
ing to the cessation of suffering. . .he here and now makes an end 
of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right 
view... and has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(ageing and death) 

20. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

21. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands ageing and 
death, the origin of ageing and death, the cessation of ageing 
and death, and the way leading to the cessation of ageing and 
death, in that way he is one of right view... and has arrived at 
this true Dhamma. 121 

22. "And what is ageing and death, what is the origin of ageing 
and death, what is the cessation of ageing and death, what is the 
way leading to the cessation of ageing and death? The ageing of 
beings in the various orders of /beings, their old age, brokenness 
of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of life, weak- 
ness of faculties - this is called ageing. The passing of beings out 


136 Sammaditthi Sutta: Sutta 9 


i 50 


of the various orders of beings, their passing away, dissolution, 
disappearance, dying, completion of time, dissolution of the 
aggregates, 122 laying down of the body - this is called death. So 
this ageing and this death are what is called ageing and death. 
With the arising of birth there is the arising of ageing and death. 
With the cessation of birth there is the cessation of ageing and 
death. The way leading to the cessation of ageing and death is just 
this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view. . .right concentration. 

23. "When a noble disciple has thus understood ageing and 
death, the origin of ageing and death, the cessation of ageing 
and death, and the way leading to the cessation of ageing and 
death... he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way 
too a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this 
true Dhamma." 

(birth) 

24. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question; "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - [50] "There might be, friends. 

25. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands birth, the ori- 
gin of birth, the cessation of birth, and the way leading to the 
cessation of birth, in that way he is one of right view... and has 
arrived at this true Dhamma. 

26. "And what is birth. What is the origin of birth, what is the 
cessation of birth, what is the way leading to the cessation of 
birth? The birth of beings in the various orders of beings, their 
coming to birth, precipitation [in a womb], generation, manifes- 
tation of the aggregates, obtaining the bases for contact 123 - this 
is called birth. With the arising of being there is the arising of 
birth. With the cessation of being there is the cessation of birth. 
The way leading to the cessation of birth is just this Noble 
Eightfold Path; that is, right view. . .right concentration. 

27. "When a noble disciple has thus understood birth, the ori- 
gin of birth, the cessation of birth, and the way leading to the 
cessation of birth... he here and now makes an end of suffering. 
In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view... and has 
arrived at this true Dhamma." 


i 51 


Right View 137 


(being) 

28. Saying, “Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

29. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands being, the 
origin of being, the cessation of being, and the way leading to 
the cessation of being, in that way he is one of right view... and 
has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

30. "And what is being, what is the origin of being, what is the 
cessation of being, what is the way leading to the cessation of 
being? There are these three kinds of being: sense-sphere being, 
fine-material being, and immaterial being. 124 With the arising of 
clinging there is the arising of being. With the cessation of cling- 
ing there is the cessation of being. The way leading to the cessa- 
tion of being is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right 
view. . .right concentration. 

31. "When a noble disciple has thus understood being, the ori- 
gin of being, the cessation of being, and the way leading to the 
cessation of being. . .he here and now makes an end of suffering. 
In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view... and has 
arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(clinging) 

32. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

33. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands clinging, the 
origin of clinging, the cessation of clinging, and the way leading 
to the cessation of clinging, in that way he is one of right view... 
and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

34. "And what is clinging, what is the origin of clinging, what 
is the cessation of clinging, what is the way leading to the cessa- 
tion of clinging? There are these four [51] kinds of clinging: 
clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging to rules 


138 Sammaditthi Sutta: Sutta 9 


i 51 


and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self. 125 With the 
arising of craving there is the arising of clinging. With the cessa- 
tion of craving there is the cessation of clinging. The way lead- 
ing to the cessation of clinging is just this Noble Eightfold Path; 
that is, right view. . .right concentration. 

35. "When a noble disciple has thus understood clinging, the 
origin of clinging, the cessation of clinging, and the way leading 
to the cessation of clinging... he here and now makes an end of 
suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view... 
and has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(craving) 

36. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

37. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands craving, the 
origin of craving, the cessation of craving, and the way leading 
to the cessation of craving, in that way he is one of right view. . . 
and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

38. "And what is craving, what is the origin of craving, what is 
the cessation of craving, what is the way leading to the cessation 
of craving? There are these six classes of craving: craving for 
forms, craving for sounds, craving for odours, craving for 
flavours, craving for tangibles, craving for mind-objects. 126 With 
the arising of feeling there is the arising of craving. With the ces- 
sation of feeling there is the cessation of craving. The way lead- 
ing to the cessation of craving is just this Noble Eightfold Path; 
that is, right view. . .right concentration. 

39. "When a noble disciple has thus understood craving, the 
origin of craving, the cessation of craving, and the way leading 
to the cessation of craving... he here and now makes an end of 
suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view. . . 
and has arrived at this true Dhamma." 


I 

; j 


i 52 


Right View 139 


(feeling) 

40. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

41. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands feeling, the 
origin of feeling, the cessation of feeling, and the way leading to 
the cessation of feeling, in that way he is one of right view. . .and 
has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

42. "And what is feeling, what is the origin of feeling, what is 
the cessation of feeling, what is the way leading to the cessation 
of feeling? There are these six classes of feeling: feeling born of 
eye-contact, feeling born of ear-contact, feeling born of nose- 
contact, feeling born of tongue-contact, feeling born of body- 
contact, feeling born of mind-contact. With the arising of contact 
there is the arising of feeling. With the cessation of contact there 
is the cessation of feeling. The way leading to the cessation of 
feeling is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view... 
right concentration. [52] 

43. "When a noble disciple has thus understood feeling, the 
origin of feeling, the cessation of feeling, and the way leading to 
the cessation of feeling... he here and now makes an end of suf- 
fering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and 
has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(contact) 

44. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

45. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands contact, the 
origin of contact, the cessation of contact, and the way leading to 
the cessation of contact, in that way he is one of right view. . .and 
has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

46. "And what is contact, what is the origin of contact, what is 
the cessation of contact, what is the way leading to the-eesSation 


140 Sammaditthi Sutta: Sutta 9 


i 53 


of contact? There are these six classes of contact: eye-contact, 
ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind- 
contact. 127 With the arising of the sixfold base there is the arising 
of contact. With the cessation of the sixfold base there is the ces- 
sation of contact. The way leading to the cessation of contact is 
just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view... right concen- 
tration. 

47. "When a noble disciple has thus understood contact, the 
origin of contact, the cessation of contact, and the way leading to 
the cessation of contact... he here and now makes an end of suf- 
fering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and 
has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(the sixfold base) 

48. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

49. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands the sixfold 
base, the origin of the sixfold base, the cessation of the sixfold base, 
and the way leading to the cessation of the sixfold base, in that 
way he is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

50. "And what is the sixfold base, what is the origin of the 
sixfold base, what is the .cessation of the sixfold base, what is 
the way leading to the cessation of the sixfold base? There are 
these six bases: the eye-base, the ear-base, the nose-base, the 
tongue-base, the body-base, the mind-base. 128 With the arising 
of mentality-materiality there is the arising of the sixfold base. 
With the cessation of mentality-materiality there is the cessa- 
tion of the sixfold base. The way leading to the cessation of the 
sixfold base is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right 
view. . .right concentration. 

51. "When a noble disciple has thus understood the sixfold 
base, the origin of the sixfold base, the cessation of the sixfold 
base, and [53] the way leading to the cessation of the sixfold 
base... he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way 
too a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this 
true Dhamma." 


i 53 


Right View 141 


(mentality-materiality) 

52. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

53. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands mentality- 
materiality, the origin of mentality-materiality, the cessation of 
mentality-materiality, and the way leading to the cessation of 
mentality-materiality, in that way he is one of right view... and 
has arrived at this true Dhamma. 129 

54. "And what is mentality-materiality, what is the origin of 
mentality-materiality, what is the cessation of mentality- 
materiality, what is the way leading to the cessation of mentality- 
materiality? Feeling, perception, volition, contact, and attention 
- these are called mentality. The four great elements and the 
material form derived from the four great elements - these are 
called materiality. So this mentality and this materiality are 
what is called mentality-materiality. With the arising of conscious- 
ness there is the arising of mentality-materiality. With the cessa- 
tion of consciousness there is the cessation of mentality-materiali- 
ty. The way leading to the cessation of mentality-materiality is just 
this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view. . .right concentration. 

55. "When a noble disciple has thus understood mentality- 
materiality, the origin of mentality-materiality, the cessation of 
mentality-materiality, and the way leading to the cessation of 
mentality-materiality... he here and now makes an end of suffer- 
ing. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view... and 
has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(consciousness) 

56. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

57. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands consciousness, 
the origin of consciousness, the cessation of consciousness, and 


i 


142 Sammaditthi Sutta: Sutta 9 

the way leading to the cessation of consciousness, in that way he 
is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

58. "And what is consciousness, what is the origin of con- 
sciousness, what is the cessation of consciousness, what is the 
way leading to the cessation of consciousness? There are these six 
classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, 
nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, 
mind-consciousness. 130 With the arising of formations there is 
the arising of consciousness. With the cessation of formations 
there is the cessation of consciousness. The way leading to the 
cessation of consciousness is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that 
is, right view. . .right concentration. 

59. "When a noble disciple has thus understood consciousness, 
the origin of consciousness, the cessation of consciousness, and 
the way leading to the cessation of consciousness [54]... he here 
and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disci- 
ple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(formations) 

60. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

61. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands formations, 
the origin of formations, the cessation of formations, and the 
way leading to the cessation of formations, in that way he is one 
of right view. . .and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

62. "And what are formations, what is the origin of formations, 
what is the cessation of formations, what is the way leading to the 
cessation of formations? There are these three kinds of formations: 
the bodily formation, the verbal formation, the mental forma- 
tion. 131 With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of for- 
mations. With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of 
formations. The way leading to the cessation of formations is just 
this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view. . .right concentration. 

63. "When a noble disciple has thus understood formations, 
the origin of formations, the cessation of formations, and the 
way leading to the cessation of formations... he here and now 



i 54 


i 55 


Right View 143 


makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is 
one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(ignorance) 

64. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another way in which 
a noble disciple is one of right view. . .and has arrived at this true 
Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

65. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands ignorance, 
the origin of ignorance, the cessation of ignorance, and the way 
leading to the cessation of ignorance, in that way he is one of 
right view... and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

66. "And what is ignorance, what is the origin of ignorance, 
what is the cessation of ignorance, what is the way leading to 
the cessation of ignorance? Not knowing about suffering, not 
knowing about the origin of suffering, not knowing about the 
cessation of suffering, not knowing about the way leading to the 
cessation of suffering - this is called ignorance. With the arising 
of the taints there is the arising of ignorance. With the cessation 
of the taints there is the cessation of ignorance. The way leading 
to the cessation of ignorance is just this Noble Eightfold Path; 
that is, right view. . .right concentration. 

67. "When a noble disciple has thus understood ignorance, the 
origin of ignorance, the cessation of ignorance, and the way 
leading to the cessation of ignorance... he here and now makes 
an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of 
right view... and has arrived at this true Dhamma." 

(taints) 

68. Saying, "Good, friend," the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced 
in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then they asked him a fur- 
ther question: "But, friend, might there be another [55] way in 
which a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is 
straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has 
arrived at this true Dhamma?" - "There might be, friends. 

69. "When, friends, a noble disciple understands the taints, 
the origin of the taints, the cessation of the taints, and the way 


144 Sammaditthi Sutta: Sutta 9 


i 55 


leading to the cessation of the taints, in that way he is one of 
right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence 
in the Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 

70. "And what are the taints, what is the origin of the taints, 
what is the cessation of the taints, what is the way leading to the 
cessation of the taints? There are these three taints: the taint of 
sensual desire, the taint of being, and the taint of ignorance. 
With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of the taints. 132 
With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of the 
taints. The way leading to the cessation of the taints is just this 
Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right 
speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindful- 
ness, and right concentration. 

71. "When a noble disciple has thus understood the taints, the 
origin of the taints, the cessation of the taints, and the way lead- 
ing to the cessation of the taints, he entirely abandons the under- 
lying tendency to lust, he abolishes the underlying tendency to 
aversion, he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and 
conceit 1 am/ and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true 
knowledge he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that 
way too a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is 
straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has 
arrived at this true Dhamma." 

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The bhikkhus were 
satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta 's words. 


10 Satipatthana Sutta 
The Foundations of Mindfulness 


1. Thus have I heard . 133 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living in the Kuru country at a town of the Kurus named Kamma- 
sadhamma. 134 There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhik- 
khus." - "Venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, this is the direct path 135 for the purification of 
beings [56], for the surmounting of sorrow and lamentation, for 
the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the 
true way, for the realisation of Nibbana - namely, the four foun- 
dations of mindfulness. 136 

3. "What are the four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu 137 abides 
contemplating the body as a body, ardent, fully aware, and 
mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the 
world. 138 He abides contemplating feelings as feelings, ardent, 
fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and 
grief for the world. He abides contemplating mind as mind, 
ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness 
and grief for the world. He abides contemplating mind-objects 
as mind-objects, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put 
away covetousness and grief for the world. 139 

(contemplation of the body) 

(2. Mindfulness of Breathing) 

4. "And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating the 
body as a body? Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root 
of a tree or to an empty hut, sits down; having folded his legs 
crosswise, set his body erect, and established mindfulness in 
front of him, ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes 
out. Breathing in long, he understand^/! breathe in long'; or 


146 Satipatthana Sutta: Sutta 10 


157 


breathing out long, he understands: 'I breathe out long.' 
Breathing in short, he understands: 'I breathe in short'; or 
breathing out short, he understands: 'I breathe out short.' 140 He 
trains thus: 'I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body [of 
breath]'; he trains thus: 'I shall breathe out experiencing the 
whole body [of breath].' 141 He trains thus: 'I shall breathe in 
tranquillizing the bodily formation'; he trains thus: 'I shall 
breathe out tranquillizing the bodily formation.' 142 Just as a 
skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, 
understands: 'I make a long turn'; or, when making a short turn, 
understands: 'I make a short turn'; so too, breathing in long, a 
bhikkhu understands: 1 breathe in long'... he trains thus: 'I shall 
breathe out tranquillizing the bodily formation.' 

(insight) 

5. "In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body 
internally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body exter- 
nally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body both inter- 
naljy-and externally. 143 Or else he abides contemplating in the 
body its arising factors, or he abides contemplating in the body 
its vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in the body 
both its arising and vanishing factors. 144 Or else mindfulness 
that 'there is a body' is simply established in him to the extent 
necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness. 145 And he 
abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That 
is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body. 

(2. The Four Postures) 

6. "Again, bhikkhus, when walking, a bhikkhu understands: 'I 
am walking'; when standing, he understands: 'I am standing'; 
when sitting, [57] he understands: 'I am sitting'; when lying 
down, he understands: 'I am lying down'; or he understands 
accordingly however his body is disposed. 146 

7. "In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body 
internally, externally, and both internally and externally... And he 
abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That 
too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body. 


The Foundations of Mindfulness 147 


(3. Full Awareness) 

8. "Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is one who acts in full awareness 
when going forward and returning; 147 who acts in full aware- 
ness when looking ahead and looking away; who acts in full 
awareness when flexing and extending his limbs; who acts in 
full awareness when wearing his robes and carrying his outer 
robe and bowl; who acts in full awareness when eating, drink- 
ing, consuming food, and tasting; who acts in full awareness 
when defecating and urinating; who acts in full awareness when 
walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, 
and keeping silent. 

9. "In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body 
internally, externally, and both internally and externally. . .And he 
abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That 
too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body. 


(4. Foulness - The Bodily Parts) 

10. "Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reviews this same body up 
from the soles of the feet and down from the top of the hair, 
bounded by skin, as full of many kinds of impurity thus: 'In 
this body there are head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, 
flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, 
diaphragm, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, 
contents of the stomach, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, 
fat, tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil of the joints, and urine.' 148 
Just as though there were a bag with an opening at both ends 
full of many sorts of grain, such as hill rice, red rice, beans, 
peas, millet, and white rice, and a man with good eyes were to 
open it and review it thus: 'This is hill rice, this is red rice, 
these are beans, these are peas, this is millet, this is white rice'; 
so too, a bhikkhu reviews this same body... as full of many 
kinds of impurity thus: 'In this body there are head-hairs... and 
urine.' 

11. "In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body 
internally, externally, and both internally and externally. . .And he 
abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That 
too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body. 


148 Satipatthana Sutta: Sutta 10 


i 58 


I 


l 


f 




Is 


(5. Elements) 


12. "Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reviews this same body, how- 
ever it is placed, however disposed, as consisting of elements 
thus: 'In this body there are the earth element, the water ele- 
ment, the fire element, and the air element.' 149 [58] Just as 
though a skilled butcher or his apprentice had killed a cow and 
was seated at the crossroads with it cut up into pieces; so too, a 
bhikkhu reviews this same body... as consisting of elements 
thus: 'In this body there are the earth element, the water ele- 
ment, the fire element, and the air element.' 

13. "In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body 
internally, externally, and both internally and externally. . .And he 
abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That 
too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body. 


(6-14. The Nine Charnel Ground Contemplations) 

14. "Again, bhikkhus, as though he were to see a corpse thrown 
aside in a charnel ground, one, two, or three days dead, bloated, 
livid, and oozing matter, a bhikkhu compares this same body 
with it thus: 'This body too is of the same nature, it will be like 
that, it is not exempt from that fate.' 150 

15. "In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body 
internally, externally, and both internally and externally. . .And he 
abides independent, not (Tinging to anything in the world. That 
too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body. 

16. "Again, as though he were to see a corpse thrown aside in 
a charnel ground, being devoured by crows, hawks, vultures, 
dogs, jackals, or various kinds of worms, a bhikkhu compares 
this same body with it thus: 'This body too is of the same nature, 
it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.' 

17. "...That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the 
body as a body. 

18-24. "Again, as though he were to see a corpse thrown aside 
in a charnel ground, a skeleton with flesh and blood, held 
together with sinews... a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, 
held together with sinews... a skeleton without flesh and blood, 
held together with sinews... disconnected bones scattered in all 
directions - here a hand-bone, there a foot-bone, here a shin-bone. 


i 59 


The Foundations of Mindfulness 149 


there a thigh-bone, here a hip-bone, there a back-bone, here a 
rib-bone, there a breast-bone, here an arm-bone, there a shoul- 
der-bone, here a neck-bone, there a jaw-bone, here a tooth, there 
the skull - a bhikkhu compares this same body with it thus: 
'This body too is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not 
exempt from that fate.' 151 

25. "...That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the 
body as a body. 

26-30. "Again, as though he were to see a corpse thrown aside 
in a charnel ground, bones bleached white, the colour of shells... 
bones heaped up, more than a year old. . .bones rotted and crum- 
bled to dust [59], a bhikkhu compares this same body with it 
thus: 'This body too is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is 
not exempt from that fate.' 

(insight) 

31. "In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body 
internally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body exter- 
nally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body both inter- 
nally and externally. Or else he abides contemplating in the 
body its arising factors, or he abides contemplating in the body 
its vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in the body 
both its arising and vanishing factors. Or else mindfulness that 
'there is a body' is simply established in him to the extent neces- 
sary for bare knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides inde- 
pendent, not clinging to anything in the world. That too is how 
a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body. 

(contemplation of feeling) 

32. "And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating 
feelings as feelings? 152 Here, when feeling a pleasant feeling, a 
bhikkhu understands: 'I feel a pleasant feeling'; when feeling a 
painful feeling, he understands: 'I feel a painful feeling'; when 
feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he understands: 
T feel a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.' When feeling a 
worldly pleasant feeling, he understands: 'I feel a worldly 
pleasant feeling'; when feeling an unworldly pleasant feeling, he 
understands: 'I feel an unworldly pleasant feeling'; when feeling 


150 Satipatthana Sutta: Sutta 10 


i 59 


a worldly painful feeling, he understands: 'I feel a worldly 
painful feeling'; when feeling an unworldly painful feeling, he 
understands: 'I feel an unworldly painful feeling'; when feeling 
a worldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he understands: 
'I feel a worldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling'; when 
feeling an unworldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he 
understands: 'I feel an unworldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant 
feeling.' 

(insight) 

33. "In this way he abides contemplating feelings as feelings inter- 
nally, or he abides contemplating feelings as feelings externally, 
or he abides contemplating feelings as feelings both internally 
and externally. Or else he abides contemplating in feelings their 
arising factors, or he abides contemplating in feelings their van- 
ishing factors, or he abides contemplating in feelings both their 
arising and vanishing factors. 153 Or else mindfulness that 'there is 
feeling' is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare 
knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not 
clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides 
contemplating feelings as feelings. 

(contemplation of mind) 

34. "And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating 
mind as mind? 154 Here a bhikkhu understands mind affected 
by lust as mind affected by lust, and mind unaffected by lust as 
mind unaffected by lust. He understands mind affected by hate 
as mind affected by hate, and mind unaffected by hate as mind 
unaffected by hate. He understands mind affected by delusion 
as mind affected by delusion, and mind unaffected by delusion 
as mind unaffected by delusion. He understands contracted 
mind as contracted mind, and distracted mind as distracted 
mind. He understands exalted mind as exalted mind, and unex- 
alted mind as unexalted mind. He understands surpassed mind 
as surpassed mind, and unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed 
mind. He understands concentrated mind as concentrated 
mind, and unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated mind. He 
understands liberated mind as liberated mind, and unliberated 


i 60 


The Foundations of Mindfulness 151 


mind as unliberated mind. 155 
(insight) 

35. "In this way he abides contemplating mind as mind internally, 
or he abides contemplating mind as mind externally, or he 
abides contemplating mind as mind both internally and exter- 
nally. Or else he abides contemplating in mind its arising fac- 
tors, [60] or he abides contemplating in mind its vanishing fac- 
tors, or he abides contemplating in mind both its arising and 
vanishing factors. 156 Or else mindfulness that 'there is mind' is 
simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare 
knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not 
clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides 
contemplating mind as mind. 

(CONTEMPLATION OF MIND-OBJECTS) 

(1. The Five Hindrances) 

36. "And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating 
mind-objects as mind-objects? 157 Here a bhikkhu abides con- 
templating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five 
hindrances. 158 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating 
mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five hindrances? 
Here, there being sensual desire in him, a bhikkhu understands: 
'There is sensual desire in me'; or there being no sensual desire 
in him, he understands: 'There is no sensual desire in me'; and 
he also understands how there comes to be the arising of 
unarisen sensual desire, and how there comes to be the aban- 
doning of arisen sensual desire, and how there comes to be the 
future non-arising of abandoned sensual desire.' 

"There being ill will in him... There being sloth and torpor in 
him. . .There being restlessness and remorse in him. . .There being 
doubt in him, a bhikkhu understands: 'There is doubt in me'; or 
there being no doubt in him, he understands: 'There is no doubt 
in me'; and he understands how there comes to be the arising of 
unarisen doubt, and how there comes to be the abandoning of 
arisen doubt, and how there comes to be the future non-arising 
of abandoned doubt. 


152 Satipatthana Sutta: Sutta 10 


i 61 


(insight) 

37. "In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind- 
objects internally, or he abides contemplating mind-objects as 
mind-objects externally, or be abides contemplating mind- 
objects as mind-objects both internally and externally. Or else he 
abides contemplating in mind-objects their arising factors, or he 
abides contemplating in mind-objects their vanishing factors, or 
he abides contemplating in mind-objects both their arising and 
vanishing factors. Or else mindfulness that 'there are mind- 
objects' is simply established in him to the extent necessary for 
bare knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, 
not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu 
abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of 
the five hindrances. 

(2. The Five Aggregates) 

38. "Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind- 
objects as mind-objects [61] in terms of the five aggregates 
affected by clinging. 159 And how does a bhikkhu abide con- 
templating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five 
aggregates affected by clinging? Here a bhikkhu understands: 
'Such is material form, such its origin, such its disappearance; 
such is feeling, such its origin, such its disappearance; such is 
perception, such its origifi, such its disappearance; such are 
the formations, such their origin, such their disappearance; 
such is consciousness, such its origin, such its disappearance.' 

39. "In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as 
mind-objects internally, externally, and both internally and 
externally... And he abides independent, not clinging to any- 
thing in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating 
mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five aggregates 
affected by clinging. 

(3. The Six Bases) 

40. "Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind- 
objects as mind-objects in terms of the six internal and exter- 
nal bases. 160 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating 


i 62 


The Foundations of Mindfulness 153 


mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the six internal and 
external bases? Here a bhikkhu understands the eye, he under- 
stands forms, and he understands the fetter that arises depen- 
dent on both; and he also understands how there comes to be 
the arising of the unarisen fetter, and how there comes to be the 
abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the 
future non-arising of the abandoned fetter. 

"He understands the ear, he understands sounds... He under- 
stands the nose, he understands odours... He understands the 
tongue, he understands flavours... He understands the body, he 
understands tangibles... He understands the mind, he under- 
stands mind-objects, and he understands the fetter that arises 
dependent on both; and he also understands how there comes to 
be the arising of the unarisen fetter, and how there comes to be 
the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be 
the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter. 

41. "In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as 
mind-objects internally, externally, and both internally and 
externally... And he abides independent, not clinging to any- 
thing in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating 
mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the six internal and 
external bases. 

(4. The Seven Enlightenment Factors) 

42. "Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind- 
objects as mind-objects in terms of the seven enlightenment 
factors. 161 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating 
mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the seven enlighten- 
ment factors? Here, there being the mindfulness enlighten- 
ment factor in him, a bhikkhu understands: 'There is the 
mindfulness enlightenment factor in me'; or there being no 
mindfulness enlightenment factor in him, he understands: [62] 
'There is no mindfulness enlightenment factor in me'; and he 
also understands how there comes to be the arising of the 
unarisen mindfulness enlightenment factor, and how the 
arisen mindfulness enlightenment factor comes to fulfilment 
by development. 

"There being the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor 
in him 162 ... There being the energy enlightenment factor kf 


154 Satipatthana Sutta: Sutta 10 


i 62 


him. ..There being the rapture enlightenment factor in 
him... There being the tranquillity enlightenment factor in 
him... There being the concentration enlightenment factor in 
him. . .There being the equanimity enlightenment factor in him, a 
bhikkhu understands: 'There is the equanimity enlightenment 
factor in me'; or there being no equanimity enlightenment factor 
in him, he understands: 'There is no equanimity enlightenment 
factor in me'; and he also understands how there comes to be 
the arising of the unarisen equanimity enlightenment factor, and 
how the arisen equanimity enlightenment factor comes to fulfil- 
ment by development. 163 

43. "In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as 
mind-objects internally, externally, and both internally and 
externally... And he abides independent, not clinging to any- 
thing in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating 
mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the seven enlighten- 
ment factors. 

t 

(5. The Four Noble Truths) 

44. "Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind- 
objects as mind-objects in terms of the Four Noble Truths. 164 
And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating mind-objects as 
mind-objects in terms of the Four Noble Truths? Here a bhikkhu 
understands as it actually is: 'This is suffering'; he understands 
as it actually is: 'This is thfe origin of suffering'; he understands 
as it actually is: 'This is the cessation of suffering'; he under- 
stands as it actually is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation 
of suffering.' 

(insight) 

45. "In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind- 
objects internally, or he abides contemplating mind-objects as 
mind-objects externally, or he abides contemplating mind-objects 
as mind-objects both internally and externally. Or else he abides 
contemplating in mind-objects their arising factors, or he abides 
contemplating in mind-objects their vanishing factors, or he 
abides contemplating in mind-objects both their arising and van- 


l 


The Foundations of Mindfulness 155 


i 63 

ishing factors. Or else mindfulness that 'there are mind-objects' is 
simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare 
]<nowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not 
clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides 
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the Four 
Noble Truths. 

(conclusion) 

46. "Bhikkhus, if anyone should develop these four foundations 
of mindfulness in such a way for seven years, one of two fruits 
could be expected for him: either final knowledge here and now, 
or if there is a trace of clinging left, non-return. 165 

"Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. [63] If anyone should develop 
these four foundations of mindfulness in such a way for six 
years.. .for five years.. .for four years. ..for three years.. .for two 
years. . .for one year, one of two fruits could be expected for him: 
either final knowledge here and now, or if there is a trace of 
clinging left, non-return. 

"Let alone one year, bhikkhus. If anyone should develop these 
four foundations of mindfulness in such a way for seven 
months. . .for six months. . .for five months. . .for four months. . .for 
three months... for two months... for one month... for half a 
month, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final 
knowledge here and now, or if there is a trace of clinging left, 
non-return. 

"Let alone half a month, bhikkhus. If anyone should develop 
these four foundations of mindfulness in such a way for seven 
days, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final 
knowledge here and now, or if there is a trace of clinging left, 
non-return. 

47. "So it was with reference to this that it was said: 
'Bhikkhus, this is the direct path for the purification of beings, 
for the surmounting of sorrow and lamentation, for the disap- 
pearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the true way, for 
the realisation of Nibbana - namely, the four foundations of 
mindfulness. 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
■md delighted in the Blessed One's words. 




The Division of the Lion's Roar 

(Slhanadavagga) 




11 Culasthanada Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse 
on the Lion's Roar 



1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, only here is there a recluse, only here a second 
recluse, only here a third recluse, only here a fourth recluse. The 
doctrines of others are devoid [64] of recluses: that is how you 
should rightly roar your lion's roar. 166 

3. "It is possible, bhikkhus, that wanderers of other sects 
might ask: 'But on the strength of what [argument] or with the 
support of what [authority] do the venerable ones say thus?' 
Wanderers of other sects who ask thus may be answered in this 
way: 'Friends, four things have been declared to us by the 
Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully 
enlightened; on seeing these in ourselves we say thus: "Only 
here is there a recluse, only here a second recluse, only here a 
third recluse, only here a fourth recluse. The doctrines of others 
are devoid of recluses." What are the four? We have confidence 
in the Teacher, we have confidence in the Dhamma, we have 
fulfilled the precepts, and our companions in the Dhamma are 
dear and agreeable to us whether they are laymen or those gone 
forth. These are the four things declared to us by the Blessed 
One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, 
on seeing which in ourselves we say as we do.' 

4. "It is possible, bhikkhus, that wanderers of other sects 
might say thus: 'Friends, we too have confidence in the Teacher, 
that is, in our Teacher; we too have confidence in the Dhamma, 
that is, in our Dhamma; we too have fulfilled the precepts, that 
is, our precepts; and our companions in the Dhamma are dear 
and agreeable to us too whether they are laymen or those gone 

159 


160 Culasihanada Sutta: Sutta 11 

forth. What is the distinction here, friends, what is the variance, 
what is the difference between you and us?' 

5. "Wanderers of other sects who ask thus may be answered in 
this way: 'How then, friends, is the goal one or many?' Answer- 
ing rightly, the wanderers of other sects would answer thus: 
'Friends, the goal is one, not many.' 167 - 'But, friends, is that goal 
for one affected by lust or free from lust?' Answering rightly, the 
wanderers of other sects would answer thus: 'Friends, that goal 
is for one free from lust, not for one affected by lust.' - 'But, 
friends, is that goal for one affected by hate or free from hate?' 
Answering rightly, they would answer: 'Friends, that goal is for 
one free from hate, not for one affected by hate.' - 'But, friends, 
is that goal for one affected by delusion or free from delusion?' 
Answering rightly, they would answer: 'Friends, that goal is for 
one free from delusion, not for one affected by delusion.' - 'But, 
friends, is that goal for one affected by craving or free from crav- 
ing?' [65] Answering rightly, they would answer: 'Friends, that 
goal is for one free from craving, not for one affected by crav- 
ing.' - 'But, friends, is that goal for one affected by clinging or 
free from clinging?' Answering rightly, they would answer: 
'Friends, that goal is for one free from clinging, not for one 
affected by clinging.' - 'But, friends, is that goal for one who has 
vision or for one without vision?' Answering rightly, they 
would answer: 'Friends, that goal is for one with vision, not for 
one without vision.' - 'But, friends, is that goal for one who 
favours and opposes, or for one who does not favour and 
oppose?' Answering rightly, they would answer: 'Friends, that 
goal is for one who does not favour and oppose, not for one who 
favours and opposes.' 168 - 'But, friends, is that goal for one who 
delights in and enjoys proliferation, or for one who does not 
delight in and enjoy proliferation?' Answering rightly, they 
would answer: 'Friends, that goal is for one who does not 
delight in and enjoy proliferation, not for one who delights in 
and enjoys proliferation.' 169 

6. "Bhikkhus, there are these two views: the view of being and 
the view of non-being. Any recluses or brahmins who rely on 
the view of being, adopt the view of being, accept the view of 
being, are opposed to the view of non-being. Any recluses or 
brahmins who rely on the view of non-being, adopt the view of 



f 



The Shorter Discourse on the Lion's Roar 161 


i 66 

non-being, accept the view of non-being, are opposed to the 
view of being. 170 

7. "Any recluses or brahmins who do not understand as they 
actually are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the 
danger, and the escape 171 in the case of these two views are 
affected by lust, affected by hate, affected by delusion, affected 
by craving, affected by clinging, without vision, given to favour- 
ing and opposing, and they delight in and enjoy proliferation. 
They are not freed from birth, ageing, and death; from sorrow, 
lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; they are not freed from 
suffering, I say. 

8. "Any recluses or brahmins who understand as they actually 
are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the danger, 
and the escape in the case of these two views are without lust, 
without hate, without delusion, without craving, without cling- 
ing, with vision, not given to favouring and opposing, and they 
do not delight in and enjoy proliferation. They are freed from 
birth, ageing, and death; from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, 
and despair; they are freed from suffering, I say. [66] 

9. "Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of clinging. What 
four? Clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging 
to rules and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self. 

10. "Though certain recluses and brahmins claim to propound 
the full understanding of all kinds of clinging, they do not com- 
pletely describe the full understanding of all kinds of clinging. 172 
They describe the full understanding of clinging to sensual plea- 
sures without describing the full understanding of clinging to 
views, clinging to rules and observances, and clinging to a doc- 
trine of self. Why is that? Those good recluses and brahmins do 
not understand these three instances of clinging as they actually 
are. Therefore, though they claim to propound the full under- 
standing of all kinds of clinging, they describe only the full 
understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures without describ- 
ing the full understanding of clinging to views, clinging to rules 
and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self. 

11. "Though certain recluses and brahmins claim to propound 
the full understanding of all kinds of clinging... they describe the 
full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures and clinging 
to views without describing the full understanding of clinging 


162 Culasihanada Sutta: Sutta 11 


i 67 


to rules and observances and clinging to a doctrine of self. Why 
is that? They do not under stand two instances... therefore they 
describe only the full understanding of clinging to sensual plea- 
sures and clinging to views without describing the full under- 
standing of clinging to rules and observances and clinging to a 
doctrine of self. 

12. "Though certain recluses and brahmins claim to propound 
the full understanding of all kinds of clinging... they describe 
the full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging 
to views, and clinging to rules and observances without describ- 
ing the full understanding of clinging to a doctrine of self. They 
do not understand one instance... therefore they describe only 
the full understanding of dinging to sensual pleasures, clinging 
to views, and clinging to rules and observances without describ- 
ing the full understanding of clinging to a doctrine of self. 173 

13. "Bhikkhus, in such a Dhamma and Discipline as that, it is 
plain that confidence in the Teacher is not rightly directed, that 
confidence in the Dhamma is not rightly directed, that fulfil- 
ment of the precepts is not rightly directed, and that the affec- 
tion among companions in the Dhamma is not rightly directed. 
Why is that? Because that is how it is when the Dhamma and 
Discipline is [67] badly proclaimed and badly expounded, 
unemancipating, unconducive to peace, expounded by one who 
is not fully enlightened. 

14. "Bhikkhus, when a Tathagata, accomplished and fully 
enlightened, claims to propound the full understanding of all 
kinds of clinging, he completely describes the full understand- 
ing of all kinds of clinging: he describes the full understanding 
of clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging to 
rules and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self. 174 

15. "Bhikkhus, in such a Dhamma and Discipline as that, it is 
plain that confidence in the Teacher is rightly directed, that con- 
fidence in the Dhamma is rightly directed, that fulfilment of the 
precepts is rightly directed, and that the affection among com- 
panions in the Dhamma is rightly directed. Why is that? 
Because that is how it is when the Dhamma and Discipline is 
well-proclaimed and well-expounded, emancipating, conducive 
to peace, expounded by one who is fully enlightened. 

16. "Now these four kinds of clinging have what as their source, 
what as their origin, from what are they born and produced? 



• frg The Shorter Discourse on the Lion's Roar 163 

These four kinds of clinging have craving as their source, crav- 
ing as their origin, they are bom and produced from craving. 175 
Craving has what as its source...? Craving has feeling as its 
source... Feeling has what as its source...? Feeling has contact as 
its source... Contact has what as its source...? Contact has the 
sixfold base as its source... The sixfold base has what as its 
source...? The sixfold base has mentality-materiality as its 
source. . .Mentality-materiality has what as its source. . .? Mentality- 
materiality has consciousness as its source... Consciousness has 
what as its source...? Consciousness has formations as its 
source... Formations have what as their source...? Formations 
have ignorance as their source, ignorance as their origin, they 
are born and produced from ignorance. 

17. "Bhikkhus, when ignorance is abandoned and true knowl- 
edge has arisen in a bhikkhu, then with the fading away of igno- 
rance and tire arising of true knowledge he no longer clings to 
sensual pleasures, no longer clings to views, no longer clings to 
rules and observances, no longer clings to a doctrine of self. 176 
When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he is not agi- 
tated, he personally attains Nibbana. Fie understands: 'Birth is 
destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has 
been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.'" [68] 


That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


12 Mahasthanada Sutta 
The Greater Discourse 
on the Lion's Roar 

1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Vesall in the grove outside the city to the west. 

2. Now on that occasion Sunakkhatta, son of the Licchavis, 
had recently left this Dhamma and Discipline. 177 He was making 
this statement before the Vesall assembly: "The recluse Gotama 
does not have any superhuman states, any distinction in knowl- 
edge and vision worthy of the noble ones. 178 The recluse 
Gotama teaches a Dhamma [merely] hammered out by reason- 
ing, following his own line of inquiry as it occurs to him, and 
when he teaches the Dhamma to anyone, it leads him when he 
practises it to the complete destruction of suffering." 179 

3. Then, when it was morning, the venerable Sariputta 
dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Vesall 
for alms. Then he heard Sunakkhatta, son of the Licchavis, mak- 
ing this statement before the Vesall assembly. When he had wan- 
dered for alms in Vesall and had returned from his almsround, 
after his meal he went to ’the Blessed One, and after paying 
homage to him, he sat down at one side and told the Blessed 
One what Sunakkhatta was saying. 

4. [The Blessed One said:] "Sariputta, the misguided man 
Sunakkhatta is angry and his words are spoken out of anger. 
Thinking to discredit the Tathagata, he actually praises him; [69] 
for it is praise of the Tathagata to say of him: 'When he teaches 
the Dhamma to anyone, it leads him when he practises it to the 
complete destruction of suffering/ 

5. "Sariputta, this misguided man Sunakkhatta will never 
infer of me according to Dhamma: 'That Blessed One is 
accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge 
and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader 


164 


i 69 


The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar 165 


of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlight- 
ened, blessed.' 180 

6. "And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: 'That 
Blessed One enjoys the various kinds of supernormal power: 
having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he 
becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered 
through a wall, through an enclosure, through a mountain, as 
though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as 
though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as 
though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space 
like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and 
sun so powerful and mighty; he wields bodily mastery even as 
far as the Brahma-world.' 

7. "And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: 'With 
the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the 
human, that Blessed One hears both kinds of sounds, the heav- 
enly and the human, those that are far as well as near.' 

8. "And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: 'That 
Blessed One encompasses with his own mind the minds of other 
beings, other persons. He understands a mind affected by lust as 
affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by 
lust; he understands a mind affected by hate as affected by hate 
and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; he under- 
stands a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a 
mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; he 
understands a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted 
mind as distracted; he understands an exalted mind as exalted 
and an unexalted mind as unexalted; he understands a surpassed 
mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed; he 
understands a concentrated mind as concentrated and an uncon- 
centrated mind as unconcentrated; he understands a liberated 
mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated.' 

(ten powers of a tathAgata) 

9. "Sariputta, the Tathagata has these ten Tathagata's powers, 
possessing which he claims the herd-leader's place, roars his 
lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of 
Brahma. 181 What are the ten? 


166 Mahasihanada Sutta: Sutta 12 


i 71 


10. (1) "Here, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the 
possible as possible and the impossible as impossible. 182 And 
that [70] is a Tathagata's power that the Tathagata has, by virtue 
of which he claims the herd-leader's place, roars his lion's roar 
in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. 

11. (2) "Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the 
results of actions undertaken, past, future, and present, with pos- 
sibilities and with causes. That too is a Tathagata's power. . , 183 

12. (3) "Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the 
ways leading to all destinations. That too is a Tathagata's 
power... 184 

13. (4) "Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the 
world with its many and different elements. That too is a Tatha- 
gata's power... 185 

14. (5) "Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is 
how beings have different inclinations. That too is a 
Tathagata's power. . , 186 

15. (6) "Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the 
disposition of the faculties of other beings, other persons. That 
too is a Tathagata's power. . , 187 

16. (7) "Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the 
defilement, the cleansing, and the emergence in regard to the 
jhanas, liberations, concentrations, and attainments. That too is a 
Tathagata's power. . , 188 

17. (8) "Again, the Tathagata recollects his manifold past lives, 
that is, one birth, two birthp...(os Sutta 4, §27 ). ..Thus with their 
aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. That 
too is a Tathagata's power. . . 

18. (9) "Again, with the divine eye, which is purified and sur- 
passes the human, the Tathagata sees beings passing away and 
reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and 
unfortunate ... (as Sutta 4, §29) [71], ..and he understands how 
beings pass on according to their actions. That too is a Tatha- 
gata's power. . . 

19. (10) "Again, by realising for himself with direct knowl- 
edge, the Tathagata here and now enters upon and abides in the 
deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taint- 
less with the destruction of the taints. That too is a Tathagata's 
power that the Tathagata has, by virtue of which he claims the 


i 



i 72 


The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar 167 


herd-leader's place, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and 
sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. 

20. "The Tathagata has these ten Tathagata's powers, possess- 
ing which he claims the herd-leader's place, roars his lion's roar 
in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. 

21. "Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say 
of me: 'The recluse Gotama does not have any superhuman 
states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the 
noble ones. The recluse Gotama teaches a Dhamma [merely] 
hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry as 
it occurs to him' - unless he abandons that assertion and that 
state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he 
had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell. 189 
Just as a bhikkhu possessed of virtue, concentration, and wisdom 
would here and now enjoy final knowledge, so it will happen in 
this case, I say, that unless he abandons that assertion and that 
state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he 
had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell. 

(FOUR KINDS OF INTREPIDITY) 

22. "Sariputta, the Tathagata has these four kinds of intrepidity, 
possessing which he claims the herd-leader's place, roars his 
lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of 
Brahma. What are the four? 

23. "Here, I see no ground on which any recluse or brahmin or 
god or Mara or Brahma or anyone else at all in the world could, 
in accordance with the Dhamma, accuse me thus: 'While you 
claim full enlightenment, you are not fully enlightened in regard 
to certain things.' [72] And seeing no ground for that, I abide in 
safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity. 

24. "I see no ground on which any recluse... or anyone at all 
could accuse me thus: 'While you claim to have destroyed the 
taints, these taints are undestroyed by you.' And seeing no 
ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity. 

25. "I see no ground on which any recluse... or anyone at all 
could accuse me thus: 'Those things called obstructions by you 
are not able to obstruct one who engages in them.' And seeing no 
ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity. 


168 Mahasihanada Sutta: Sutta 12 


i 73 


26. "I see no ground on which any recluse... or anyone at all 
could accuse me thus: 'When you teach the Dhamma to some- 
one, it does not lead him when he practises it to the complete 
destruction of suffering.' And seeing no ground for that, I abide 
in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity. 

27. "A Tathagata has these four kinds of intrepidity, possess- 
ing which he claims the herd-leader's place, roars his lion's roar 
in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. 

28. "Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say 
of me. . .he will wind up in hell. 

(the eight assemblies) 

29. "Sariputta, there are these eight assemblies. What are the eight? 
An assembly of nobles, an assembly of brahmins, an assembly of 
householders, an assembly of recluses, an assembly of gods of the 
heaven of the Four Great Kings, an assembly of gods of the heaven 
of the Thirty-three, an assembly of Mara's retinue, an assembly of 
Brahmas. Possessing these four kinds of intrepidity, the Tathagata 
approaches and enters these eight assemblies. 

30. "I recall having approached many hundred assemblies of 
nobles... many hundred assemblies of brahmins... many hun- 
dred assemblies of householders... many hundred assemblies of 
recluses... many hundred assemblies of gods of the heaven of 
the Four Great Kings... many hundred assemblies of gods of the 
heaven of the Thirty-three. . .many hundred assemblies of Mara's 
retinue... many hundred assemblies of Brahmas. And formerly I 
had sat with them there and talked with them and held conver- 
sations with them, yet I see no ground for thinking that fear or 
timidity might come upon me there. And seeing no ground for 
that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity. [73] 

31. "Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say 
of me . . .he will wind up in hell. 

(four kinds of generation) 

32. "Sariputta, there are these four kinds of generation. What are 
the four? Egg-born generation, womb-bom generation, moisture- 
bom generation, and spontaneous generation. 


173 


The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar 169 


33 . "What is egg-born generation? There are these beings born 
by breaking out of the shell of an egg; this is called egg-born 
generation. What is womb-born generation? There are these 
beings born by breaking out from the caul; this is called womb- 
bom generation. What is moisture-born generation? There are 
these beings born in a rotten fish, in a rotten corpse, in rotten 
dough, in a cesspit, or in a sewer; this is called moisture-bom 
generation. What is spontaneous generation? There are gods 
and denizens of hell and certain human beings and some beings 
in the lower worlds; this is called spontaneous generation. These 
are the four kinds of generation. 

34. "Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say 
of me. . .he will wind up in hell. 

(THE FIVE DESTINATIONS AND NIBBANA) 

35. "Sariputta, there are these five destinations. What are the 
five? Hell, the animal realm, the realm of ghosts, human beings, 
and gods. 190 

36. (1) "I understand hell, and the path and way leading to hell. 
And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, 
on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of 
deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell. 

(2) "I understand the animal realm, and the path and way 
leading to the animal realm. And I also understand how one 
who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, 
after death, reappear in the animal realm. 

(3) "I understand the realm of ghosts, and the path and way 
leading to the realm of ghosts. And I also understand how one 
who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, 
after death, reappear in the realm of ghosts. 

(4) "1 understand human beings, and the path and way lead- 
ing to the human world. And I also understand how one who 
has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, reappear among human beings. 

(5) "I understand the gods, and the path and way leading to 
the world of the gods. And I also understand how one who has 
entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, reappear in a happy destination, in the heavenly world. 


170 Mahasihanada Sutta: Sutta 12 


i 75 


(6) "I understand Nibbana, and the path and way leading to 
Nibbana. [74] And I also understand how one who has entered 
this path will, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, 
here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind 
and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruc- 
tion of the taints. 

37. (1) "By encompassing mind with mind I understand a cer- 

tain person thus: 'This person so behaves, so conducts himself, 
has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy 
destination, in perdition, in hell.' And then later on, with the 
divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I see that 
on the dissolution of the body, after death, he has reappeared in 
a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, 
in hell, and is experiencing extremely 191 painful, racking, pierc- 
ing feelings. Suppose there were a charcoal pit deeper than a 
man's height full of glowing coals without flame or smoke; and 
then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, 
parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and 
directed to that same charcoal pit. Then a man with good sight 
on seeing him would say: 'This person so behaves, so conducts 
himself, has taken such a path, that he will come to this same 
charcoal pit'; and then later on he sees that he has fallen into 
that charcoal pit and is experiencing extremely painful, racking, 
piercing feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind... 
piercing feelings. 1 

38. (2) "By encompassing mind with mind I understand a cer- 
tain person thus: 'This person so behaves, so conducts himself, 
has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, he will reappear in the animal realm.' And then later on, 
with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, 
I see that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he has reap- 
peared in the animal realm and is experiencing extremely 
painful, racking, piercing feelings. Suppose there were a cesspit 
deeper than a man's height full of filth; and then a man [75] 
scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and 
thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to 
that same cesspit. Then a man with good sight on seeing him 
would say: 'This person so behaves... that he will come to this 
same cesspit'; and then later on he sees that he has fallen into 


i 76 


The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar 171 


that cesspit and is experiencing extremely painful, racking, 
piercing feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind... 
piercing feelings. 

39. (3) "By encompassing mind with mind I understand a cer- 
tain person thus: 'This person so behaves, so conducts himself, 
has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, he will reappear in the realm of ghosts.' And then later 
on... I see that... he has reappeared in the realm of ghosts and is 
experiencing much painful feeling. Suppose there were a tree 
growing on uneven ground with scanty foliage casting a dap- 
pled shadow; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot 
weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in 
one way only and directed to that same tree. Then a man with 
good sight on seeing him would say: 'This person so behaves... 
that he will come to this same tree'; and then later on he sees 
that he is sitting or lying in the shade of that tree experiencing 
much painful feeling. So too, by encompassing mind with mind 
. . .much painful feeling. 

40. (4) "By encompassing mind with mind I understand a cer- 
tain person thus: 'This person so behaves, so conducts himself, 
has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, he will reappear among human beings.' And then later 
on... I see that... he has reappeared among human beings and is 
experiencing much pleasant feeling. Suppose there were a tree 
growing on even ground with thick foliage casting a deep 
shade; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, 
weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way 
only and directed to that same tree. Then a man with good sight 
on seeing him would say: 'This person so behaves... that he will 
come to this same tree'; and then later on he sees that he is sit- 
ting or lying in the shade of that tree experiencing much pleas- 
ant feeling. So too, by encompassing mind with mind... much 
pleasant feeling. [76] 

41. (5) "By encompassing mind with mind I understand a cer- 
tain person thus: 'This person so behaves, so conducts himself, 
has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, he will reappear in a happy destination, in the heavenly 
world.' And then later on... I see that... he has reappeared in a 
happy destination, in the heavenly world, and is experiencing 
extremely pleasant feelings. Suppose there were a mansion, and 




172 Mahasthanada Sutta: Sutta 12 


i 77 


1 


it had an upper chamber plastered within and without, shut off, 
secured by bars, with shuttered windows, and in it there was a 
couch spread with rugs, blankets, and sheets, with a deerskin 
coverlet, with a canopy as well as crimson pillows for both 
[head and feet]; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot 
weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in 
one way only and directed to that same mansion. Then a man 
with good sight on seeing him would say: 'This person so 
behaves. . .that he will come to this same mansion'; and then later 
on he sees that he is sitting or lying in that upper chamber in that 
mansion experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. So too, by 
encompassing mind with mind. . .extremely pleasant feelings. 

42. (6) "By encompassing mind with mind I understand a cer- 
tain person thus: 'This person so behaves, so conducts himself, 
has taken such a path that by realising for himself with direct 
knowledge, he here and now will enter upon and abide in the 
deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taint- 
less with the destruction of the taints.' And then later on I see 
that by realising for himself with direct knowledge, he here and 
now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and 
deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of 
the taints, and is experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. 192 
Suppose there were a pond with clean, agreeable, cool water, 
transparent, with smooth banks, delightful, and nearby a dense 
wood; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, 
weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way 
only towards that same pond. Then a man with good sight on 
seeing him would say: 'This person so behaves... that he will 
come to this same pond'; and then later on he sees that he has 
plunged into the pond, bathed, drunk, and relieved all his dis- 
tress, fatigue, and fever and has come out again and is sitting or 
lying in the wood [77] experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. 
So too, by encompassing mind with mind... extremely pleasant 
feelings. These are the five destinations. 

43. "Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say 
of me: 'The recluse Gotama does not have any superhuman 
states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the 
noble ones. The recluse Gotama teaches a Dhamma [merely] 
hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry 
as it occurs to him' - unless he abandons that assertion and that 



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The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar 173 


state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he 
had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell. Just 
as a bhikkhu possessed of virtue, concentration, and wisdom 
would here and now enjoy final knowledge, so it will happen in 
this case, I say, that unless he abandons that assertion and that 
state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he 
had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell. 

(the bodhisatta's austerities) 

44. "Sariputta, I recall having lived a holy life possessing four 
factors. I have practised asceticism - the extreme of asceticism; I 
have practised coarseness - the extreme of coarseness; I have 
practised scrupulousness - the extreme of scrupulousness; I 
have practised seclusion - the extreme of seclusion. 193 

45. "Such was my asceticism, Sariputta, that I went naked, 
rejecting conventions, licking my hands, not coming when 
asked, not stopping when asked; I did not accept food brought 
or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; I received 
nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a 
stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant 
woman, from a woman giving suck, from a woman lying with a 
man, from where food was advertised to be distributed, from 
where a dog was waiting, from where flies were buzzing; I 
accepted no fish or meat, I drank no liquor, wine, or fermented 
brew. I kept to one house, to one morsel; I kept to two [78] hous- 
es, to two morsels;... I kept to seven houses, to seven morsels. I 
lived on one saucerful a day, on two saucerfuls a day... on seven 
saucerfuls a day; I took food once a day, once every two 
days... once every seven days, and so on up to once every fort- 
night; I dwelt pursuing the practice of taking food at stated 
intervals. I was an eater of greens or millet or wild rice or hide- 
parings or moss or ricebran or rice-scum or sesamum flour or 
grass or cowdung. I lived on forest roots and fruits; I fed on 
fallen fruits. I clothed myself in hemp, in hemp-mixed cloth, in 
shrouds, in refuse rags, in tree bark, in antelope hide, in strips 
of antelope hide, in kusa-grass fabric, in bark fabric, in wood- 
shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in animal wool, in owls' 
wings. I was one who pulled out hair and beard, pursuing the 
practice of pulling out hair and beard. I was one who stood 


174 Mahasihanada Sutta: Sutta 12 


i 79 


continuously, rejecting seats. I was one who squatted continu- 
ously, devoted to maintaining the squatting position. I was one 
who used a mattress of spikes; I made a mattress of spikes my 
bed. I dwelt pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times 
daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways I 
dwelt pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the 
body. Such was my asceticism. 

46. "Such was my coarseness, Sariputta, that just as the bole of 
a tinduka tree, accumulating over the years, cakes and flakes off, 
so too, dust and dirt, accumulating over the years, caked off my 
body and flaked off. It never occurred to me: 'Oh, let me rub this 
dust and dirt off with my hand, or let another rub this dust and 
dirt off with his hand' - it never occurred to me thus. Such was 
my coarseness. 

47. "Such was my scrupulousness, Sariputta, that I was always 
mindful in stepping forwards and stepping backwards. I was 
full of pity even for [the beings in] a drop of water thus: 'Let me 
not hurt the tiny creatures in the crevices of the ground.' Such 
was my scrupulousness. 

48. "Such was my seclusion, Sariputta, that [79] I would 
plunge into some forest and dwell there. And when I saw a 
cowherd or a shepherd or someone gathering grass or sticks, or 
a woodsman, I would flee from grove to grove, from thicket to 
thicket, from hollow to hollow, from hillock to hillock. Why 
was that? So that they should not see me or I see them. Just as a 
forest-bred deer, on seeing human beings, flees from grove to 
grove, from thicket to thicket, from hollow to hollow, from 
hillock to hillock, so too, when I saw a cowherd or a shep- 
herd.. .Such was my seclusion. 

49. "I would go on all fours to the cow-pens when the cattle 
had gone out and the cowherd had left them, and I would feed 
on the dung of the young suckling calves. As long as my own 
excrement and urine lasted, I fed on my own excrement and 
urine. Such was my great distortion in feeding. 

50. "I would plunge into some awe-inspiring grove and dwell 
there - a grove so awe-inspiring that normally it would make a 
man's hair stand up if he were not free from lust. When those 
cold wintry nights came during the 'eight-days interval of frost,' 
I would dwell by night in the open and by day in the grove. 194 
In the last month of the hot season I would dwell by day in the 


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The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar 1 75 


open and by night in the grove. And there came to me sponta- 
neously this stanza never heard before: 

'Chilled by night and scorched by day. 

Alone in awe-inspiring groves. 

Naked, no fire to sit beside. 

The sage yet pursues his quest/ 

51. "I would make my bed in a charnel ground with the bones 
of the dead for a pillow. And cowherd boys came up and spat 
on me, urinated on me, threw dirt at me, and poked sticks into 
my ears. Yet I do not recall that I ever aroused an evil mind [of 
hate] against them. Such was my abiding in equanimity. [80] 

52. "Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose 
doctrine and view is this: 'Purification comes about through 
food.' 195 They say: 'Let us live on kola-fruits,' and they eat kola- 
fruits, they eat kola-fruit powder, they drink kola-fruit water, 
and they make many kinds of kola-fruit concoctions. Now I 
recall having eaten a single kola-fruit a day. Sariputta, you may 
think that the kola-fruit was bigger at that time, yet you should 
not regard it so: the kola-fruit was then at most the same size as 
now. Through feeding on a single kola-fruit a day, my body 
reached a state of extreme emaciation. Because of eating so little 
my limbs became like the jointed segments of vine stems or 
bamboo stems. Because of eating so little my backside became 
like a camel's hoof. Because of eating so little the projections on 
my spine stood forth like corded beads. Because of eating so lit- 
tle my ribs jutted out as gaunt as the crazy rafters of an old roof- 
less barn. Because of eating so little the gleam of my eyes sank 
far down in their sockets, looking like a gleam of water that has 
sunk far down in a deep well. Because of eating so little my 
scalp shrivelled and withered as a green bitter gourd shrivels 
and withers in the wind and sun. Because of eating so little my 
belly skin adhered to my backbone; thus if I touched my belly 
skin I encountered my backbone, and if I touched my backbone 
I encountered my belly skin. Because of eating so little, if I tried 
to ease my body by rubbing my limbs with my hands, the hair, 
rotted at its roots, fell from my body as I rubbed. 

53-55. "Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins 
whose doctrine and view is this: 'Purification comes about 


176 Mahasihanada Sutta: Sutta 12 


i 82 


through food.' They say: 'Let us live on beans/... 'Let us live on 
sesamum/...'Let us live on rice/ and they eat rice, they eat rice 
powder, [81] they drink rice water, and they make many kinds 
of rice concoctions. Now I recall having eaten a single rice grain 
a day. Sariputta, you may think that the rice grain was bigger at 
that time, yet you should not regard it so: the rice grain was 
then at most the same size as now. Through feeding on a single 
rice grain a day, my body reached a state of extreme emaciation. 
Because of eating so little... the hair, rotted at its roots, fell from 
my body as I rubbed. 

56. "Yet, Sariputta, by such conduct, by such practice, by such 
performance of austerities, I did not attain any superhuman 
states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the 
noble ones. Why was that? Because I did not attain that noble 
wisdom which when attained is noble and emancipating and 
leads the one who practises in accordance with it to the com- 
plete destruction of suffering. 

57. "Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose 
doctrine and view is this: 'Purification comes about through the 
round of rebirths.' But it is impossible to find a realm in the 
round that I have not already [82] passed through in this long 
journey, except for the gods of the Pure Abodes; and had I 
passed through the round as a god in the Pure Abodes, I would 
never have returned to this world. 196 

58. "There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine 
and view is this: 'Purification comes about through [some par- 
ticular kind of] rebirth/ But it is impossible to find a kind of 
rebirth that I have not been reborn in already in this long jour- 
ney, except for the gods of the Pure Abodes. . . 

59. "There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine 
and view is this: 'Purification comes about through [some particu- 
lar] abode.' But it is impossible to find a kind of abode that I have 
not already dwelt in... except for the gods of the Pure Abodes... 

60. "There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine 
and view is this: 'Purification comes about through sacrifice.' 
But it is impossible to find a kind of sacrifice that has not 
already been offered up by me in this long journey, when I was 
either a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin. 

61. "There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine 
and view is this: 'Purification comes through fire-worship.' But 



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The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar 177 


it is impossible to find a kind of fire that has not already been 
worshipped by me in this long journey, when I was either a 
head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin. 

62. "Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose 
doctrine and view is this: 'As long as this good man is still 
young, a black-haired young man endowed with the blessing of 
youth, in the prime of life, so long is he perfect in his lucid wis- 
dom. But when this good man is old, aged, burdened with 
years, advanced in life, and come to the last stage, being eighty, 
ninety, or a hundred years old, then the lucidity of his wisdom 
is lost.' But it should not be regarded so. I am now old, aged, 
burdened with years, advanced in life, and come to the last 
stage: my years have turned eighty. Now suppose that I had 
four disciples with a hundred years' lifespan, perfect in mind- 
fulness, retentiveness, memory, and lucidity of wisdom. 197 Just 
as a skilled archer, trained, practised, and tested, could easily 
shoot a light arrow across the shadow of a palm tree, suppose 
that they were even to that extent perfect in mindfulness, reten- 
tiveness, [83] memory, and lucidity of wisdom. Suppose that 
they continuously asked me about the four foundations of 
mindfulness and that I answered them when asked and that 
they remembered each answer of mine and never asked a sub- 
sidiary question or paused except to eat, drink, consume food, 
taste, urinate, defecate, and rest in order to remove sleepiness 
and tiredness. Still the Tathagata's exposition of the Dhamma, 
his explanations of factors of the Dhamma, and his replies to 
questions would not yet come to an end, but meanwhile those 
four disciples of mine with their hundred years' lifespan would 
have died at the end of those hundred years. Sariputta, even if 
you have to carry me about on a bed, still there will be no 
change in the lucidity of the Tathagata's wisdom. 

63. "Rightly speaking, were it to be said of anyone: 'A being 
not subject to delusion has appeared in the world for the welfare 
and happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the 
good, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans,' it is of me 
indeed that rightly speaking this should be said." 

64. Now on that occasion the venerable Nagasamala was 
standing behind the Blessed One fanning him. 198 Then he said to 
the Blessed One: "It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous! 
As I listened to this discourse on the Dhamma, the hairs of my 


178 Malmsthanada Sutta: Sutta 12 


i 83 


body stood up. Venerable sir, what is the name of this discourse 
on the Dhamma?" 

"As to that, Nagasamala, you may remember this discourse 
on the Dhamma as 'The Hair-raising Discourse/" 199 

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Nagasamala 
was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


13 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta 
The Greater Discourse 
on the Mass of Suffering 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Then, when it was morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed, 
and taking their bowls and outer robes, [84] went into SavatthI 
for alms. Then they thought: "It is still too early to wander for 
alms in SavatthI. Suppose we went to the park of the wanderers 
of other sects." So they went to the park of the wanderers of 
other sects and exchanged greetings with the wanderers. When 
this courteous and amiable talk was finished, they sat down at 
one side. The wanderers said to them: 

3. "Friends, the recluse Gotama describes the full understand- 
ing of sensual pleasures, and we do so too; the recluse Gotama 
describes the full understanding of material form, and we do so 
too; the recluse Gotama describes the full understanding of feel- 
ings, and we do so too. What then is the distinction here, 
friends, what is the variance, what is the difference between the 
recluse Gotama's teaching of the Dhamma and ours, between 
his instructions and ours?" 200 

4. Then those bhikkhus neither approved nor disapproved of 
the wanderers' words. Without doing either they rose from their 
seats and went away, thinking: "We shall come to understand 
the meaning of these words in the Blessed One's presence." 

5. When they had wandered for alms in SavatthI and had 
returned from their almsround, after the meal they went to the 
Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they sat down at 
one side and told him what had taken place. [The Blessed One 
said:] [85] 

6. "Bhikkhus, wanderers of other sects who speak thus should 
be questioned thus: 'But, friends, what is the gratification, what 


179 


180 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: Sutta 13 


i 86 


is the danger, and what is the escape in the case of sensual plea- 
sures? What is the gratification, what is the danger, and what is 
the escape in the case of material form? What is the gratification, 
what is the danger, and what is the escape in the case of feel- 
ings?' Being questioned thus, wanderers of other sects will fail 
to account for the matter, and what is more, they will get into 
difficulties. Why is that? Because it is not their province. 
Bhikkhus, I see no one in the world with its gods, its Maras, and 
its Brahmas, in this generation with its recluses and brahmins, 
with its princes and its people, who could satisfy the mind with 
a reply to these questions, except for the Tathagata or his disci- 
ple or one who has learned it from them. 

(sensual pleasures) 

7. (i) "And what, bhikkhus, is the gratification in the case of sen- 
sual pleasures? Bhikkhus, there are these five cords of sensual 
pleasure. What are the five? Forms cognizable by the eye that 
are wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with 
sensual desire, and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by 
the ear... Odours cognizable by the nose... Flavours cognizable 
by the tongue. ..Tangibles cognizable by the body that are 
wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sen- 
sual desire, and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of 
sensual pleasure. Now the pleasure and joy that arise dependent 
on these five cords of seqsual pleasure are the gratification in 
the case of sensual pleasures. 

8. (ii) "And what, bhikkhus, is the danger in the case of sensual 
pleasures? Here, bhikkhus, on account of the craft by which a 
clansman makes a living - whether checking or accounting or 
calculating or farming or trading or husbandry or archery or the 
royal service, or whatever craft it may be - he has to face cold, he 
has to face heat, he is injured by contact with gadflies, mosqui- 
toes, wind, sun, and creeping things; he risks death by hunger 
and thirst. Now this is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures, a 
mass of suffering visible here and now, having sensual pleasures 
as its cause, sensual pleasures as its source, sensual pleasures as 
its basis, [86] the cause being simply sensual pleasures. 

9. "If no property comes to the clansman while he works and 




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The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 181 


strives and makes an effort thus, he sorrows, grieves, and 
laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught, 
crying: "My work is in vain, my effort is fruitless!' Now this too 
is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures... the cause being 
simply sensual pleasures. 

10. "If property comes to the clansman while he works and 
strives and makes an effort thus, he experiences pain and grief 
in protecting it: 'How shall neither kings nor thieves make off 
with my property, nor fire burn it, nor water sweep it away, nor 
hateful heirs make off with it?' And as he guards and protects 
his property, kings or thieves make off with it, or fire burns it, or 
water sweeps it away, or hateful heirs make off with it. And he 
sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and 
becomes distraught, crying: 'What I had I have no longer!' Now 
this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures... the cause 
being simply sensual pleasures. 

11. "Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause, sensual plea- 
sures as the source, sensual pleasures as the basis, the cause 
being simply sensual pleasures, kings quarrel with kings, nobles 
with nobles, brahmins with brahmins, householders with house- 
holders; mother quarrels with child, child with mother, father 
with child, child with father; brother quarrels with brother, 
brother with sister, sister with brother, friend with friend. And 
here in their quarrels, brawls, and disputes they attack each 
other with fists, clods, sticks, or knives, whereby they incur 
death or deadly suffering. Now this too is a danger in the case of 
sensual pleasures... the cause being simply sensual pleasures. 

12. "Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause... men take 
swords and shields and buckle on bows and quivers, and they 
charge into battle massed in double array with arrows and 
spears flying and swords flashing; and there they are wounded 
by arrows and spears, and their heads are cut off by swords, 
whereby they incur death or deadly suffering. Now this too is a 
danger in the case of sensual pleasures... the cause being simply 
sensual pleasures. 

13. "Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause... men take 
swords and shields and buckle on bows and quivers, and they 
charge slippery bastions, with arrows and spears flying [87] 
and swords flashing; and there they are wounded by arrows 


182 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: Sutta 13 


i 87 


and spears and splashed with boiling liquids and crushed 
under heavy weights, and their heads are cut off by swords, 
whereby they incur death or deadly suffering. Now this too is a 
danger in the case of sensual pleasures. . .the cause being simply 
sensual pleasures. 

14. "Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause... men break 
into houses, plunder wealth, commit burglary, ambush high- 
ways, seduce others' wives, and when they are caught, kings 
have many kinds of torture inflicted on them. The kings have 
them flogged with whips, beaten with canes, beaten with clubs; 
they have their hands cut off, their feet cut off, their hands and 
feet cut off; their ears cut off, their noses cut off, their ears and 
noses cut off; they have them subjected to the 'porridge pot,' to 
the 'polished-shell shave,' to the 'Rahu's mouth,' to the 'fiery 
wreath,' to the 'flaming hand,' to the 'blades of grass,' to the 'bark 
dress/ to the 'antelope,' to the 'meat hooks,' to the 'coins,' to the 
'lye pickling,' to the 'pivoting pin,' to the 'rolled-up palliasse'; 201 
and they have them splashed with boiling oil, and they have 
them thrown to be devoured by dogs, and they have them 
impaled alive on stakes, and they have their heads cut off with 
swords - whereby they incur death or deadly suffering. Now 
this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures... the cause 
being simply sensual pleasures. 

15. "Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause, sensual plea- 
sures as the source, sensual pleasures as the basis, the cause 
being simply sensual pleasures, people indulge in misconduct of 
body, speech, and mind. Having done so, on the dissolution of 
the body, after death, they reappear in states of deprivation, in 
an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. Now this too 
is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures, a mass of suffering 
in the life to come, 202 having sensual pleasures as its cause, sen- 
sual pleasures as its source, sensual pleasures as its basis, the 
cause being simply sensual pleasures. 

16. (iii) "And what, bhikkhus, is the escape in the case of sen- 
sual pleasures? It is the removal of desire and lust, the abandon- 
ment of desire and lust for sensual pleasures. 203 This is the 
escape in the case of sensual pleasures. 

17. "That those recluses and brahmins who do not under- 
stand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the dan- 
ger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of sensual 


i 88 


The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 183 


pleasures, can either themselves fully understand sensual plea- 
sures or instruct another so that he can fully understand sensual 
pleasures - that is impossible. That those recluses and brahmins 
w ho understand as it actually is [88] the gratification as gratifi- 
cation, the danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the 
case of sensual pleasures, can either themselves fully under- 
stand sensual pleasures or instruct another so that he can fully 
understand sensual pleasures - that is possible. 

(material form) 

18. (i) "And what, bhikkhus, is the gratification in the case of 
material form? Suppose there were a girl of the noble class or 
the brahmin class or of householder stock, in her fifteenth or six- 
teenth year, neither too tall nor too short, neither too thin nor 
too fat, neither too dark nor too fair. Is her beauty and loveliness 
then at its height?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Now the pleasure 
and joy that arise in dependence on that beauty and loveliness 
are the gratification in the case of material form. 

19. (ii) "And what, bhikkhus, is the danger in the case of mate- 
rial form? Later on one might see that same woman here at 
eighty, ninety, or a hundred years, aged, as crooked as a roof 
bracket, doubled up, supported by a walking stick, tottering, 
frail, her youth gone, her teeth broken, grey-haired, scanty- 
haired, bald, wrinkled, with limbs all blotchy. What do you 
think, bhikkhus? Has her former beauty and loveliness vanished 
and the danger become evident?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - 
"Bhikkhus, this is a danger in the case of material form. 

20. "Again, one might see that same woman afflicted, suffer- 
ing, and gravely ill, lying fouled in her own excrement and 
urine, lifted up by some and set down by others. What do you 
think, bhikkhus? Has her former beauty and loveliness vanished 
and the danger become evident?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - 
"Bhikkhus, this too is a danger in the case of material form. 

21. "Again, one might see that same woman as a corpse 
thrown aside in a charnel ground, one, two, or three days dead, 
bloated, livid, and oozing matter. What do you think, bhikkhus? 
Has her former beauty and loveliness vanished and the danger 
become evident?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, this too is 
a danger in the case of material form. 


184 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: Sutta 13 


i 90 


22-29. "Agai^ one might see that same woman as a corpse 
thrown aside in a charnel ground, being devoured by crows, 
hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals, or various kinds of worms... 
[89]... a skeleton with flesh and blood, held together with 
sinews... a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, held together 
with sinews. . .disconnected bones scattered in all directions - here 
a hand-bone, there a foot-bone, here a thigh-bone, there a rib- 
bone, here a hip-bone, there a back-bone, here the skull. . .bones 
bleached white, the colour of shells... bones heaped up, more 
than a year old... bones rotted and crumbled to dust. What do 
you think, bhikkhus? Has her former beauty and loveliness van- 
ished and the danger become evident?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - 
"Bhikkhus, this too is a danger in the case of material form. 

30. (iii) "And what, bhikkhus, is the escape in the case of mate- 
rial form? It is the removal of desire and lust, the abandonment 
of desire and lust for material form. This is the escape in the case 
of material form. 

31. "That those recluses and brahmins who do not under- 
stand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the dan- 
ger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of material 
form, can either themselves fully understand material form or 
instruct another so that he can fully understand material form - 
that is impossible. That those recluses and brahmins who 
understand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the 
danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of mater- 
ial form, can either themselves fully understand material form 
or instruct another so that he can fully understand material 
form - that is possible. 

(feelings) 

32. (i) "And what, bhikkhus, is the gratification in the case of feel- 
ings? Here, bhikkhus, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, 
secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sus- 
tained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 204 On 
such an occasion he does not choose for his own affliction, or for 
another's affliction, or for the affliction of both. [90] On that occa- 
sion he feels only feeling that is free from affliction. The highest 
gratification in the case of feelings is freedom from affliction, I say. 



i 90 


The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 185 


33-35. "Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained 
thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second 
jhana...With the fading away as well of rapture. ..he enters upon 
and abides in the third jhana...With the abandoning of pleasure 
and pain he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana...On 
such an occasion he does not choose for his own affliction, or for 
another's affliction, or for the affliction of both. On that occasion 
he feels only feeling that is free from affliction. The highest grati- 
fication in the case of feelings is freedom from affliction, I say. 

36. (ii) "And what, bhikkhus, is the danger in the case of feel- 
ings? Feelings are impermanent, suffering, and subject to 
change. This is the danger in the case of feelings. 

37. (iii) "And what, bhikkhus, is the escape in the case of 
feelings? It is the removal of desire and lust, the abandonment 
of desire and lust for feelings. This is the escape in the case of 
feelings. 

38. "That those recluses and brahmins who do not understand 
as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the danger as 
danger, and the escape as escape in the case of feelings, can 
either themselves fully understand feelings or instruct another 
so that he can fully understand feelings - that is impossible. 
That those recluses and brahmins who understand as it actually 
is the gratification as gratification, the danger as danger, and the 
escape as escape in the case of feelings, can either themselves 
fully understand feelings or instruct another so that he can fully 
understand feelings - that is possible." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


14 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse 
on the Mass of Suffering 


[91] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha's Park. 

2. Then Mahanama the Sakyan 205 went to the Blessed One, and 
after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and said: 
"Venerable sir, I have long understood the Dhamma taught by 
the Blessed One thus: 'Greed is an imperfection that defiles the 
mind, hate is an imperfection that defiles the mind, delusion is 
an imperfection that defiles the mind.' Yet while I understand 
the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One thus, at times states of 
greed, hate, and delusion invade my mind and remain. I have 
wondered, venerable sir, what state is still unabandoned by me 
internally, owing to which at times these states of greed, hate, 
and delusion invade my mind and remain." 206 

3. "Mahanama, there is still a state unabandoned by you inter- 
nally, owing to which at times states of greed, hate, and delu- 
sion invade your mind and remain; for were that state already 
abandoned by you internally you would not be living the home 
life, you would not be enjoying sensual pleasures. 207 It is 
because that state is unabandoned by you internally that you are 
living the home life and enjoying sensual pleasures. 

4. "Even though a noble disciple has seen clearly as it actually 
is with proper wisdom how sensual pleasures provide little 
gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great 
is the danger in them, as long as he still does not attain to the 
rapture and pleasure that are apart from sensual pleasures, 
apart from unwholesome states, or to something more peaceful 
than that, he may still be attracted to sensual pleasures. 208 But 
when a noble disciple has seen clearly as it actually is with proper 
wisdom how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much 


186 


i 92 


The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 187 


suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in 
them, and he attains to the rapture and pleasure that are apart 
from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states, or to 
something more peaceful than that, then he is no longer attract- 
ed to sensual pleasures. [92] 

5. "Before my enlightenment, while I was still only an un- 
enlightened Bodhisatta, I too clearly saw as it actually is with 
proper wisdom how sensual pleasures provide little gratifica- 
tion, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the 
danger in them, but as long as I still did not attain to the rapture 
and pleasure that are apart from sensual pleasures, apart from 
unwholesome states, or to something more peaceful than that, I 
recognised that I still could be attracted to sensual pleasures. But 
when I clearly saw as it actually is with proper wisdom how 
sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, 
and much despair, and how great is the danger in them, and I 
attained to the rapture and pleasure that are apart from sensual 
pleasures, apart from unwholesome states, or to something 
more peaceful than that, I recognised that I was no longer 
attracted to sensual pleasures. 

6-14. "And what is the gratification in the case of sensual 
pleasures? Mahanama, there are these five cords of sensual 
pleasure ... (as Sutta 13, §§7-15 )... Now this too is a danger in the 
case of sensual pleasures, a mass of suffering in the life to come, 
having sensual pleasures as its cause, sensual pleasures as its 
source, sensual pleasures as its basis, the cause being simply 
sensual pleasures. 

15. "Now, Mahanama, on one occasion I was living at Raja- 
gaha on the mountain Vulture Peak. On that occasion a number 
of Niganthas living on the Black Rock on the slopes of Isigili were 
practising continuous standing, rejecting seats, and were experi- 
encing painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion. 209 

16. "Then, when it was evening, I rose from meditation and 
went to the Niganthas there. I asked them: 'Friends, why do you 
practise continuous standing, rejecting seats, and experience 
painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion?' 

17. "When this was said, they replied: 'Friend, the Nigantha 
Nataputta is omniscient and all-seeing and claims to have com- 
plete knowledge and vision thus: "Whether I am walking or 


I 


188 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta: Sutta 14 i 94 

standing or asleep or awake, [93] knowledge and vision are con- 
tinuously and uninterruptedly present to me." He says thus: 
"Niganthas, you have done evil actions in the past; exhaust 
them with the performance of piercing austerities. And when 
you are here and now restrained in body, speech, and mind, that 
is doing no evil actions for the future. So by annihilating with 
asceticism past actions and by doing no fresh actions, there will 
be no consequence in the future. With no consequence in the 
future, there is the destruction of action. With the destruction of 
action, there is the destruction of suffering. With the destruction 
of suffering, there is the destruction of feeling. With the destruc- 
tion of feeling, all suffering will be exhausted." This is [the doc- 
trine] we approve of and accept, and we are satisfied with it.' 

18. "When this was said, I told them: 'But, friends, do you 
know that you existed in the past, and that it is not the case that 
you did not exist?' - 'No, friend.' - 'But, friends, do you know 
that you did evil actions in the past and did not abstain from 
them?' - 'No, friend.' - 'But, friends, do you know that you did 
such and such evil actions?' - 'No, friend.' - 'But, friends, do 
you know that so much suffering has already been exhausted, or 
that so much suffering has still to be exhausted, or that when so 
much suffering has been exhausted all suffering will have been 
exhausted?' - 'No, friend.' - 'But, friends, do you know what the 
abandoning of unwholesome states is and what the cultivation 
of wholesome states is here and now?' - 'No, friend.' 

19. "'So, friends, it seems that you do not know that you exist- 
ed in the past and that it iJ not the case that you did not exist; or 
that you did evil actions in the past and did not abstain from 
them; or that you did such and such evil actions; or that so 
much suffering has already been exhausted, or that so much suf- 
fering has still to be exhausted, or that when so much suffering 
has been exhausted all suffering will have been exhausted; or 
what the abandoning of unwholesome states is and what the 
cultivation of wholesome states is here and now. That being so, 
those who are murderers, bloody-handed evil-doers in the 
world, when they are reborn among human beings, go forth into 
homelessness as Niganthas.' 210 

20. "'Friend Gotama, pleasure is not to be gained through 
pleasure; pleasure is to be gained through pain. [94] For were 
pleasure to be gained through pleasure, then King Seniya 


i 95 


The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 189 


Bimbisara of Magadha would gain pleasure, since he abides in 
greater pleasure than the venerable Gotama.' 

'"Surely the venerable Niganthas have uttered those words 
rashly and without reflection. Rather it is I who ought to be 
asked: "Who abides in greater pleasure. King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha or the venerable Gotama?"' 

'"Surely, friend Gotama, we uttered those words rashly and 
without reflection. But let that be. Now we ask the venerable 
Gotama: Who abides in greater pleasure. King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha or the venerable Gotama?' 

21. "'Then, friends, I shall ask you a question in return. 
Answer it as you like. What do you think, friends? Can King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha abide without moving his body or 
uttering a word, experiencing the peak of pleasure for seven 
days and nights?' - 'No, friend.' - 'Can King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha abide without moving his body or uttering a word, 
experiencing the peak of pleasure for six, five, four, three, or two 
days and nights?. . .for one day and night?' - 'No, friend.' 

22. "'But, friends, I can abide without moving my body or 
uttering a word, experiencing the peak of pleasure for one day 
and night. . .for two, three, four, five, and six days and nights. . .for 
seven days and nights. 211 What do you think, friends? That 
being so, who dwells in greater pleasure. King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha or I?' 

"'That being so, [95] the venerable Gotama abides in greater 
pleasure than King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha.'" 

That is what the Blessed One said. Mahanama the Sakyan was 
satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



15 Anumana Sutta 
Inference 


1 . Thus have I heard. On one occasion the venerable Maha 
Moggallana was living in the Bhagga country at Sumsumaragira 
in the Bhesakala Grove, the Deer Park. There he addressed the 
bhikkhus thus: "Friends, bhikkhus." - "Friend," they replied. 
The venerable Maha Moggallana said this: 

2. "Friends, though a bhikkhu asks thus: 'Let the venerable 
ones admonish me, 212 1 need to be admonished by the venerable 
ones,' yet if he is difficult to admonish and possesses qualities 
that make him difficult to admonish, if he is impatient and does 
not take instruction rightly, then his companions in the holy life 
think that he should not be admonished or instructed, they 
think of him as a person not to be trusted. 

3. "What qualities make him difficult to admonish? 

(1) Here a bhikkhu has evil wishes and is dominated by evil 
wishes; 213 this is a quality that makes him difficult to admonish. 

(2) Again, a bhikkhu lauds himself and disparages others; this 
is a quality that makes him’ difficult to admonish. 

(3) Again, a bhikkhu is angry and is overcome by anger; this is 
a quality. . . 

(4) Again, a bhikkhu is angry, and revengeful because of 
anger. . . 

(5) Again, a bhikkhu is angry, and stubborn because of 
anger... 

(6) Again, a bhikkhu is angry, and he utters words bordering 
on anger... 

(7) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he resists the reprover... 

(8) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he denigrates the 
reprover. . . 

(9) Again, [96] a bhikkhu is reproved, and he counter-reproves 
the reprover. . . 

190 


0 


i 97 


Inference 191 


(10) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he prevaricates, leads 
the talk aside, and shows anger, hate, and bitterness. . . 

(11) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he fails to account for 
his conduct. . . 

(12) Again, a bhikkhu is contemptuous and domineering. .. 

(13) Again, a bhikkhu is envious and avaricious. . . 

(14) Again, a bhikkhu is fraudulent and deceitful. . . 

(15) Again, a bhikkhu is obstinate and arrogant. . . 

(16) Again, a bhikkhu adheres to his own views, holds on to 
them tenaciously, and relinquishes them with difficulty; this is a 
quality that makes him difficult to admonish. 214 

"Friends, these are called the qualities that make him difficult 
to admonish. 

4. "Friends, though a bhikkhu does not ask thus: 'Let the ven- 
erable ones admonish me; I need to be admonished by the vener- 
able ones,' yet if he is easy to admonish and possesses qualities 
that make him easy to admonish, if he is patient and takes 
instruction rightly, then his companions in the holy life think 
that he should be admonished and instructed, and they think of 
him as a person to be trusted. 

5. "What qualities make him easy to admonish? 

(1) Here a bhikkhu has no evil wishes and is not dominated by 
evil wishes; this is a quality that makes him easy to admonish. 

(2) Again, a bhikkhu does not laud himself nor disparage others; 
this is a quality... 

(3) He is not angry nor allows anger to overcome him. . . 

(4) He is not angry or revengeful because of anger. . . 

(5) He is not angry or stubborn because of anger. . . 

(6) He is not angry, and he does not utter words bordering 
on anger... 

(7) He is reproved, and he does not resist the reprover. . . 

(8) He is reproved, and he does not denigrate the reprover. . . [97] 

(9) He is reproved, and he does not counter-reprove the 
reprover... 

(10) He is reproved, and he does not prevaricate, lead the talk 
aside, and show anger, hate, and bitterness... 

(11) He is reproved, and he does not fail to account for his 
conduct. . . 

(12) He is not contemptuous or domineering. . . 

(13) He is not envious or avaricious. . . 


192 Anumana Sutta: Sutta 15 


ilOO 


(14) He is not fraudulent or deceitful. . . 

(15) He is not obstinate or arrogant. . . 

(16) Again, a bhikkhu does not adhere to his own views or 
hold on to them tenaciously, and he relinquishes them easily; 
this is a quality that makes him easy to admonish. 

"Friends, these are called the qualities that make him easy to 
admonish. 

6. "Now, friends, a bhikkhu ought to infer about himself in the 
following way: 215 

(1) 'A person with evil wishes and dominated by evil wishes is 
displeasing and disagreeable to me. If I were to have evil wishes 
and be dominated by evil wishes, I would be displeasing and 
disagreeable to others.' A bhikkhu who knows this should 
arouse his mind thus: 'I shall not have evil wishes and be domi- 
nated by evil wishes.' 

(2-16) 'A person who lauds himself and disparages others... 
[98 ]...A person who adheres to his own views, holds on to 
them tenaciously, and relinquishes them with difficulty is dis- 
pleasing and disagreeable to me. If I were to adhere to my own 
views, hold on to them tenaciously, and relinquish them with 
difficulty, I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.' A 
bhikkhu who knows this should arouse his mind thus: 'I shall 
not adhere to my own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and I 
shall relinquish them easily.' 

7. "Now, friends, a bhikkhu should review himself thus: 

(1) 'Do I have evil wishes- and am I dominated by evil wishes?' 
If, when he reviews himself, he knows: 'I have evil wishes, I am 
dominated by evil wishes,' then he should make an effort to 
abandon those evil unwholesome states. But if, when he reviews 
himself, he knows: 'I have no evil wishes, I am not dominated 
by evil wishes,' then he can abide happy and glad, training day 
and night in wholesome states. 

(2-16) Again, a bhikkhu should review himself thus: 'Do I 
praise myself and disparage others?'... [99]... 'Do I adhere to my 
own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and relinquish them 
with difficulty?' If, when he reviews himself, he knows: 'I 
adhere to my own views...,' then [100] he should make an effort 
to abandon those evil unwholesome states. But if, when he 
reviews himself, he knows: 'I do not adhere to my own 


ilOO 


Inference 193 


views.../ then he can abide happy and glad, training day and 
night in wholesome states. 

8. "Friends, when a bhikkhu reviews himself thus, if he sees 
that these evil unwholesome states are not all abandoned in 
himself, then he should make an effort to abandon them all. But 
if, when he reviews himself thus, he sees that they are all aban- 
doned in himself, then he can abide happy and glad, training 
day and night in wholesome states. 216 

"Just as when a woman - or a man - young, youthful, fond of 
ornaments, on viewing the image of her own face in a clear 
bright mirror or in a basin of clear water, sees a smudge or a 
blemish on it, she makes an effort to remove it, but if she sees no 
smudge or blemish on it, she becomes glad thus: 'It is a gain for 
me that it is clean'; so too when a bhikkhu reviews himself 
thus... then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night 
in wholesome states." 

That is what the venerable Maha Moggallana said. The 
bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Maha 
Moggallana's words. 


l 






1 



16 Cetokhila Sutta 
The Wilderness in the Heart 


[101] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - 
"Venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has not abandoned five 
wildernesses in the heart and not severed five shackles in the 
heart should come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this 
Dharruna and Discipline - that is impossible. 217 

3. "What, bhikkhus, are the five wildernesses in the heart that 
he has not abandoned? Here a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, 
undecided, and unconfident about the Teacher, and thus his 
mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and 
striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perse- 
verance, and striving, that is the first wilderness in the heart that 
he has not abandoned. 

4. "Again, a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided, and 
unconfident about the Dhamma 218 ...As his mind does not 
incline to ardour... that is the second wilderness in the heart that 
he has not abandoned. 

5. "Again, a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided, and 
unconfident about the Sangha...As his mind does not incline to 
ardour. . .that is the third wilderness in the heart that he has not 
abandoned. 

6. "Again, a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided, and 
unconfident about the training... As his mind does not incline to 
ardour. . .that is the fourth wilderness in the heart that he has not 
abandoned. 

7. "Again, a bhikkhu is angry and displeased with his com- 
panions in the holy life, resentful and callous towards them, and 
thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance. 


194 


The Wilderness in the Heart 195 


i 102 

and striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, 
perseverance, and striving, that is the fifth wilderness in the 
heart that he has not abandoned. 

"These are the five wildernesses in the heart that he has not 
abandoned. 

8. "What, bhikkhus, are the five shackles in the heart that he 
has not severed? Here a bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire, 
affection, thirst, fever, and craving for sensual pleasures, and 
thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, persever- 
ance, and striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devo- 
tion, perseverance, and striving, that is the first shackle in the 
heart that he has not severed. 

9. "Again, a bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire, affection, 
thirst, fever, and craving for the body 219 ... As his mind does not 
incline to ardour... that is the second shackle in the heart that he 
has not severed. [102] 

10. "Again, a bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire, affection, 
thirst, fever, and craving for form... As his mind does not incline 
to ardour... that is the third shackle in the heart that he has not 
severed. 

11. "Again, a bhikkhu eats as much as he likes until his belly is 
full and indulges in the pleasures of sleeping, lolling, and 
drowsing... As his mind does not incline to ardour... that is the 
fourth shackle in the heart that he has not severed. 

12. "Again, a bhikkhu lives the holy life aspiring to some 
order of gods thus: 'By this virtue or observance or asceticism or 
holy life, I shall become a [great] god or some [lesser] god,' and 
thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, persever- 
ance, and striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devo- 
tion, perseverance, and striving, this is the fifth shackle in the 
heart that he has not severed. 

"These are the five shackles in the heart that he has not severed. 

13. "Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has not abandoned 
these five wildernesses in the heart and severed these five 
shackles in the heart should come to growth, increase, and fulfil- 
ment in this Dhamma and Discipline - that is impossible. 

14. "Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has abandoned five 
wildernesses in the heart and severed five shackles in the heart 
should come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma 
and Discipline - that is possible. 


196 Cetokhila Sutta: Sutta 16 


i 103 


15. "What, bhikkhus, are the five wildernesses in the heart that 
he has abandoned? Here a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, 
undecided, or unconfident about the Teacher, and thus his mind 
inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. As his 
mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, 
the first wilderness in the heart has been abandoned by him. 

16. "Again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided, 
or unconfident about the Dhamma...As his mind inclines to 
ardour... the second wilderness in the heart has been aban- 
doned by him. 

17. "Again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided, 
or unconfident about the Sangha...As his mind inclines to 
ardour... the third wilderness in the heart has been aban- 
doned by him. 

18. "Again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided, 
or unconfident about the training... As his mind inclines to 
ardour... the fourth wilderness in the heart has been aban- 
doned by him. 

19. "Again, a bhikkhu is not angry and displeased with his 
companions in the holy life, nor resentful and callous towards 
them, and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, persever- 
ance, and striving. [103] As his mind inclines to ardour, devo- 
tion, perseverance, and striving, the fifth wilderness in the heart 
has been abandoned by him. 

"These are the five wildernesses in the heart that he has 
abandoned. 

20. "What, bhikkhus, are the five shackles in the heart that he 
has severed? Here a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affection, 
thirst, fever, and craving for sensual pleasures, and thus his 
mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. 
As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and 
striving, the first shackle in the heart has been severed by him. 

21. "Again, a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, 
fever, and craving for the body. ..As his mind inclines to 
ardour. . .the second shackle in the heart has been severed by him. 

22. "Again, a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affect ion, thirst, 
fever, and craving for form. . .As his mind inclines to ardour. . .the 
third shackle in the heart has been severed by him. 

23. "Again, a bhikkhu does not eat as much as he likes until 
his belly is full and does not indulge in the pleasures of sleeping. 



i 104 


The Wilderness in the Heart 197 


lolling, and drowsing... As his mind inclines to ardour... the 
fourth shackle in the heart has been severed by him. 

24. "Again, a bhikkhu does not live the holy life aspiring to 
some order of gods thus: 'By this virtue or observance or 
asceticism or holy life, I shall become a [great] god or some 
[lesser] god/ and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, 
perseverance, and striving. As his mind inclines to ardour, 
devotion, perseverance, and striving, the fifth shackle in the 
heart has been severed by him. 

"These are the five shackles in the heart that he has severed. 

25. "Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has abandoned these 
five wildernesses in the heart and severed these five shackles in 
the heart should come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this 
Dhamma and Discipline - that is possible. 

26. "He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in 
concentration due to zeal and determined striving; he develops 
the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to 
energy and determined striving; he develops the basis for spiri- 
tual power consisting in concentration due to [purity of] mind 
and determined striving; he develops the basis for spiritual 
power consisting in concentration due to investigation and 
determined striving. And enthusiasm is the fifth. 220 

27. "A bhikkhu who thus possesses the fifteen factors including 
enthusiasm is [104] capable of breaking out, capable of enlighten- 
ment, capable of attaining the supreme security from bondage. 221 

"Suppose there were a hen with eight, ten, or twelve eggs, 
which she had covered, incubated, and nurtured properly. Even 
though she did not wish: 'Oh, that my chicks might pierce their 
shells with the points of their claws and beaks and hatch out 
safely!' yet the chicks are capable of piercing their shells with 
the points of their claws and beaks and hatching out safely. 222 So 
too, a bhikkhu who thus possesses the fifteen factors including 
enthusiasm is capable of breaking out, capable of enlighten- 
ment, capable of attaining the supreme security from bondage." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


17 Vanapattha Sutta 
Jungle Thickets 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on jungle thickets. 
Listen and attend closely to what I shall say." - "Yes, venerable 
sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this: 

3. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. 223 
While he is living there his unestablished mindfulness does not 
become established, his unconcentrated mind does not become 
concentrated, his undestroyed taints do not come to destruction, 
he does not attain the unattained supreme security from 
bondage; and also the requisites of life that should be obtained 
by one gone forth - robes, almsfood, resting place, and medici- 
nal requisites - are hard to come by. The bhikkhu [105] should 
consider thus: 'I am living in this jungle thicket. While I am liv- 
ing here my unestablished imindfulness does not become estab- 
lished...! do not attain the unattained supreme security from 
bondage; and also the requisites of life... are hard to come by.' 
That bhikkhu should depart from that jungle thicket that very 
night or that very day; he should not continue living there. 

4. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. 
While he is living there Iris unestablished mindfulness does not 
become established, his unconcentrated mind does not become 
concentrated, his undestroyed taints do not come to destruction, 
he does not attain the unattained supreme security from 
bondage; yet the requisites of life that should be obtained by one 
gone forth... are easy to come by. The bhikkhu should consider 
thus: 'I am living in this jungle thicket. While I am living here my 
unestablished mindfulness does not become established...! do 


198 


Jungle Thickets 199 


1106 

not attain the unattained supreme security from bondage; yet the 
requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth... are 
easy to come by. However, I did not go forth from the home life 
into homelessness for the sake of robes, almsfood, resting place, 
and medicinal requisites. Moreover, while I am living here my 
unestablished mindfulness does not become established... I do 
not attain the unattained supreme security from bondage.' 
Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu should depart from that jun- 
gle thicket; he should not continue living there. 

5. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. 
While he is living there his unestablished mindfulness becomes 
established, his unconcentrated mind becomes concentrated, his 
undestroyed taints come to destruction, he attains the unat- 
tained supreme security from bondage; yet the requisites of life 
that should be obtained by one gone forth. . .are hard to come by. 
The bhikkhu should consider thus: [106] 'I am living in this jun- 
gle thicket. While I am living here my unestablished mindful- 
ness has become established... I have attained the unattained 
supreme security from bondage; yet the requisites of life... are 
hard to come by. However, I did not go forth from the home life 
into homelessness for the sake of robes, almsfood, resting place, 
and medicinal requisites. Moreover, while I am living here my 
unestablished mindfulness has become established... I have 
attained the unattained supreme security from bondage.' 
Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu should continue living in 
that jungle thicket; he should not depart. 

6. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. 
While he is living there his unestablished mindfulness 
becomes established, his unconcentrated mind becomes con- 
centrated, his undestroyed taints come to destruction, he 
attains the unattained supreme security from bondage; and 
also the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone 
forth - robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites 
- are easy to come by. The bhikkhu should consider thus: 'I am 
living in this jungle thicket. While I am living here my unestab- 
lished mindfulness has become established... I have attained 
the unattained supreme security from bondage; and also the 
requisites of life... are easy to come by.' That bhikkhu should 
continue living in that jungle thicket as long as life lasts; he 
should not depart. 


200 Vanapattha Sutta : Sutta 17 


i 108 


7-10. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain village . . , 224 

11-14. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain town. . . 

15-18. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain city... 

19-22. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain country... 

23. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain person.. .(as in §3) [107]. ..That bhikkhu should depart 
from that person without taking leave; he should not continue 
following him. 

24. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain person... (as in §4 )... Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu 
should depart from that person after taking leave; 225 he should 
not continue following him. 

25. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain person ... (as in §5)... Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu 
should continue following that person; he should not depart 
from him. 

26. "Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a 
certain person... (as in §6) [108]... That bhikkhu should continue 
following that person as long as life lasts; he should not depart 
from him even if told to go away." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



18 Madhupindika Sutta 
The Honeyball 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha's Park. 

2. Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and 
taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Kapilavatthu for alms. 
When he had wandered for alms in Kapilavatthu and had 
returned from his almsround, after his meal he went to the 
Great Wood for the day's abiding, and entering the Great Wood, 
sat down at the root of a bilva sapling for the day's abiding. 

3. Dandapani the Sakyan, while walking and wandering for 
exercise, also went to the Great Wood, and when he had entered 
the Great Wood, he went to the bilva sapling where the Blessed 
One was and exchanged greetings with him. When this courte- 
ous and amiable talk was finished, he stood at one side leaning 
on his stick and asked the Blessed One: "What does the recluse 
assert, what does he proclaim?" 226 

4. "Friend, I assert and proclaim such [a teaching] that one 
does not quarrel with anyone in the world with its gods, its 
Maras, and its Brahmas, in this generation with its recluses and 
brahmins, its princes and its people; such [a teaching] that per- 
ceptions no more underlie that brahmin who abides detached 
from sensual pleasures, without perplexity, shorn of worry, free 
from craving for any kind of being." 227 

5. When this was said, Dandapani the Sakyan shook his head, 
[109] wagged his tongue, and raised his eyebrows until his fore- 
head was puckered in three lines. 228 Then he departed, leaning 
on his stick. 

6. Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from med- 
itation and went to Nigrodha's Park, where he sat down on a 
seat made ready for him and told the bhikkhus what had taken 
place. Then a certain bhikkhu asked the Blessed One: 


201 


202 Madhupindika Sutta: Sutta 18 


i 111 


7. "But, venerable sir, what is [the teaching] that the Blessed 
One asserts whereby one does not quarrel with anyone in the 
world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, in this genera- 
tion with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people? 
And, venerable sir, how is it that perceptions no more underlie 
that brahmin who abides detached from sensual pleasures, 
without perplexity, shorn of worry, free from craving for any 
kind of being?" 

8. "Bhikkhus, as to the source through which perceptions and 
notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man: if nothing is 
found there to delight in, welcome and hold to, this is the end of 
the underlying tendency to lust, of the underlying tendency to 
aversion, [110] of the underlying tendency to views, of the 
underlying tendency to doubt, of the underlying tendency to 
conceit, of the underlying tendency to desire for being, of the 
underlying tendency to ignorance; this is the end of resorting to 
rods and weapons, of quarrels, brawls, disputes, recrimination, 
malice, and false speech; here these evil unwholesome states 
cease without remainder." 229 

9. That is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the 
Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling. 

10. Then, soon after the Blessed One had gone, the bhikkhus 
considered: "Now, friends, the Blessed One has risen from his 
seat and gone into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief 
without expounding the detailed meaning. Now who will 
expound this in detail?" Then they considered: "The venerable 
Maha Kaccana is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his 
wise companions in the holy life. 230 He is capable of expounding 
the detailed meaning. Suppose we went to him and asked him 
the meaning of this." 

11. Then the bhikkhus went to the venerable Maha Kaccana 
and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and 
amiable talk was finished, they sat down to one side and told 
him what had taken place, [111] adding: "Let the venerable 
Maha Kaccana expound it to us." 

12. [The venerable Maha Kaccana replied:] "Friends, it is as 
though a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wander- 
ing in search of heartwood, thought that heartwood should be 
sought for among the branches and leaves of a great tree stand- 
ing possessed of heartwood, after he had passed over the root 


The Honeyball 203 


i 112 

and the trunk. And so it is with you, venerable sirs, that you 
think that I should be asked about the meaning of this, after you 
passed the Blessed One by when you were face to face with the 
Teacher. For knowing, the Blessed One knows; seeing, he sees; 
he is vision, he is knowledge, he is the Dhamma, he is the holy 
one; 231 he is the sayer, the proclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, 
the giver of the Deathless, the lord of the Dhamma, the 
Tathagata. That was the time when you should have asked the 
Blessed One the meaning. As he told you, so you should have 
remembered it." 

13. "Surely, friend Kaccana, knowing, the Blessed One knows; 
seeing, he sees; he is vision... the Tathagata. That was the time 
when we should have asked the Blessed One the meaning. As 
he told us, so we should have remembered it. Yet the venerable 
Maha Kaccana is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his 
wise companions in the holy life. The venerable Maha Kaccana 
is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this summary 
given in brief by the Blessed One without expounding the 
detailed meaning. Let the venerable Maha Kaccana expound it 
without finding it troublesome." 

14. “Then listen, friends, and attend closely to what I shall 
say." - "Yes, friend," the bhikkhus replied. The venerable Maha 
Kaccana said this: 

15. "Friends, when the Blessed One rose from his seat and 
went into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief without 
expounding the detailed meaning, that is: 'Bhikkhus, as to the 
source through which perceptions and notions tinged by mental 
proliferation beset a man: if nothing is found there to delight in, 
welcome, and hold to, this is the end of the underlying tendency 
to lust... this is the end of resorting to rods and weapons... here 
these evil unwholesome states cease without remainder/ I 
understand the detailed meaning of it to be as follows: 

16. "Dependent on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. 
The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as condition 
there is feeling. What one feels, that one perceives. [112] What 
one perceives, that one thinks about. What one thinks about, 
that one mentally proliferates. With what one has mentally pro- 
liferated as the source, perceptions and notions tinged by mental 
proliferation beset a man with respect to past, future, and pre- 
sent forms cognizable through the eye. 232 


204 Madhupindika Sutta: Sutta 18 


i 112 


j "Dependent on the ear and sounds.. .Dependent on the nose 

| and odours... Dependent on the tongue and flavours... Dependent 

on the body and tangibles... Dependent on the mind and mind- 
objects, mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is 
contact. With contact as condition there is feeling. What one 
feels, that one perceives. What one perceives, that one thinks 
about. What one thinks about, that one mentally proliferates. 
With what one has mentally proliferated as the source, percep- 
tions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man 
with respect to past, future, and present mind-objects cognizable 
through the mind. 

17. "When there is the eye, a form, and eye-consciousness, it is 
possible to point out the manifestation of contact. 233 When there 
is the manifestation of contact, it is possible to point out the man- 
ifestation of feeling. When there is the manifestation of feeling, it 
is possible to point out the manifestation of perception. When 
there is the manifestation of perception, it is possible to point out 
the manifestation of thinking. When there is the manifestation of 
thinking, it is possible to point out the manifestation of being 
beset by perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation. 

"When there is the ear, a sound, and ear-consciousness... When 
there is the nose, an odour, and nose-consciousness. . .When there 
is the tongue, a flavour, and tongue-consciousness... When there 
is the body, a tangible, and body-consciousness... When there is 
the mind, a mind-object, and mind-consciousness... it is possible 
to point out the manifestation of being beset by perceptions and 
notions tinged by mental proliferation. 

18. "When there is no eye, no form, and no eye-consciousness, 
it is impossible to point out the manifestation of contact. When 
there is no manifestation of contact, it is impossible to point out 
the manifestation of feeling. When there is no manifestation of 
feeling, it is impossible to point out the manifestation of percep- 
tion. When there is no manifestation of perception, it is impossi- 
ble to point out the manifestation of thinking. When there is no 
manifestation of thinking, it is impossible to point out the mani- 
festation of being beset by perceptions and notions tinged by 
mental proliferation. 

"When there is no ear, no sound, and no ear-consciousness... 
When there is no nose, no odour, and no nose-consciousness... 


The Honeyball 205 


i 114 

\Vhen there is no tongue, no flavour, and no tongue- 
consciousness-.-When there is no body, no tangible, and no 
body-consciousness... When there is no mind, no mind-object, 
and no mind-consciousness... it is impossible to point out the 
manifestation of being beset by perceptions and notions tinged 
by mental proliferation. 

19. "Friends, when the Blessed One [113] rose from his seat 
and went into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief with- 
out expounding the detailed meaning, that is: 'Bhikkhus, as to 
the source through which perceptions and notions tinged by 
mental proliferation beset a man: if nothing is found there to 
delight in, welcome, and hold to, this is the end of the underly- 
ing tendency to lust, of the underlying tendency to aversion, of 
the underlying tendency to views, of the underlying tendency to 
doubt, of the underlying tendency to conceit, of the underlying 
tendency to desire for being, of the underlying tendency to igno- 
rance; this is the end of resorting to rods and weapons, of quar- 
rels, brawls, disputes, recrimination, malice, and false speech; 
here these evil unwholesome states cease without remainder,' I 
understand the detailed meaning of this summary to be thus. 
Now, friends, if you wish, go to the Blessed One and ask him 
about the meaning of this. As the Blessed One explains it to you, 
so you should remember it." 

20. Then the bhikkhus, having delighted and rejoiced in the 
venerable Maha Kaccana's words, rose from their seats and 
went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, they sat 
down at one side and told the Blessed One all that had taken 
place after he had left, adding: "Then, venerable sir, we went to 
the venerable Maha Kaccana and asked him about the meaning. 
[114] The venerable Maha Kaccana expounded the meaning to 
us with these terms, statements, and phrases." 

21. "Maha Kaccana is wise, bhikkhus, Maha Kaccana has great 
wisdom. If you had asked me the meaning of this, I would have 
explained it to you in the same way that Maha Kaccana has 
explained it. Such is the meaning of this, and so you should 
remember it." 

22. When this was said, the venerable Ananda said to the 
Blessed One: "Venerable sir, just as if a man exhausted by 
hunger and weakness came upon a honeyball, 234 in the course of 




206 Madhupindika Sutta: Sutta 18 


i 114 


| eating it he would find a sweet delectable flavour; so too, vener- 

I able sir, any able-minded bhikkhu, in the course of scrutinising 

I with wisdom the meaning of this discourse on the Dhamma, 

J would find satisfaction and confidence of mind. Venerable sir, 

f what is the name of this discourse on the Dhamma?" 

i "As to that, Ananda, you may remember this discourse on the 

! Dhamma as "The Honeyball Discourse.'" 

I That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Ananda was 

satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


19 Dvedhavitakka Sutta 
Two Kinds of Thought 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, before my enlightenment, while I was still only 
an unenlightened Bodhisatta, it occurred to me: 'Suppose that I 
divide my thoughts into two classes.' 235 Then I set on one side 
thoughts of sensual desire, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of 
cruelty, and I set on the other side thoughts of renunciation, 
thoughts of non-ill will, and thoughts of non-cruelty. 236 

3. "As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, [115] a 
thought of sensual desire arose in me. I understood thus: 'This 
thought of sensual desire has arisen in me. This leads to my own 
affliction, to others' affliction, and to the affliction of both; it 
obstructs wisdom, causes difficulties, and leads away from 
Nibbana.' When I considered: 'This leads to my own affliction,' 
it subsided in me; when I considered: 'This leads to others' 
affliction,' it subsided in me; when I considered: 'This leads to 
the affliction of both,' it subsided in me; when I considered: 
'This obstructs wisdom, causes difficulties, and leads away from 
Nibbana,' it subsided in me. Whenever a thought of sensual 
desire arose in me, I abandoned it, removed it, did away with it. 

4-5. "As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, a 
thought of ill will arose in me. . .a thought of cruelty arose in me. 
I understood thus: 'This thought of cruelty has arisen in me. 
This leads to my own affliction, to others' affliction, and to the 
affliction of both; it obstructs wisdom, causes difficulties, and 
leads away from Nibbana.' When I considered thus. . .it subsided 
in me. Whenever a thought of cruelty arose in me, I abandoned 
it, removed it, did away with it. 


207 


208 Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Sutta 19 


i 116 


6. "Bhikkhus, whatever a bhikkhu frequently thinks and pon- 
ders upon, that will become the inclination of his mind. If he fre- 
quently thinks and ponders upon thoughts of sensual desire, he 
has abandoned the thought of renunciation to cultivate the 
thought of sensual desire, and then his mind inclines to 
thoughts of sensual desire. If he frequently thinks and ponders 
upon thoughts of ill will... upon thoughts of cruelty, he has 
abandoned the thought of non-cruelty to cultivate the thought 
of cruelty, and then his mind inclines to thoughts of cruelty. 

7. "Just as in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, 
when the crops thicken, a cowherd would guard his cows by 
constantly tapping and poking them on this side and that with a 
stick to check and curb them. Why is that? Because he sees that 
he could be flogged, imprisoned, fined, or blamed [if he let them 
stray into the crops]. So too I saw in unwholesome states dan- 
ger, degradation, and defilement, and in wholesome states the 
blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing. [116] 

8. "As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, a thought 
of renunciation arose in me. I understood thus: 'This thought of 
renunciation has arisen in me. This does not lead to my own 
affliction, or to others' affliction, or to the affliction of both; it 
aids wisdom, does not cause difficulties, and leads to Nibbana. 
If I think and ponder upon this thought even for a night, even 
for a day, even for a night and day, I see nothing to fear from it. 
But with excessive thinking and pondering I might tire my 
body, and when the body is tired, the mind becomes disturbed, 
and when the mind is disturbed, it is far from concentration.' So 
I steadied my mind internally, quieted it, brought it to single- 
ness, and concentrated it. Why is that? So that my mind should 
not be disturbed. 237 

9-10. "As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, a 
thought of non-ill will arose in me... a thought of non-cruelty 
arose in me. I understood thus: 'This thought of non-cruelty has 
arisen in me. This does not lead to my own affliction, or to oth- 
ers' affliction, or to the affliction of both; it aids wisdom, does 
not cause difficulties, and leads to Nibbana. If I think and pon- 
der upon this thought even for a night, even for a day, even for 
a night and day, I see nothing to fear from it. But with excessive 
thinking and pondering I might tire my body, and when the 
body is tired, the mind becomes disturbed, and when the mind 


Two Kinds of Thought 209 


ill 7 

is disturbed, it is far from concentration.' So I steadied my mind 
internally, quieted it, brought it to singleness, and concentrated 
it. Why is that? So that my mind should not be disturbed. 

11. "Bhikkhus, whatever a bhikkhu frequently thinks and pon- 
ders upon, that will become the inclination of his mind. If he fre- 
quently thinks and ponders upon thoughts of renunciation, he 
has abandoned the thought of sensual desire to cultivate the 
thought of renunciation, and then his mind inclines to thoughts 
of renunciation. If he frequently thinks and ponders upon 
thoughts of non-ill will... upon thoughts of non-cruelty, he has 
abandoned the thought of cruelty to cultivate the thought of non- 
cruelty, and then his mind inclines to thoughts of non-cruelty. 

12. "Just as in the last month of the hot season, when all the 
crops have been brought inside the villages, [117] a cowherd 
would guard his cows while staying at the root of a tree or out 
in the open, since he needs only to be mindful that the cows are 
there; so too, there was need for me only to be mindful that 
those states were there. 

13. "Tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting 
mindfulness was established, my body was tranquil and untrou- 
bled, my mind concentrated and unified. 

14-23. "Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from 
unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first 
jhana...(«s Sutta 4, §§23-32 ). ..I directly knew: 'Birth is 
destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has 
been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.' 

24. "This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the 
third watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true 
knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as 
happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. 

25. "Suppose, bhikkhus, that in a wooded range there was a 
great low-lying marsh near which a large herd of deer lived. 
Then a man appeared desiring their ruin, harm, and bondage, 
and he closed off the safe and good path that led to their happi- 
ness, and he opened up a false path, and he put out a decoy and 
set up a dummy so that the large herd of deer might later come 
upon calamity, disaster, and loss. But another man came desir- 
ing their good, welfare, and protection, and he reopened the 
safe and good path that led to their happiness, and he closed off 
the false path, and he removed the decoy and destroyed the 


210 Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Sutta 19 


i 118 


dummy, so that the large herd of deer might later come to 
growth, increase, and fulfilment. 

26. "Bhikkhus, I have given this simile in order to convey a 
meaning. [118] This is the meaning: 'The great low-lying marsh' 
is a term for sensual pleasures. 'The large herd of deer' is a term 
for beings. 'The man desiring their ruin, harm, and bondage' is a 
term for Mara the Evil One. 'The false path' is a term for the 
wrong eightfold path, that is: wrong view, wrong intention, 
wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, 
wrong mindfulness, and wrong concentration. 'The decoy' is a 
term for delight and lust. 'The dummy' is a term for ignorance. 
'The man desiring their good, welfare, and protection' is a term 
for the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened. 'The safe 
and good path that led to their happiness' is a term for the 
Noble Eightfold Path, that is: right view, right intention, right 
speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindful- 
ness, and right concentration. 

"So, bhikkhus, the safe and good path that leads to happiness 
has been reopened by me, the wrong path has been closed off, 
the decoy removed, the dummy destroyed. 

27. "What should be done for his disciples out of compassion 
by a teacher who seeks their welfare and has compassion for 
them, that I have done for you, bhikkhus. There are these roots 
of trees, these empty huts. Meditate, bhikkhus, do not delay or 
else you will regret it later. This is our instruction to you." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta 
The Removal of Distracting Thoughts 


1. Thus have I heard. 238 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There 
he addressed thebhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
[119] they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is pursuing the higher mind, 
from time to time he should give attention to five signs. 239 What 
are the five? 

3. (i) "Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is giving attention to 
some sign, and owing to that sign there arise in him evil 
unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and 
with delusion, then he should give attention to some other sign 
connected with what is wholesome. 240 When he gives attention to 
some other sign connected with what is wholesome, then any evil 
unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and 
with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the aban- 
doning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, 
brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a skilled carpen- 
ter or his apprentice might knock out, remove, and extract a 
coarse peg by means of a fine one, so too... when a bhikkhu 
gives attention to some other sign connected with what is 
wholesome... his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, 
brought to singleness, and concentrated. 

4. (ii) "If, while he is giving attention to some other sign con- 
nected with what is wholesome, there still arise in him evil 
unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and 
with delusion, then he should examine the danger in those 
thoughts thus: 'These thoughts are unwholesome, they are rep- 
rehensible, they result in suffering.' 241 When he examines the 
danger in those thoughts, then any evil unwholesome thoughts 


211 


212 Vitakkasanthana Sutta: Sutta 20 



connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are aban- 
doned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his 
mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, 
and concentrated. Just as a man or a woman, young, youthful, 
and fond of ornaments, would be horrified, humiliated, and dis- 
gusted if the carcass of a snake or a dog or a human being [120] 
were hung around his or her neck, so too... when a bhikkhu 
examines the danger in those thoughts. . .his mind becomes stead- 
ied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. 

5. (iii) "If, while he is examining the danger in those thoughts, 
there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected 
with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should try to 
forget those thoughts and should not give attention to them. 
When he tries to forget those thoughts and does not give atten- 
tion to them, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected 
with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him 
and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes 
steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concen- 
trated. Just as a man with good eyes who did not want to see 
forms that had come within range of sight would either shut his 
eyes or look away, so too... when a bhikkhu tries to forget those 
thoughts and does not give attention to them. ..his mind 
becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and 
concentrated. 

6. (iv) "If, while he is trying to forget those thoughts and is not 
giving attention to them, there still arise in him evil unwholesome 
thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, 
then he should give attention to stilling the thought-formation of 
those thoughts. 242 When he gives attention to stilling the thought- 
formation of those thoughts, then any evil unwholesome 
thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are 
abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them 
his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to sin- 
gleness, and concentrated. Just as a man walking fast might con- 
sider: 'Why am I walking fast? What if I walk slowly?' and he 
would walk slowly; then he might consider: 'Why am I walking 
slowly? What if I stand?' and he would stand; then he might 
consider: 'Why am I standing? What if I sit?' and he would sit; 
then he might consider: 'Why am I sitting? What if I lie down?' 
and he would lie down. By doing so he would substitute for 


The Removal of Distracting Thoughts 213 


i 122 

each grosser posture one that was subtler. So too... when a 
bhikkhu gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of 
those thoughts... his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, 
brought to singleness, and concentrated. 

7. (v) "If, while he is giving attention to stilling the thought- 
formation of those thoughts, there still arise in him evil 
unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and 
with delusion, then, with his teeth clenched and his tongue 
pressed against the roof of his mouth, he should beat down, 
constrain, and crush mind with mind. 243 [ 121 ] When, with his 
teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his 
mouth, he beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind, 
then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, 
with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. 
With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied inter- 
nally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a 
strong man might seize a weaker man by the head or shoulders 
and beat him down, constrain him, and crush him, so 
too. ..when, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed 
against the roof of his mouth, a bhikkhu beats down, constrains, 
and crushes mind with mind. . .his mind becomes steadied inter- 
nally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. 

8. "Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is giving attention to some 
sign, and owing to that sign there arise in him evil unwhole- 
some thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delu- 
sion, then when he gives attention to some other sign connected 
with what is wholesome, any such evil unwholesome thoughts 
are abandoned in him and subside, and with the abandoning of 
them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to 
singleness, and concentrated. When he examines the danger in 
those thoughts... When he tries to forget those thoughts and 
does not give attention to them... When he gives attention to 
stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts... When, with 
his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his 
mouth, he beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind, 
any such evil unwholesome thoughts are abandoned in 
him... and his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, [122] 
brought to singleness, and concentrated. This bhikkhu is then 
called a master of the courses of thought. He will think what- 
ever thought he wishes to think and he will not think any 


214 Vitakkasanthana Suita: Suita 20 


i 122 


thought that he does not wish to think. He has severed craving, 
flung off the fetters, and with the complete penetration of con- 
ceit he has made an end of suffering." 244 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 




21 Kakacupama Sutta 
The Simile of the Saw 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Now on that occasion the venerable Moliya Phagguna was 
associating overmuch with bhikkhunls. 245 He was associating so 
much with bhikkhurus that if any bhikkhu spoke dispraise of 
those bhikkhunls in his presence, he would become angry and 
displeased and would rebuke him; and if any bhikkhu spoke 
dispraise of the venerable Moliya Phagguna in those bhikkhunls' 
presence, they would become angry and displeased and would 
rebuke him. So much was the venerable Moliya Phagguna asso- 
ciating with bhikkhunls. 

3. Then a certain bhikkhu went to the Blessed One, and after 
paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and told the 
Blessed One what was taking place. 

4. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: 
"Come, [123] bhikkhu, tell the bhikkhu Moliya Phagguna in my 
name that the Teacher calls him." - "Yes, venerable sir," he 
replied, and he went to the venerable Moliya Phagguna and 
told him: "The Teacher calls you, friend Phagguna." - "Yes, 
friend," he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and after 
paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed One 
asked him: 

5. "Phagguna, is it true that you are associating overmuch 
with bhikkhunls, that you are associating so much with 
bhikkhunls that if any bhikkhu speaks dispraise of those 
bhikkhunls in your presence, you become angry and displeased 
and rebuke him; and if any bhikkhu speaks dispraise of you in 
those bhikkhunls' presence, they become angry and displeased 
and rebuke him. Are you associating so much with bhikkhunls, 
as it seems?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Phagguna, are you not a 


217 


a 


218 Kakacupama Sutta: Sutta 21 i 124 

clansman who has gone forth out of faith from the home life into 
homelessness?" - "Yes, venerable sir." 

6. "Phagguna, it is not proper for you, a clansman gone forth 
out of faith from the home life into homelessness, to associate 
overmuch with bhikkhunls. Therefore, if anyone speaks dis- 
praise of those bhikkhurus in your presence, you should aban- 
don any desires and any thoughts based on the household life. 
And herein you should train thus: 'My mind will be unaffected, 
and I shall utter no evil words; I shall abide compassionate for 
his welfare, with a mind of loving-kindness, without inner hate.' 
That is how you should train, Phagguna. 

"If anyone gives those bhikkhums a blow with his hand, with 
a clod, with a stick, or with a knif gJin your presence, you should 
abandon any desires and any thoughts based on the household 
life. And herein you should train thus: ‘My mind will be un- 
affected...' If anyone speaks dispraise in your presence, you 
should abandon any desires and any thoughts based on the 
household life. And herein you should train thus: 'My mind will 
be unaffected...' If anyone should give you a blow with his 
hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife, [124] you should 
abandon any desires and any thoughts based on the household 
life. And herein you should train thus: 'My mind will be un- 
affected, and I shall utter no evil words; I shall abide compas- 
sionate for his welfare, with a mind of loving-kindness, without 
inner hate.' That is how you should train, Phagguna. 

7. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus, there was an occasion when the bhikkhus satisfied 
my mind. Here I addressed the bhikkhus thus: 'Bhikkhus, I eat 
at a single session. By so doing, I am free from illness and afflic- 
tion, and I enjoy health, strength, and a comfortable abiding. 
Come, bhikkhus, eat at a single session. By so doing, you will 
be free from illness and affliction, and you will enjoy health, 
strength, and a comfortable abiding.' And I had no need to 
keep on instructing those bhikkhus; I had only to arouse mind- 
fulness in them. 246 Suppose there were a chariot on even 
ground at the crossroads, harnessed to thoroughbreds, waiting 
with goad lying ready, so that a skilled trainer, a charioteer of 
horses to be tamed, might mount it, and taking the reins in his 
left hand and the goad in his right hand, might drive out and 
back by any road whenever he likes. So too, 1 had no need to 


The Simile of the Saw 219 



keep on instructing those bhikkhus; I had only to arouse mind- 
fulness in them. 

8. "Therefore, bhikkhus, abandon what is unwholesome and 
devote yourselves to wholesome states, for that is how you will 
come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and 
Discipline. Suppose there were a big sala-tree grove near a vil- 
lage or town, and it was choked with castor-oil weeds, and some 
man would appear desiring its good, welfare, and protection. 
He would cut down and throw out the crooked saplings that 
robbed the sap, and he would clean up the interior of the grove 
and tend the straight well-formed saplings, so that the sala-tree 
grove later on would come to growth, increase, and fulfilment. 
So too, bhikkhus, abandon what is unwholesome and devote 
yourselves to wholesome states, [125] for that is how you will 
come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and 
Discipline. 

9. "Formerly, bhikkhus, in this same SavatthI there was a 
housewife named Vedehika. And a good report about Mistress 
Vedehika had spread thus: 'Mistress Vedehika is kind. Mistress 
Vedehika i-s gentle. Mistress Vedehika is peaceful.' Now 
Mistress Vedehika had a maicHnamed Kali, who was clever, 
nimble, and neat in her work./fhe maid Kali thought: 'A good 
report about my lady has spread thus: "Mistress Vedehika is 
kind. Mistress Vedehika is gentle. Mistress Vedehika is peace- 
ful." How is it now, while she does not show anger, is it never- 
theless actually present in her or is it absent? Or else is it just 
because my work is neat that my lady shows no anger though it 
is actually present in her? Suppose I test my lady.' 

"So the maid Kali got up late. The Mistress Vedehika said: 
'Hey, Kali!' - 'What is it, madam?' - 'What is the matter that you 
get up so late?' - 'Nothing is the matter, madam.' - 'Nothing is 
the matter, you wicked girl, yet you get up so late!' and she was 
angry and displeased, and she scowled. Then the maid Kali 
thought: 'The fact is that while my lady does not show anger, it 
is actually present in her, not absent; and it is just because my 
work is neat that my lady shows no anger though it is actually 
present in her, not absent. Suppose I test my lady a little more.' 

"So the maid Kali got up later in the day. Then Mistress 
Vedehika said: 'Hey, Kali!' - 'What is it, madam?' - 'What is the 
matter that you get up later in the day?' - 'Nothing is the matter. 


220 Kakacupama Sutta: Sutta 21 


i 126 



madam.' - 'Nothing is the matter, you wicked girl, yet you get 
up later in the day!' and she was angry and displeased, and she 
spoke words of displeasure. Then the maid Kali thought: 'The 
fact is that while my lady does not show anger, it is actually pre- 
sent in her, not absent. Suppose I test my lady a little more.' 

"So the maid Kali got up still later in the day. Then Mistress 
Vedehika [126] said: 'Hey, Kali!' - 'What is it, madam?' - 'What 
is the matter that you get up still later in the day?' - 'Nothing is 
the matter, madam.' - 'Nothing is the matter, you wicked girl, 
yet you get up still later in the day!' and she was angry and dis- 
pleased, and she took p. rolling-pin, gave her a blow on the head, 
and cut her head. y' 

"Then the maid Kali, with blood running from her cut head, 
denounced her mistress to the neighbours: 'See, ladies, the kind 
lady's work! See, ladies, the gentle lady’s work! See, ladies, the 
peaceful lady's work! How can she become angry and dis- 
pleased with her only maid for getting up late? How can she 
take a rolling-pin, give her a blow on the head, and cut her 
head?' Then later on a bad report about Mistress Vedehika 
spread thus: 'Mistress Vedehika is rough, Mistress Vedehika is 
violent, Mistress Vedehika is merciless.' 

10. "So too, bhikkhus, some bhikkhu is extremely kind, 
extremely gentle, extremely peaceful, so long as disagreeable 
courses of speech do not touch him. But it is when disagreeable 
courses of speech touch him that it can be understood whether 
that bhikkhu is really kind, gentle, and peaceful. I do not call a 
bhikkhu easy to admonish who is easy to admonish and makes 
himself easy to admonish only for the sake of getting robes, 
almsfood, a resting place, and medicinal requisites. Why is that? 
Because that bhikkhu is not easy to admonish nor makes himself 
easy to admonish when he gets no robes, almsfood, resting 
place, and medicinal requisites. But when a bhikkhu is easy to 
admonish and makes himself easy to admonish because he hon- 
ours, respects, and reveres the Dhamma, him I call easy to 
admonish. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train thus: 'We shall 
be easy to admonish and make ourselves easy to admonish 
because we honour, respect, and revere the Dhamma.' That is 
how you should train, bhikkhus. 

11. "Bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech that oth- 
ers may use when they address you: their speech may be timely 



or untimely, true or untrue, gentle or harsh, connected with 
good or with harm, spoken with a mind of loving-kindness or 
» w ith inner hate. When others address you, their speech may be 
timely or untimely; when others address you, their speech may 
be true or untrue; when others address you, their speech may be 
gentle or harsh; when others address you, their speech may be 
connected with good [127] or with harm; when others address 
you, their speech may be spoken with a mind of loving-kindness 
or with inner hate. Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: 
'Our minds will remain unaffected, and we shall utter no evil 
words; we shall abide compassionate for their welfare, with a 
mind of loving-kindness, without inner hate. We shall abide 
pervading that person with a mind imbued with loving- 
kindness, and starting with him, 247 we shall abide pervading 
the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving- 
kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility 
and without ill will.' That is how you should train, bhikkhus. 

12. "Bhikkhus, suppose a man came with a hoe and a basket 
and said: 'I shall make this great earth to be without earth.' He 
would dig here and there, strew the soil here and there, spit here 
and there, and urinate here and there, saying: 'Be without earth, 
be without earth!' What do you think, bhikkhus? Could that 
man make this great earth to be without earth?" - "No, venerable 
sir. Why is that? Because this great earth is deep and immense; it 
cannot possibly be made to be without earth. Eventually the 
man would reap only weariness and disappointment." 

13. "So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech. . . 
(as in §11)... Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: 'Our 
minds will remain unaffected... and starting njith him, we shall 
abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind similar 
to the earth, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility 
and without ill will.' That is how you should train, bhikkhus. 

14. "Bhikkhus, suppose a man came with crimson, turmeric, 
indigo, or carmine and said: 'I shall draw pictures and make pic- 
tures appear on empty space.' What do you think, bhikkhus? 
Could that man draw pictures and make pictures appear on 
empty space?" - "No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because empty 
space is formless and invisible; he cannot possibly draw pictures 
there or make pictures appear there. 1128] Eventually the man 
Would reap only weariness and disappointment." 




222 Kakacupama Sutta: Sutta 21 


i 129 


15. "So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of 
speech... Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: 'Our minds 
will remain unaffected... and starting with him, we shall abide 
pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind similar to 
empty space, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostili- 
ty and without ill will.' That is how you should train, bhikkhus. 

16. "Bhikkhus, suppose a man came with a blazing grass-torch 
and said: 'I shall heat up and bum away the river Ganges with 
this blazing grass-torch.' What do you think, bhikkhus? Could 
that man heat up and bum away the river Ganges with that blaz- 
ing grass-torch?" - "No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because the 
river Ganges is deep and immense; it cannot possibly be heated 
up and burned away with a blazing grass-torch. Eventually the 
man would reap only weariness and disappointment." 

17. "So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of 
speech... Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: 'Our minds 
will remain unaffected... and starting with him, we shall abide 
pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind similar to the 
river Ganges, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility 
and without ill will.' That is how you should train, bhikkhus. 

18. "Bhikkhus, suppose there were a catskin bag that was 
rubbed, well-rubbed, thoroughly well-rubbed, soft, silky, rid of 
rustling, rid of crackling, and a man came with a stick or a 
potsherd and said: 'There is this catskin bag that is rubbed... rid 
of rustling, rid of crackling. I shall make it rustle and crackle.' 
What do you think, bhikkhus? Could that man make it rustle or 
crackle with the stick or the potsherd?" - "No, venerable sir. 
Why is that? Because that catskin bag being rubbed... rid of 
rustling, rid of crackling, cannot possibly be made to rustle or 
crackle with the stick or the potsherd. Eventually the man 
would reap only weariness and disappointment." 

19. "So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech 
that others may use when they address you: their speech may be 
timely [129] or untimely, true or untrue, gentle or harsh, con- 
nected with good or with harm, spoken with a mind of loving- 
kindness or with inner hate. When others address you, their 
speech may be timely or untimely; when others address you, 
their speech may be true or untrue; when others address you, 
their speech may be gentle or harsh; when others address you, 
their speech may be connected with good or with harm; when 


i 129 


The Simile of the Saw 223 


others address you, their speech may be spoken with a mind of 
loving-kindness or with inner hate. Herein, bhikkhus, you 
should train thus: 'Our minds will remain unaffected, and we 
shall utter no evil words; we shall abide compassionate for their 
welfare, with a mind of loving-kindness, without inner hate. We 
shall abide pervading that person with a mind imbued with 
loving-kindness; and starting with him, we shall abide pervad- 
ing the all-encompassing world with a mind similar to a catskin 
bag, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and 
without ill will.' That is how you should train, bhikkhus. 

20. "Bhikkhus, even if bandits were to sever you savagely 
limb by limb with a two-handled saw, he who gave rise to a 
mind of hate towards them would not be carrying out my teach- 
ing. Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: 'Our minds will 
remain unaffected, and we shall utter no evil words; we shall 
abide compassionate for their welfare, with a mind of loving- 
kindness, without inner hate. We shall abide pervading them 
with a mind imbued with loving-kindness; and starting with 
them, we shall abide pervading the all-encompassing world 
with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, 
immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.' That is 
how you should train, bhikkhus. 

21. "Bhikkhus, if you keep this advice on the simile of the saw 
constantly in mind, do you see any course of speech, trivial or 
gross, that you could not endure?" - "No, venerable sir." - 
"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should keep this advice on the simile 
of the saw constantly in mind. That will lead to your welfare 
and happiness for a long time." 


That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 






22 Alagaddupama Suit a 
The Simile of the Snake 


(setting) 

[130] 1. Thus have I heard . 248 On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Now on that occasion a pernicious view had arisen in a 
bhikkhu named Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, thus: 
"As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those 
things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to 
obstruct one who engages in them." 249 

3. Several bhikkhus, having heard about this, went to the 
bhikkhu Arittha and asked him: "Friend Arittha, is it true that 
such a pernicious view has arisen in you?" 

"Exactly so, friends. As I understand the Dhamma taught by 
the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed 
One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them." 

Then these bhikkhus, desiring to detach him from that perni- 
cious view, pressed and questioned and cross-questioned him 
thus: "Friend Arittha, do not say so. Do not misrepresent the 
Blessed One; it is not good to misrepresent the Blessed One. The 
Blessed One would not speak thus. For in many discourses the 
Blessed One has stated how obstructive things are obstructions, 
and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them. The 
Blessed One has stated how sensual pleasures provide little 
gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great 
is the danger in them. With the simile of the skeleton... with the 
simile of the piece of meat. ..with the simile of the grass 
torch... with the simile of the pit of coals... with the simile of the 
dream... with the simile of the borrowed goods... with the simile 
of the tree laden with fruit... with the simile of the slaughter- 
house... with the simile of the sword stake... with the simile of 


224 


The Simile of the Snake 225 


i 132 

the snake's head, the Blessed One has stated how sensual plea- 
sures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much 
despair, and how great is the danger in them." 250 

Yet although pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by 
them in this way, the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture 
killers, still obstinately adhered to that pernicious view and con- 
tinued to insist upon it. 

4. Since the bhikkhus were unable to detach him [131] from that 
pernicious view, they went to the Blessed One, and after paying 
homage to him, they sat down at one side and told him all that 
had occurred, adding: "Venerable sir, since we could not detach 
the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, from this per- 
nicious view, we have reported this matter to the Blessed One." 

5. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: 
"Come, bhikkhu, tell the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vul- 
ture killers, in my name that the Teacher calls him." - [132] "Yes, 
venerable sir," he replied, and he went to the bhikkhu Arittha 
and told him: "The Teacher calls you, friend Arittha." 

"Yes, friend," he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and 
after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed 
One then asked him: "Arittha, is it true that the following perni- 
cious view has arisen in you: 'As I understand the Dhamma 
taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the 
Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them'?" 

"Exactly so, venerable sir. As I understand the Dhamma taught 
by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the 
Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them." 

6. "Misguided man, to whom have you ever known me to 
teach the Dhamma in that way? Misguided man, in many dis- 
courses have I not stated how obstructive things are obstruc- 
tions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in 
them? I have stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratifi- 
cation, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the 
danger in them. With the simile of the skeleton...with the simile 
of the piece of meat. . .with the simile of the grass torch. . .with the 
simile of the pit of coals. . .with the simile of the dream. . .with the 
simile of the borrowed goods... with the simile of the tree laden 
with fruit. . .with the simile of the slaughterhouse. . .with the sim- 
ile of the sword stake... with the simile of the snake's head, I 
have stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, 


226 Alagaddupama Sutta: Sutta 22 


i 133 


much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in 
them. But you, misguided man, have misrepresented us by your 
wrong grasp and injured yourself and stored up much demerit; 
for this will lead to your harm and suffering for a long time." 251 

7. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus, what do you think? Has this bhikkhu Arittha, for- 
merly of the vulture killers, kindled even a spark of wisdom in 
this Dhamma and Discipline?" 

"How could he, venerable sir? No, venerable sir." 

When this was said, the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vul- 
ture killers, sat silent, dismayed, with shoulders drooping and 
head down, glum, and without response. Then, knowing this, 
the Blessed One told him: "Misguided man, you will be recog- 
nised by your own pernicious view. I shall question the 
bhikkhus on this matter." 

8. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus, [133] do you understand the Dhamma taught by me 
as this bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, does 
when he misrepresents us by his wrong grasp and injures him- 
self and stores up much demerit?" 

"No, venerable sir. For in many discourses the Blessed One 
has stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how 
they are able to obstruct one who engages in them. The Blessed 
One has stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratifica- 
tion, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the 
danger in them. With the simile of the skeleton... with the simile 
of the snake's head, the blessed One has stated... how great is 
the danger in them." 

"Good, bhikkhus. It is good that you understand the 
Dhamma taught by me thus. For in many discourses I have 
stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they 
are able to obstruct one who engages in them. I have stated 
how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffer- 
ing, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them. 
With the simile of the skeleton... with the simile of the snake's 
head, I have stated... how great is the danger in them. But this 
bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, misrepresents 
us by his wrong grasp and injures himself and stores up much 
demerit; for this will lead to this misguided man's harm and 
suffering for a long time. 


9 


The Simile of the Snake 227 


i 134 

9. "Bhikkhus, that one can engage in sensual pleasures with- 
out sensual desires, without perceptions of sensual desire, with- 
out thoughts of sensual desire - that is impossible. 252 

(the simile of the snake) 

10. "Here, bhikkhus, some misguided men learn the Dhamma - 
discourses, stanzas, expositions, verses, exclamations, sayings, 
birth stories, marvels, and answers to questions - but having 
learned the Dhamma, they do not examine the meaning of those 
teachings with wisdom. Not examining the meaning of those 
teachings with wisdom, they do not gain a reflective acceptance 
of them. Instead they learn the Dhamma only for the sake of 
criticising others and for winning in debates, and they do not 
experience the good for the sake of which they learned the 
Dhamma. Those teachings, being wrongly grasped by them, 
conduce to their harm and suffering for a long time. 253 

"Suppose a man needing a snake, seeking a snake, wandering 
in search of a snake, saw a large snake and grasped its coils or 
its tail. It would turn back on him and bite his hand or his arm 
or one of his limbs, [134] and because of that he would come to 
death or deadly suffering. Why is that? Because of his wrong 
grasp of the snake. So too, here some misguided men learn the 
Dhamma... Those teachings, being wrongly grasped by them, 
conduce to their harm and suffering for a long time. 

11. "Here, bhikkhus, some clansmen learn the Dhamma - 
discourses... answers to questions - and having learned the 
Dhamma, they examine the meaning of those teachings with 
wisdom. Examining the meaning of those teachings with wis- 
dom, they gain a reflective acceptance of them. They do not 
learn the Dhamma for the sake of criticising others and for win- 
ning in debates, and they experience the good for the sake of 
which they learned the Dhamma. Those teachings, being rightly 
grasped by them, conduce to their welfare and happiness for a 
long time. 

"Suppose a man needing a snake, seeking a snake, wandering 
in search of a snake, saw a large snake and caught it rightly with 
a cleft stick, and having done so, grasped it rightly by the neck. 
Then although the snake might wrap its coils round his hand or 
his arm or his limbs, still he would not come to death or deadly 


228 Alagaddupama Sutta: Sutta 22 


i 135 


suffering because of that. Why is that? Because of his right grasp 
of the snake. So too, here some clansmen learn the Dhamma... 
Those teachings, being rightly grasped by them, conduce to 
their welfare and happiness for a long time. 

12. "Therefore, bhikkhus, when you understand the meaning 
of my statements, remember it accordingly; and when you do 
not understand the meaning of my statements, then ask either 
me about it or those bhikkhus who are wise. 

(the simile of the raft) 

' 13. "Bhikkhus, I shall show you how the Dhamma is similar to 
a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not for the pur- 
pose of grasping. 254 Listen and attend closely to what I shall 
say." - "Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed 
One said this: 

"Bhikkhus, suppose a man in the course of a journey saw a 
great expanse of water, whose near shore was dangerous and 
fearful and whose further shore was safe and free from fear, but 
there was no ferryboat or bridge going to the far shore. [135] 
Then he thought: 'There is this great expanse of water, whose 
near shore is dangerous and fearful and whose further shore is 
safe and free from fear, but there is no ferryboat or bridge going 
to the far shore. Suppose I collect grass, twigs, branches, and 
leaves and bind them together into a raft, and supported by the 
raft and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely 
across to the far shore.' And then the man collected grass, twigs, 
branches, and leaves and bound them together into a raft, and 
supported by the raft and making an effort with his hands and 
feet, he got safely across to the far shore. Then, when he had got 
across and had arrived at the far shore, he might think thus: 
'This raft has been very helpful to me, since supported by it and 
making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to 
the far shoreiSuppose I were to hoist it on my head or load it on 
my shoulder, and then go wherever I want.' Now, bhikkhus, 
what do you think? By doing so, would that man be doing what 
should be done with that raft?" 

"No, venerable sir." 

"By doing what would that man be doing what should be 
done with that raft? Here, bhikkhus, when that man got across 




The Simile of the Snake 229 


and had arrived at the far shore, he might think thus: 'This raft 
has been very helpful to me, since supported by it and making 
an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far 
shore. Suppose I were to haul it onto the dry land or set it adrift 
in the water, and then go wherever I want.' Now, bhikkhus, it is 
hy so doing that that man would be doing what should be done 
with that raft. So I have shown you how the Dhamma is similar 
to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not for the pur- 
pose of grasping. 

14. "Bhikkhus, when you know the Dhamma to be similar to a 
raft, you should abandon even good states, how much more so 
bad states. 255 / 

(standpoints for views) 

15. "Bhikkhus, there are these six standpoints for views. 256 What 
are the six? Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who 
has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined 
in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is 
unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, regards material 
form thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self.' 257 He regards 
feeling thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self.' He regards 
perception thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self.' He 
regards formations thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self.' 
He regards what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, encountered, 
sought, mentally pondered thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is 
my self.' 258 And this standpoint for views, namely, "This is self, 
this the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, 
eternal, not subject to change; [136] I shall endure as long as 
eternity' - this too he regards thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this 
is my self.' 259 

16. "Bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple who has regard for 
noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who 
has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their 
Dhamma, regards material form thus: 'This is not mine, this I 
am not, this is not my self.' He regards feeling thus: 'This is not 
mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' He regards perception 
thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' He 
regards formations thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is 
not my self.' He regards what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized. 


230 Alagaddupama Sutta: Sutta 22 


i 137 


encountered, sought, mentally pondered thus: 'This is not mine, 
this I am not, this is not my self.' And this standpoint for views, 
namely, 'This is self, this the world; after death I shall be perma- 
nent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as 
long as eternity' - this too he regards thus: 'This is not mine, this 
I am not, this is not my self.' 

17. "Since he regards them thus, he is not agitated about what 
is non-existent." 260 

(agitation) 

18. When this was said, a certain bhikkhu asked the Blessed 
One: "Venerable sir, can there be agitation about what is non- 
existent externally?" 

"There can be, bhikkhu," the Blessed One said. "Here, 
bhikkhu, someone thinks thus: 'Alas, I had it! Alas, I have it no 
longer! Alas, may I have it! Alas, I do not get it!' Then he sor- 
rows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and 
becomes distraught. That is how there is agitation about what is 
non-existent externally." 

19. "Venerable sir, can there be no agitation about what is 
non-existent externally?" 

"There can be, bhikkhu," the Blessed One said. "Here, 
bhikkhu, someone does not think thus: 'Alas I had it! Alas, I 
have it no longer! Alas, may I have it! Alas, I do not get it!' Then 
he does not sorrow, grieye, and lament, he does not weep beat- 
ing his breast and become distraught. That is how there is no 
agitation about what is non-existent externally." 

20. "Venerable sir, can there be agitation about what is non- 
existent internally?" 

"There can be, bhikkhu," the Blessed One said. "Here, 
bhikkhu, someone has the view: 'This is self, this the world; 
after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject 
to change; I shall endure as long as eternity.' He hears the 
Tathagata or a disciple of the Tathagata teaching the Dhamma 
for the elimination of all standpoints, decisions, obsessions, 
adherences, and underlying tendencies, for the stilling of all for- 
mations, for the relinquishing of all attachments, for the destruc- 
tion of craving, for dispassion, for cessation, for Nibbana. He 
[137] thinks thus: 'So I shall be annihilated! So I shall perish! So I 


The Simile of the Snake 231 


shall be no more!' Then he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he 
weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught. That is how 
there is agitation about what is non-existent internally." 

21. "Venerable sir, can there be no agitation about what is 
non-existent internally?" 

"There can be, bhikkhu," the Blessed One said. "Here, 
bhikkhu, someone does not have the view: 'This is self... I shall 
endure as long as eternity.' He hears the Tathagata or a disciple 
of the Tathagata teaching the Dhamma for the elimination of all 
standpoints, decisions, obsessions, adherences, and underlying 
tendencies, for the stilling of all formations, for the relinquishing 
of all attachments, for the destruction of craving, for dispassion, 
for cessation, for Nibbana. He does not think thus: 'So I shall be 
annihilated! So. I shall perish! So I shall be no more!' Then he 
does not sorrow, grieve, and lament, he does not weep beating 
his breast and become distraught. That is how there is no agita- 
tion about what is non-existent internally. 

(impermanence and not self) 

22. "Bhikkhus, you may well acquire that possession that is per- 
manent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and that 
might endure as long as eternity. 261 But do you see any such 
possession, bhikkhus?" - "No, venerable sir." - "Good, 
bhikkhus. I too do not see any possession that is permanent, 
everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and that might 
endure as long as eternity. 

23. "Bhikkhus, you may well cling to that doctrine of self that 
would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair 
in one who clings to it. 262 But do you see any such doctrine of 
self, bhikkhus?" - "No, venerable sir." - "Good, bhikkhus. I too 
do not see any doctrine of self that would not arouse sorrow, 
lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who clings to it. 

24. "Bhikkhus, you may well take as a support that view that 
would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair 
in one who takes it as a support. 263 But do you see any such sup- 
port of views, bhikkhus?" - "No, venerable sir." - "Good, 
bhikkhus. I too do not see any support of views [138] that would 
not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one 
who takes it as a support. 




232 Alagaddttpama Sutta: Sutta 22 


i 139 


25. "Bhikkhus, there being a self, would there be what belongs 
to my self?" 264 - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Or, there being what 
belongs to a self, would there be my self?" - "Yes, venerable 
sir." - "Bhikkhus, since a self and what belongs to a self are not 
apprehended as true and established, then this standpoint for 
views, namely. This is self, this the world; after death I shall be 
permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall 
endure as long as eternity' - would it not be an utterly and com- 
pletely foolish teaching?" 

"What else could it be, venerable sir? It would be an utterly 
and completely foolish teaching." 

26. "Bhikkhus, what do you think? Is material form perma- 
nent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is 
what is impermanent suffering or happiness?" - "Suffering, 
venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject 
to change, fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is 
my self'?" - "No, venerable sir." 

"Bhikkhus, what do you think? Is feeling. ..Is perception... 
Are formations... Is consciousness permanent or imperma- 
nent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is imperma- 
nent suffering or happiness?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is 
what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, fit to be 
regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, 
venerable sir." 

27. "Therefore, bhikkhus, any kind of material form whatever, 
whether past, future, or present, internal or external, [139] gross 
or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all material form 
should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This is 
not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Any kind of feeling 
whatever... Any kind of perception whatever... Any kind of for- 
mations whatever. ..Any kind of consciousness whatever, 
whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or 
subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all consciousness should 
be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This is not 
mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' 

28. "Seeing thus, bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple 
becomes disenchanted with material form, disenchanted with 
feeling, disenchanted with perception, disenchanted with for- 
mations, disenchanted with consciousness. 


The Simile of the Snake 233 


i 140 

29. "Being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through 
dispassion [his mind] is liberated. 265 When it is liberated there 
comes the knowledge: 'It is liberated/ He understands: 'Birth is 
destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has 
been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.' 

(THE ARAHANT) 

30. "Bhikkhus, this bhikkhu is called one whose shaft has been 
lifted, whose trench has been filled in, whose pillar has been 
uprooted, one who has no bar, a noble one whose banner is low- 
ered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered. 

31. "And how is the bhikkhu one whose shaft has been lifted? 
Here the bhikkhu has abandoned ignorance, has cut it off at the 
root, made it like a palm stump, done away with it, so that it is 
no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is 
one whose shaft has been lifted. 

32. "And how is the bhikkhu one whose trench has been filled 
in? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned the round of births that 
brings renewed being, has cut it off at the root... so that it is no 
longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one 
whose trench has been filled in. 

33. "And how is the bhikkhu one whose pillar has been 
uprooted? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned craving, has cut it 
off at the root... so that it is no longer subject to future arising. 
That is how the bhikkhu is one whose pillar has been uprooted. 

34. "And how is the bhikkhu one who has no bar? Here the 
bhikkhu has abandoned the five lower fetters, has cut them off 
at the root... so that they are no longer subject to future arising. 
That is how the bhikkhu is one who has no bar. 

35. "And how is the bhikkhu a noble one whose banner is 
lowered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered? Here a 
bhikkhu has abandoned the conceit T am,' has cut it off at the 
root [140]... so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That 
is how the bhikkhu is a noble one whose banner is lowered, 
whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered. 

36. "Bhikkhus, when the gods with Indra, with Brahma and 
with Pajapati seek a bhikkhu who is thus liberated in mind, they 
do not find [anything of which they could say]: "The consciousness 


234 Alagaddupama Sutta: Sutta 22 


i 140 


of one thus gone is supported by this.' Why is that? One thus 
gone, I say, is untr ace able here and now. 266 

(misrepresentation of the tathAgata) 

37. "So saying, bhikkhus, so proclaiming, I have been baselessly, 
vainly, falsely, and wrongly misrepresented by some recluses 
and brahmins thus: 'The recluse Gotama is one who leads 
astray; he teaches the annihilation, the destruction, the extermi- 
nation of an existing being.' 267 As I am not, as I do not proclaim, 
so have I been baselessly, vainly, falsely, and wrongly misrepre- 
sented by some recluses and brahmins thus: 'The recluse 
Gotama is one who leads astray; he teaches the annihilation, the 
destruction, the extermination of an existing being.' 

38. "Bhikkhus, both formerly and now what I teach is suffer- 
ing and the cessation of suffering. 268 If others abuse, revile, 
scold, and harass the Tathagata for that, the Tathagata on that 
account feels no annoyance, bitterness, or dejection of the heart. 
And if others honour, respect, revere, and venerate the 
Tathagata for that, the Tathagata on that account feels no 
delight, joy, or elation of the heart. If others honour, respect, 
revere, and venerate the Tathagata for that, the Tathagata on 
that account thinks thus: 'They perform such services as these 
for the sake of what had earlier come to be fully understood.' 269 

39. "Therefore, bhikkhus, if others abuse, revile, scold, and 
harass you, on that account you should not entertain any annoy- 
ance, bitterness, or dejection of the heart. And if others honour, 
respect, revere, and venerate you, on that account you should 
not entertain any delight, joy, or elation of the heart. If others 
honour, respect, revere, and venerate you, on that account you 
should think thus: 'They perform such services as these for the 
sake of what had earlier come to be fully understood.' 

(not yours) 

40. "Therefore, bhikkhus, whatever is not yours, abandon it; 
when you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and 
happiness for a long time. What is it that is not yours? Material 
form is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, 
that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. 



The Simile of the Snake 235 


r 

r i 141 

peeling is not yours. [141] Abandon it. When you have aban- 
doned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long 
time. Perception is not yours. Abandon it. When you have 
abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a 
long time. Formations are not yours. Abandon them. When you 
have abandoned them, that will lead to your welfare and happi- 
ness for a long time. Consciousness is not yours. Abandon it. 
When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and 
happiness for a long time. 270 

41. "Bhikkhus, what do you think? If people carried off the 
grass, sticks, branches, and leaves in this Jeta Grove, or burned 
them, or did what they liked with them, would you think: 
'People are carrying us off or burning us or doing what they like 
with us'?" - "No, venerable sir. Why not? Because that is neither 
our self nor what belongs to our self." - "So too, bhikkhus, 
whatever is not yours, abandon it; when you have abandoned it, 
that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. 
What is it that is not yours? Material form is not yours. . .Feeling 
is not yours... Perception is not yours... Formations are not 
yours. . .Consciousness is not yours. Abandon it. When you have 
abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a 
long time. 

(in this dhamma) 

42. "Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is 
clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork. 271 In the Dhamma 
well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear, open, evident, and 
free of patchwork, there is no [future] round for manifestation in 
the case of those bhikkhus who are arahants with taints 
destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to be 
done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed 
the fetters of being, and are completely liberated through final 
knowledge. 272 

43. "Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is 
clear... free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by 
nre thus, which is clear. . .free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who 
have abandoned the five lower fetters are all due to reappear 
spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final 
Nibbana, without ever returning from that world. 


236 Alagaddupama Sutta: Sutta 22 


i 142 


44. "Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is 
clear... free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by 
me thus, which is clear. . .free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who 
have abandoned the three lower fetters and attenuated lust, 
hate, and delusion are all once-returners, returning once to this 
world to make an end of suffering. 

45. "Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is 
clear... free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by 
me thus, which is clear. . .free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who 
have abandoned three fetters are all stream-enterers, no longer 
subject to perdition, [142] bound [for deliverance] and headed 
for enlightenment. 

46. "Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is 
clear... free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by 
me thus, which is clear... free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who 
are Dhamma-followers or faith-followers are all headed for 
enlightenment. 273 

47. "Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is 
clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well 
proclaimed by me thus, which is clear, open, evident, and free of 
patchwork, those bhikkhus who have sufficient faith in me, suf- 
ficient love for me, are all headed for heaven." 274 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


23 Vammika Sutta 
The Ant-hill 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on 
that occasion the venerable Kumara Kassapa was living in the 
Blind Men's Grove. 275 

Then, when the night was well advanced, a certain deity of 
beautiful appearance who illuminated the whole of the Blind 
Men's Grove approached the venerable Kumara Kassapa and 
stood at one side. 276 So standing, the deity said to him: 

2. "Bhikkhu, bhikkhu, this ant-hill fumes by night and flames 
by day. 277 

"Thus spoke the brahmin: 'Delve with the knife, thou wise 
one.' Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a bar: 'A bar, O 
venerable sir.' 

"Thus spoke the brahmin: 'Throw out the bar; delve with the 
knife, thou wise one.' Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a 
toad: 'A toad, O venerable sir.' 

"Thus spoke the brahmin: 'Throw out the toad; delve with the 
knife, thou wise one.' Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a 
fork: 'A fork, O venerable sir.' 

"Those spoke the brahmin: 'Throw out the fork; delve with 
the knife, thou wise one.' Delving with the knife, the wise one 
saw a sieve: 'A sieve, O venerable sir.' 

"Thus spoke the brahmin: [143] 'Throw out the sieve; delve 
with the knife, thou wise one.' Delving with the knife, the wise 
one saw a tortoise: 'A tortoise, O venerable sir.' 

"Thus spoke the brahmin: 'Throw out the tortoise; delve with 
the knife, thou wise one.' Delving with the knife, the wise one 
saw an axe and block: 'An axe and block, O venerable sir.' 


237 


238 Vammika Sutta: Sutta 23 


i 144 


"Thus spoke the brahmin: 'Throw out the axe and block; delve 
with the knife, thou wise one.' Delving with the knife, the wise 
one saw a piece of meat: 'A piece of meat, O venerable sir.' 

"Thus spoke the brahmin: 'Throw out the piece of meat; delve 
with the knife, thou wise one.' Delving with the knife, the wise 
one saw a Naga serpent: 'A Naga serpent, O venerable sir.' 

"Thus spoke the brahmin: 'Leave the Naga serpent; do not 
harm the Naga serpent; honour the Naga serpent.' 

"Bhikkhu, you should go to the Blessed One and ask him 
about this riddle. As the Blessed One tells you, so should you 
remember it. Bhikkhu, other than the Tathagata or a disciple of 
the Tathagata or one who has learned it from them, I see no one 
in this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, in this 
generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its 
people, whose explanation of this riddle might satisfy the mind." 

That is what was said by the deity, who thereupon vanished 
at once. 

3. Then, when the night was over, the venerable Kumara 
Kassapa went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, 
he sat down at one side and told the Blessed One what had 
occurred. Then he asked: "Venerable sir, what is the ant-hill, 
what the fuming by night, what the flaming by day? Who is the 
brahmin, who the wise one? What is the knife, what the delving, 
what the bar, what the toad, what the fork, what the sieve, what 
the tortoise, what the axe and block, what the piece of meat, 
what the Naga serpent?" [144] 

4. "Bhikkhu, the ant-hifl is a symbol for this body, made of 
material form, consisting of the four great elements, procreated 
by a mother and father, built up out of boiled rice and por- 
ridge, 278 and subject to impermanence, to being worn and 
rubbed away, to dissolution and disintegration. 

"What one thinks and ponders by night based upon one's 
actions during the day is the 'fuming by night.' 

"The actions one undertakes during the day by body, speech, 
and mind after thinking and pondering by night is the 'flaming 
by day.' 

"The brahmin is a symbol for the Tathagata, accomplished 
and fully enlightened. The wise one is a symbol for a bhikkhu in 
higher training. The knife is a symbol for noble wisdom. The 
delving is a symbol for the arousing of energy. 


The Ant-hill 239 


i 145 

"The bar is a symbol for ignorance. 279 'Throw out the bar: 
abandon ignorance. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.' This is 
the meaning. 

"The toad is a symbol for the despair due to anger. 'Throw out 
the toad: abandon despair due to anger. Delve with the knife, 
thou wise one.' This is the meaning. 

"The fork is a symbol for doubt. 280 'Throw out the fork: abandon 
doubt. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.' This is the meaning. 

"The sieve is a symbol for the five hindrances, namely, the 
hindrance of sensual desire, the hindrance of ill will, the hin- 
drance of sloth and torpor, the hindrance of restlessness and 
remorse, and the hindrance of doubt. 'Throw out the sieve: 
abandon the five hindrances. Delve with the knife, thou wise 
one.' This is the meaning. 

"The tortoise is a symbol for the five aggregates affected by 
clinging, 281 namely, the material form aggregate affected by cling- 
ing, the feeling aggregate affected by clinging, the perception 
aggregate affected by clinging, the formations aggregate affected 
by clinging, and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. 
'Throw out the tortoise: abandon the five aggregates affected by 
clinging. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.' This is the meaning. 

"The axe and block is a symbol for the five cords of sensual 
pleasure 282 - forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, 
desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire, 
and provocative of lust; sounds cognizable by the ear... odours 
cognizable by the nose... flavours cognizable by the tongue... 
tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, 
agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire, [145] and 
provocative of lust. 'Throw out the axe and block: abandon the 
five cords of sensual pleasure. Delve with the knife, thou wise 
one.' This is the meaning. 

"The piece of meat is a symbol for delight and lust. 283 'Throw 
out the piece of meat: abandon delight and lust. Delve with the 
knife, thou wise one.' This is the meaning. 

"The Naga serpent is a symbol for a bhikkhu who has 
destroyed the taints. 284 'Leave the Naga serpent; do not harm the 
Naga serpent; honour the Naga serpent.' This is the meaning." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Kumara 
Kassapa was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



n 


24 Rathavinita Sutta 
The Relay Chariots 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels' Sanctuary. 

2. Then a number of bhikkhus from [the Blessed One's] native 
land, 285 who had spent the Rams there, went to the Blessed One, 
and after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The 
Blessed One asked them: "Bhikkhus, who in [my] native land is 
esteemed by the bhikkhus there, by his companions in the holy 
life, in this way: 'Having few wishes himself, he talks to the 
bhikkhus on fewness of wishes; content himself, he talks to the 
bhikkhus on contentment; secluded himself, he talks to the 
bhikkhus on seclusion; aloof from society himself, he talks to the 
bhikkhus on aloofness from society; energetic himself, he talks 
to the bhikkhus on arousing energy; attained to virtue himself, 
he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of virtue; attained to 
concentration himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attain- 
ment of concentration; attained to wisdom himself, he talks to 
the bhikkhus on the attainment of wisdom; attained to deliver- 
ance himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of 
deliverance; attained to the knowledge and vision of deliverance 
himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of the knowl- 
edge and vision of deliverance; 286 he is one who advises, 
informs, instructs, urges, [146] rouses, and encourages his com- 
panions in the holy life'?" 

"Venerable sir, the venerable Punna Mantaniputta is so 
esteemed in the [Blessed One's] native land by the bhikkhus 
there, by his companions in the holy life." 287 

3. Now on that occasion the venerable Sariputta was seated 
near the Blessed One. Then it occurred to the venerable Sari- 
putta: "It is a gain for the venerable Punna Mantaniputta, it is a 
great gain for him that his wise companions in the holy life 


240 


The Relay Chariots 241 


i 147 

praise him point by point in the Teacher's presence. Perhaps 
sometime or other we might meet the venerable Punna 
Mantaniputta and have some conversation with him." 

4. Then, when the Blessed One had stayed at Rajagaha as long 
as he chose, he set out to wander by stages to Savatthl. 
Wandering by stages, he eventually arrived at Savatthl, and 
there he lived in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

5. The venerable Punna Mantaniputta heard: "The Blessed 
One has arrived at Savatthl and is living in Jeta's Grove, Anatha- 
pindika's Park." Then the venerable Punna Mantaniputta set his 
resting place in order, and taking his outer robe and bowl, set 
out to wander by stages to Savatthl Wandering by stages, he 
eventually arrived at Savatthl and went to Jeta's Grove, Anatha- 
pindika's Park, to see the Blessed One. After paying homage to 
the Blessed One, he sat down at one side and the Blessed One 
instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged him with talk on the 
Dhamma. Then the venerable Punna Mantaniputta, instructed, 
urged, roused, and encouraged by the Blessed One's talk on the 
Dhamma, delighting and rejoicing in the Blessed One's words, 
rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Blessed One, 
keeping him on his right, he went to the Blind Men's Grove for 
the day's abiding. 

6. Then a certain bhikkhu went to the venerable Sariputta and 
said to him: "Friend Sariputta, the bhikkhu Punna Mantaniputta 
of whom you have always spoken highly [147] has just been 
instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged by the Blessed One 
with talk on the Dhamma; after delighting and rejoicing in the 
Blessed One's words, he rose from his seat, and after paying 
homage to the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, he has 
gone to the Blind Men's Grove for the day's abiding." 

7. Then the venerable Sariputta quickly picked up a mat and 
followed close behind the venerable Purina Mantaniputta, keep- 
ing his head in sight. Then the venerable Punna Mantaniputta 
entered the Blind Men's Grove and sat down for the day's abid- 
ing at the root of a tree. The venerable Sariputta also entered the 
Blind Men's Grove and sat down for the day's abiding at the 
root of a tree. 

8. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Sariputta rose 
from meditation, went to the venerable Punna Mantaniputta, 
and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and 


242 Rathavimta Sutta: Sutta 24 


i 148 


amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to 
the venerable Punna Mantaniputta: 

9. "Is the holy life lived under our Blessed One, friend?" - 
"Yes, friend." - "But, friend, is it for the sake of purification of 
virtue that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?" - "No, 
friend." - "Then is it for the sake of purification of mind that the 
holy life is lived under the Blessed One?" - “No, friend." - 
"Then is it for the sake of purification of view that the holy life is 
lived under the Blessed One?" - "No, friend." - "Then is it for 
the sake of purification by overcoming doubt that the holy life is 
lived under the Blessed One?" - "No, friend." - "Then is it for 
the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of what is the 
path and what is not the path that the holy life is lived under the 
Blessed One?" - "No, friend." - "Then is it for the sake of purifi- 
cation by knowledge and vision of the way that the holy life is 
lived under the Blessed One?" - "No, friend." - "Then is it for 
the sake of purification by knowledge and vision that the holy 
life is lived under the Blessed One?" - "No, friend." 288 

10. "Friend, when asked: 'But, friend, is it for the sake of 
purification of virtue that the holy life is lived under the Blessed 
One?' you replied: 'No, friend.’ When asked: 'Then is it for the 
sake of purification of mind... purification of view... purification 
by overcoming doubt. . .purification by knowledge and vision of 
what is the path and what is not the path... purification by 
knowledge and vision of the way... purification by knowledge 
and vision that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?' you 
replied: 'No, friend.' Foi; the sake of what then, friend, [148] is 
the holy life lived under the Blessed One?" 

"Friend, it is for the sake of final Nibbana without clinging 
that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One." 289 

11. "But, friend, is purification of virtue final Nibbana without 
clinging?" - "No, friend." - "Then is purification of mind final 
Nibbana without clinging?" - "No, friend." - "Then is purification 
of view final Nibbana without clinging?" - "No, friend." - "Then 
is purification by overcoming doubt final Nibbana without cling- 
ing?" - "No, friend." - "Then is purification by knowledge and 
vision of what is the path and what is not the path final Nibbana 
without clinging?" - "No, friend." - "Then is purification by 
knowledge and vision of the way final Nibbana without cling- 
ing?" - "No, friend." - "Then is purification by knowledge and 


The Relay Chariots 243 



vision final Nibbana without clinging?" - "No, friend." - "But, 
friend, is final Nibbana without clinging to be attained without 
these states?" - "No, friend." 

12. "When asked: 'But, friend, is purification of virtue final 
Nibbana without clinging?' you replied: 'No, friend.' When 
asked: 'Then is purification of mind. ..purification of 
view. ..purification by overcoming doubt... purification by 
knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the 
path... purification by knowledge and vision of the way... purifi- 
cation by knowledge and vision final Nibbana without cling- 
ing?' you replied: 'No, friend.' And when asked: 'But, friend, is 
final Nibbana without clinging to be attained without these 
states?' you replied: 'No, friend.' But how, friend, should the 
meaning of these statements be regarded?" 

13. "Friend, if the Blessed One had described purification of 
virtue as final Nibbana without clinging, he would have 
described what is still accompanied by clinging as final Nibbana 
without clinging. If the Blessed One had described purification of 
mind. ..purification of view. ..purification by overcoming 
doubt. . .purification by knowledge and vision of what is the path 
and what is not the path... purification by knowledge and vision 
of the way... purification by knowledge and vision as final 
Nibbana without clinging, he would have described what is still 
accompanied by clinging as final Nibbana without clinging. 290 
And if final Nibbana without clinging were to be attained with- 
out these states, then an ordinary person would have attained 
final Nibbana, for an ordinary person is without these states. 

14. "As to that, friend, I shall give you a simile, for some wise 
men understand the meaning of a statement by means of a sim- 
ile. Suppose that King Pasenadi of Kosala while living at 
Savatthl [149] had some urgent business to settle at Saketa, and 
that between Savatthl and Saketa seven relay chariots were kept 
ready for him. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala, leaving Savatthl 
through the inner palace door, would mount the first relay char- 
iot, and by means of the first relay chariot he would arrive at the 
second relay chariot; then he would dismount from the first 
chariot and mount the second chariot, and by means of the sec- 
ond chariot, he would arrive at the third chariot. . .by means of 
the third chariot, he would arrive at the fourth chariot. . .by means 
of the fourth chariot, he would arrive at the fifth chariot... by 


244 Rathavinita Sutta: Sutta 24 


i 150 


means of the fifth chariot, he would arrive at the sixth char- 
iot. . .by means of the sixth chariot, he would arrive at the sev- 
enth chariot, and by means of the seventh chariot he would 
arrive at the inner palace door in Saketa. Then, when he had 
come to the inner palace door, his friends and acquaintances, his 
kinsmen and relatives, would ask him: 'Sire, did you come from 
Savatthl to the inner palace door in Saketa by means of this relay 
chariot?' How then should King Pasenadi of Kosala answer in 
order to answer correctly?" 

"In order to answer correctly, friend, he should answer thus: 
'Here, while living at Savatthl I had some urgent business to set- 
tle at Saketa, and between Savatthl and Saketa seven relay char- 
iots were kept ready for me. Then, leaving Savatthl through the 
inner palace door, I mounted the first relay chariot, and by 
means of the first relay chariot I arrived at the second relay char- 
iot; then I dismounted from the first chariot and mounted the 
second chariot, and by means of the second chariot I arrived at 
the third... fourth... fifth... sixth... seventh chariot, and by means 
of the seventh chariot I arrived at the inner palace door in 
Saketa.' In order to answer correctly he should answer thus." 

15. "So too, friend, purification of virtue is for the sake of 
reaching purification of mind; purification of mind is for the 
sake of reaching purification of view; purification of view is for 
the sake of reaching purification by overcoming doubt; purifica- 
tion by overcoming doubt [150] is for the sake of reaching purifi- 
cation by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is 
not the path; purificatiori by knowledge and vision of what is 
the path and what is not the path is for the sake of reaching 
purification by knowledge and vision of the way; purification 
by knowledge and vision of the way is for the sake of reaching 
purification by knowledge and vision; purification by knowl- 
edge and vision is for the sake of reaching final Nibbana with- 
out clinging. It is for the sake of final Nibbana without clinging 
that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One." 

16. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta asked the 
venerable Punna Mantaniputta: "What is the venerable one's 
name, and how do his companions in the holy life know the 
venerable one?" 291 

"My name is Punna, friend, and my companions in the holy 
life know me as Mantaniputta." 


The Relay Chariots 245 


i 151 

"It is wonderful, friend, it is marvellous! Each profound ques- 
tion has been answered, point by point, by the venerable Punna 
jylantaniputta as a learned disciple who understands the 
Teacher's Dispensation correctly. It is a gain for his companions 
■ n the holy life, it is a great gain for them that they have the 
opportunity to see and honour the venerable Punna 
Mantaniputta. Even if it were by carrying the venerable Punna 
Mantaniputta about on a cushion on their heads that his com- 
panions in tire holy life would get the opportunity to see and 
honour him, it would be a gain for them, a great gain for them. 
And it is a gain for us, a great gain for us that we have the 
opportunity to see and honour the venerable Punna 
Mantaniputta." 

17. When this was said, the venerable Punna Mantaniputta 
asked the venerable Sariputta: "What is the venerable one's 
name, and how do his companions in the holy life know the 
venerable one?" 

"My name is Upatissa, friend, and my companions in the holy 
life know me as Sariputta." 

"Indeed, friend, we did not know that we were talking with 
the venerable Sariputta, the disciple who is like the Teacher 
himself. 292 If we had known that this was the venerable Sariput- 
ta, we should not have said so much. It is wonderful, friend, it is 
marvellous! Each profound question has been posed, point by 
point, by the venerable Sariputta as a learned disciple who 
understands the Teacher's Dispensation correctly. It is a gain for 
his companions in the holy life, it is a great gain for them that 
they have the opportunity to see and honour the venerable 
Sariputta. Even if it were by carrying the venerable Sariputta 
about on a cushion on their heads that his companions in the 
holy life would get the opportunity to see and honour him, [151] 
it would be a gain for them, a great gain for them. And it is a 
gain for us, a great gain for us that we have the opportunity to 
see and honour the venerable Sariputta." 

Thus it was that these two great beings rejoiced in each other's 
good words. 




25 Nivapa Sutta 
The Bait 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, a deer-trapper does not lay down bait for a deer 
herd intending thus: 'May the deer herd enjoy this bait that I 
have laid down and so be long-lived and handsome and endure 
for a long time.' A deer-trapper lays down bait for a deer herd 
intending thus: 'The deer herd will eat food unwarily by going 
right in amongst the bait that I have laid down; by so doing they 
will become intoxicated; when they are intoxicated, they will fall 
into negligence; when they are negligent, I can do with them as I 
like on account of this bait/ 

3. "Now the deer of the first herd ate food unwarily by going 
right in amongst the bait that the deer-trapper had laid down; by 
so doing they became intoxicated; when they were intoxicated, 
they fell into negligence,' * when they were negligent, the deer- 
trapper did with them as he liked on account of that bait. That is 
how the deer of the first herd failed to get free from the deer- 
trapper's power and control. 

4. "Now the deer of a second herd reckoned thus: 'The deer of 
that first herd, by acting as they did without precaution, [152] 
failed to get free from the deer-trapper's power and control. 
Suppose we altogether shun that bait food; shunning that fearful 
enjoyment, let us go out into the forest wilds and live there.' 
And they did so. But in the last month of the hot season when 
the grass and the water were used up, their bodies were reduced 
to extreme emaciation; with that they lost their strength and 
energy; when they had lost their strength and energy, they 
returned to that same bait that the deer-trapper had laid down. 



246 


The Bait 247 



1154 


Xhey ate food unwarily by going right in amongst it. By so 
doing they became intoxicated; when they were intoxicated they 
fell into negligence; when they were negligent, the deer-trapper 
did with them as he liked on account of that bait. And that is 
how the deer of the second herd also failed to get free from the 
deer-trapper's power and control. 

5. "Now the deer of a third herd reckoned thus: 'The deer of 
that first herd, by acting as they did without precaution, failed 
to get free from the deer-trapper's power and control. The deer 
of that second herd, by reckoning how the deer of the first herd 
had failed and by planning and acting as they did with the pre- 
caution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to get free 
from the deer-trapper's power and control. Suppose we make 
our dwelling place within range of the deer-trapper's bait. [153] 
Then, having done so, we shall eat food not unwarily and with- 
out going right in amongst the bait that the deer-trapper has laid 
down; by doing so we shall not become intoxicated; when we 
are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; when we 
are not negligent, the deer-trapper shall not do with us as he 
likes on account of that bait.' And they did so. 

"But then the deer-trapper and his following considered thus: 
'These deer of this third herd are as cunning and crafty as wiz- 
ards and sorcerers. They eat the bait laid down without our 
knowing how they come and go. Suppose we have the bait that 
is laid down completely surrounded all round over a wide area 
with wicker hurdles; then perhaps we might see the third deer 
herd's dwelling place, where they go to hide.' They did so, and 
they saw the third herd's dwelling place, where they went to 
hide. And that is how the deer of the third herd also failed to get 
free from the deer-trapper's power and control. 

6. "Now the deer of a fourth herd reckoned thus: 'The deer of 
that first herd, by acting as they did without precaution, failed 
to get free from the deer-trapper's power and control. The deer 
of that second herd, by reckoning how the deer of the first herd 
had failed and by planning and acting as they did with the pre- 
caution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to get free 
from the deer-trapper's power and control. And the deer of that 
third herd, by reckoning how the deer of the first herd [154] and 
also the deer of the second herd had failed, and by planning and 
acting as they did with the precaution of making their dwelling 


248 Nivapa Sutta: Sutta 25 i 156 


place within range of the deer-trapper's bait, also failed to get 
free from the deer-trapper's power and control. Suppose we make 
our dwelling place where the deer-trapper and his following 
cannot go. Then, having done so, we shall eat food not unwarily 
and without going right in amongst the bait that the deer-trap- 
per has laid down; by doing so we shall not become intoxicated; 
when we are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; 
when we are not negligent, [155] the deer-trapper shall not do 
with us as he likes on account of that bait.' And they did so. 

"But then the deer-trapper and his following considered thus: 
'These deer of this fourth herd are as cunning and crafty as wiz- 
ards and sorcerers. They eat the bait laid down without our 
knowing how they come and go. Suppose we have the bait that 
is laid down completely surrounded all round over a wide area 
with wicker hurdles; then perhaps we might see the fourth deer 
herd's dwelling place, where they go to hide.' They did so, but 
they did not see the fourth deer herd's dwelling place, where they 
went to hide. Then the deer-hunter and his following considered 
thus: 'If we scare the fourth deer herd, being scared they will alert 
others, and so the deer herds will all desert this bait that we have 
laid down. Suppose we treat the fourth deer herd with indif- 
ference.' They did so. And that was how the deer of the fourth 
deer herd got free from the deer-trapper's power and control. 

7. "Bhikkhus, I have given this simile in order to convey a 
meaning. This is the meaning: 'Bait' is a term for the five cords 
of sensual pleasure. 'Deer-trapper' is a term for Mara the Evil 
One. 'The deer-trapper's following' is a term for Mara's follow- 
ing. 'Deer herd' is a term for recluses and brahmins. 

8. "Now recluses and brahmins of the first kind ate food 
unwarily by going right in amongst the bait and the material 
things of the world that Mara had laid down; [156] by so doing 
they became intoxicated; when they were intoxicated, they fell 
into negligence; when they were negligent, Mara did with them 
as he liked on account of that bait and those material things of 
the world. That is how the recluses and brahmins of the first kind 
failed to get free from Mara's power and control. Those recluses 
and brahmins, I say, are just like the deer of the first herd. 

9. "Now recluses and brahmins of the second kind reckoned 
thus: 'Those recluses and brahmins of the first kind, by acting as 
they did without precaution, failed to get free from Mara's 



power and control. Suppose we altogether shun that bait food 
and those material things of the world; shunning that fearful 
enjoyment, let us go out into the forest wilds and live there.' 
And they did so. There they were eaters of greens or millet or 
wild rice or hide-parings or moss or rice-bran or the discarded 
scum of boiled rice or sesamum flour or grass or cowdung; they 
lived on forest roots and fruits, they fed on fallen fruits. 

"But in the last month of the hot season when the grass and 
the water were used up, their bodies were reduced to extreme 
emaciation; with that they lost their strength and energy; when 
they had lost their strength and energy, they lost their deliver- 
ance of mind; 293 with the loss of their deliverance of mind, they 
returned to that same bait that Mara had laid down and those 
material things of the world; they ate food unwarily by going 
right in amongst it; by so doing they became intoxicated; when 
they were intoxicated, they fell into negligence; when they were 
negligent, Mara did with them as he liked on account of that 
bait and those material things of the world. That is how those 
recluses and brahmins of the second kind failed to get free from 
Mara's power and control. [157] Those recluses and brahmins, I 
say, are just like the deer of the second herd. 

10. "Now recluses and brahmins of the third kind reckoned 
thus: "Those recluses and brahmins of the first kind, by acting as 
they did without precaution, failed to get free from Mara's 
power and control. Those recluses and brahmins of the second 
kind, by reckoning how the recluses and brahmins of the first 
kind had failed, and then planning and acting as they did with 
the precaution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to 
get free from Mara's power and control. Suppose we make our 
dwelling place within range of that bait that Mara has laid down 
and those material things of the world. Then, having done so, 
we shall eat food not unwarily and without going right in 
amongst the bait that Mara has laid down and the material 
things of the world. By doing so we shall not become intoxicated; 
when we are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; 
when we are not negligent, Mara shall not do with us as he likes 
on account of that bait and those material things of the world.' 
And they did so. 

"But then they came to hold views such as 'the world is eter- 
nal' and 'the world is not eternal' and 'the world is finite' and 


250 Nivapa Sutta: Sutta 25 


i 159 


'the world is infinite' and 'the soul and the body are the same' 
and 'the soul is one thing and the body another' and 'after 
death a Tathagata exists' and 'after death a Tathagata does not 
exist' and 'after death a Tathagata both exists and does not 
exist' and 'after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not 
exist.' 294 [158] That is how those recluses and brahmins of the 
third kind failed to get free from Mara's power and control. 
Those recluses and brahmins, I say, are just like the deer of the 
third herd. 

11. "Now recluses and brahmins of the fourth kind reckoned 
thus: 'Those recluses and brahmins of the first kind, by acting as 
they did without precaution, failed to get free from Mara's 
power and control. Those recluses and brahmins of the second 
kind, by reckoning how the recluses and brahmins of the first 
kind had failed, and by planning and acting as they did with the 
precaution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to get 
free from Mara's power and control. And the recluses and 
brahmins of the third kind, by reckoning how the recluses and 
brahmins of the first kind and also the recluses and brahmins of 
the second kind had failed, and by planning and acting as they 
did with the precaution of making their dwelling place within 
range of the bait that Mara had laid down and the material 
things of the world, also failed to get free from Mara's power 
and control. Suppose we make our dwelling place where Mara 
and his following cannot go. Then, having done so, we shall 
eat food not unwarily and without going right in amongst the 
bait that Mara has laid dbwn and the material things of the 
world. By doing so we shall not become intoxicated; when we 
are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; when we 
are not negligent, Mara shall not do with us as he likes on 
account of that bait and those material things of the world.' And 
they did so. 1159] And that is how those recluses and brahmins 
of the fourth kind got free from Mara's power and control. 
Those recluses and brahmins, I say, are just like the deer of the 
fourth herd. 

12. "And where is it that Mara and his following cannot go? 
Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from 
unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the 
first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained 
thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This 


I 


The Bait 251 


bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisi- 
ble to the Evil One by depriving Mara's eye of its opportunity. 295 

13. "Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, 
a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which 
has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentra- 
tion. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

14. "Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu 
abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling 
pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third 
jhana, on account of which the noble ones announce: 'He has a 
pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.' This 
bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

15. "Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and 
with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu 
enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither- 
pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. 
This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

16. "Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of 
form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, 
with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that 'space 
is infinite/ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infi- 
nite space. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

17. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 
space, aware that 'consciousness is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters 
upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. This 
bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

18. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 
consciousness, [160] aware that 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu 
enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This bhikkhu 
is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

19. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of nothing- 
ness, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception. This bhikkhu is said to have 
blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by 
depriving Mara's eye of its opportunity. 

20. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. And his taints 
are destroyed by his seeing with wisdom. This bhikkhu is said 






252 Nivapa Sutta: Sutta 25 


i 160 


to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil 
One by depriving Mara's eye of its opportunity, and to have 
crossed beyond attachment to the world." 296 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


26 Ariyapariyesana Sutta 
The Noble Search 


1. Thus have I heard. 297 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and 
taking his bowl and outer robe, went into SavatthI for alms. 
Then a number of bhikkhus went to the venerable Ananda and 
said to him: "Friend Ananda, it is long since we heard a talk on 
the Dhamma from the Blessed One's own lips. It would be good 
if we could get to hear such a talk, friend Ananda." - "Then let 
the venerable ones go to the brahmin Rammaka's hermitage. 
Perhaps you will get to hear a talk on the Dhamma from the 
Blessed One's own lips." - "Yes, friend," they replied. 

3. Then, when the Blessed One had wandered for alms in 
SavatthI and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he 
addressed the venerable Ananda: "Ananda, let us go to the 
Eastern Park, to the Palace of Migara's Mother, for the day's 
abiding." - "Yes, venerable sir," the venerable Ananda 
replied. [161] Then the Blessed One went with the venerable 
Ananda to the Eastern Park, the Palace of Migara's Mother, for 
the day's abiding. 

Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from medita- 
tion and addressed the venerable Ananda: "Ananda, let us go to 
the Eastern Bathing Place to bathe." - "Yes, venerable sir," the 
venerable Ananda replied. Then the Blessed One went with the 
venerable Ananda to the Eastern Bathing Place to bathe. When 
he was finished, he came up out of the water and stood in one 
robe drying his limbs. Then the venerable Ananda said to the 
Blessed One: "Venerable sir, the brahmin Rammaka's hermitage 
is nearby. That hermitage is agreeable and delightful. Venerable 
sir, it would be good if the Blessed One went there out of com- 
passion." The Blessed One consented in silence. 


253 


i 162 


I 

I 

254 Anyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26 


4. Then the Blessed One went to the brahmin Rammaka's her- 
mitage. Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus were sit- 
ting together in the hermitage discussing the Dhamma. The 
Blessed One stood outside the door waiting for their discussion 
to end. When he knew that it was over, he coughed and 
knocked, and the bhikkhus opened the door for him. The 
Blessed One entered, sat down on a seat made ready, and 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus, for what discussion 
are you sitting together here now? And what was your discus- 
sion that was interrupted?" 

"Venerable sir, our discussion on the Dhamma that was inter- 
rupted was about the Blessed One himself. Then the Blessed 
One arrived." 

"Good, bhikkhus. It is fitting for you clansmen who have gone 
forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness to sit 
together to discuss the Dhamma. When you gather together, 
bhikkhus, you should do either of two things: hold discussion 
on the Dhamma or maintain noble silence. 298 


(two kinds of search) 


5. "Bhikkhus, there are these two kinds of search: the noble 
search and the ignoble search. And what is the ignoble search? 
Here someone being himself subject to birth seeks what is also 
subject to birth; being himself subject to ageing, [162] he seeks 
what is also subject to agging; being himself subject to sickness, 
he seeks what is also subject to sickness; being himself subject to 
death, he seeks what is also subject to death; being himself sub- 
ject to sorrow, he seeks what is also subject to sorrow; being 
himself subject to defilement, he seeks what is also subject to 
defilement. 

6. "And what may be said to be subject to birth? Wife and chil- 
dren are subject to birth, men and women slaves, goats and 
sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares, gold 
and silver are subject to birth. These objects of attachment 299 are 
subject to birth; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated 
with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject 
to birth, seeks what it also subject to birth. 

7. "And what may be said to be subject to ageing? Wife and 
children are subject to ageing, men and women slaves, goats 



The Noble Search 255 


i 163 


and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares, 
gold and silver are subject to ageing. These objects of attachment 
are subject to ageing; and one who is tied to these things, infatu- 
ated with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself 
subject to ageing, seeks what is also subject to ageing. 

8. "And what may be said to be subject to sickness? Wife and 
children are subject to sickness, men and women slaves, goats 
and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares 
are subject to sickness. These objects of attachment are subject to 
sickness; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with 
them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to 
sickness, seeks what is also subject to sickness. 300 

9. "And what may be said to be subject to death? Wife and 
children are subject to death, men and women slaves, goats and 
sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares are 
subject to death. These objects of attachment are subject to 
death; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, 
and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to death, 
seeks what is also subject to death. 

10. "And what may be said to be subject to sorrow? Wife and 
children are subject to sorrow, men and women slaves, goats 
and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares 
are subject to sorrow. These objects of attachment are subject to 
sorrow; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with 
them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to 
sorrow, seeks what is also subject to sorrow. 

11. "And what may be said to be subject to defilement? Wife 
and children are subject to defilement, men and women slaves, 
goats and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and 
mares, gold and silver are subject to defilement. These objects of 
attachment are subject to defilement; and one who is tied to 
these things, infatuated with them, and utterly committed to 
them, being himself subject to defilement, seeks what is also 
subject to defilement. This is the ignoble search. 

12. "And what is the noble search? Here someone being him- 
self subject to birth, having understood the danger in what is 
subject to birth, [163] seeks the unborn supreme security from 
bondage, Nibbana; being himself subject to ageing, having 
understood the danger in what is subject to ageing, he seeks 
the unageing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being 


256 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26 


i 163 


himself subject to sickness, having understood the danger in what 
is subject to sickness, he seeks the unailing supreme security 
from bondage, Nibbana; being himself subject to death, having 
understood the danger in what is subject to death, he seeks the 
deathless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being him- 
self subject to sorrow, having understood the danger in what is 
subject to sorrow, he seeks the sorrowless supreme security 
from bondage, Nibbana; being himself subject to defilement, 
having understood the danger in what is subject to defilement, 
he seeks the undefiled supreme security from bondage, 
Nibbana. This is the noble search. 

(the search for enlightenment) 

13. "Bhikkhus, before my enlightenment, while I was still only 
an unenlightened Bodhisatta, I too, being myself subject to birth, 
sought what was also subject to birth; being myself subject to 
ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, I sought what 
was also subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defile- 
ment. Then I considered thus: 'Why, being myself subject to 
birth, do I seek what is also subject to birth? Why, being myself 
subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, do I 
seek what is also subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and 
defilement? Suppose that, being myself subject to birth, having 
understood the danger in what is subject to birth, I seek the 
unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana. Suppose that, 
being myself subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and 
defilement, having understood the danger in what is subject to 
ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, I seek the 
unageing, unailing, deathless, sorrowless, and undefiled 
supreme security from bondage, Nibbana.' 

14. "Later, while still young, a black-haired young man 
endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, though 
my mother and father wished otherwise and wept with tearful 
faces, I shaved off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, 
and went forth from the home life into homelessness. 

15. "Having gone forth, bhikkhus, in search of what is whole- 
some, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to 
Alara Kalama and said to him: 'Friend Kalama, I want to lead 
the holy life in this Dhamma and Discipline.' Alara Kalama 



i 165 


The Noble Search 257 


re plied: 'The venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is 
g uch that a wise man [164J can soon enter upon and abide in it, 
realising for himself through direct knowledge his own 
teacher's doctrine.' I soon quickly learned that Dhamma. As far 
aS mere lip-reciting and rehearsal of his teaching went, I could 
speak with knowledge and assurance, and I claimed, 'I know 
and see' - and there were others who did likewise. 

"I considered: 'It is not through mere faith alone that Alara 
Kalama declares: "By realising for myself with direct knowl- 
edge, I enter upon and abide in this Dhamma." Certainly Alara 
Kalama abides knowing and seeing this Dhamma.' Then I went 
to Alara Kalama and asked him: 'Friend Kalama, in what way 
do you declare that by realising for yourself with direct knowl- 
edge you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma?' In reply he 
declared the base of nothingness. 301 

"I considered: 'Not only Alara Kalama has faith, energy, 
mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, ener- 
gy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I 
endeavour to realise the Dhamma that Alara Kalama declares 
he enters upon and abides in by realising for himself with 
direct knowledge?' 

"I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by 
realising for myself with direct knowledge. Then I went to Alara 
Kalama and asked him: 'Friend Kalama, is it in this way that 
you declare that you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by 
realising for yourself with direct knowledge?' - 'That is the way, 
friend.' - 'It is in this way, friend, that I also enter upon and 
abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowl- 
edge.’ - 'It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great gain for us that we 
have such a venerable one for our companion in the holy life. So 
the Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realis- 
ing for myself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that you 
enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct 
knowledge. [165] And the Dhamma that you enter upon and 
abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge is the 
Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realising for 
myself with direct knowledge. So you know the Dhamma that I 
know and I know the Dhamma that you know. As I am, so are 
you; as you are, so am I. Come, friend, let us now lead this com- 
munity together.' 


258 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26 


i 166 


"Thus Alara Kalama, my teacher, placed me, his pupil, on an 
equal footing with himself and awarded me the highest honour. 
But it occurred to me: "This Dhamma does not lead to disen- 
chantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowl- 
edge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only to reappearance in 
the base of nothingness.' 302 Not being satisfied with that 
Dhamma, I left it and went away. 

16. "Still in search, bhikkhus, of what is wholesome, seeking 
the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to Uddaka Ramaputta 
and said to him: 'Friend, I want to lead the holy life in this 
Dhamma and Discipline.' 303 Uddaka Ramaputta replied: 'The 
venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is such that a wise 
man can soon enter upon and abide in it, himself realising 
through direct knowledge his own teacher's doctrine.' I soon 
quickly learned that Dhamma. As far as mere lip-reciting and 
rehearsal of his teaching went, I could speak with knowledge 
and assurance, and I claimed, 'I know and see' - and there were 
others who did likewise. 

"I considered: 'It was not through mere faith alone that Rama 
declared: "By realising for myself with direct knowledge, I enter 
upon and abide in this Dhamma." Certainly Rama abided know- 
ing and seeing this Dhamma.' Then I went to Uddaka Ramaputta 
and asked him: 'Friend, in what way did Rama declare that by 
realising for himself with direct knowledge he entered upon and 
abided in this Dhamma?' In reply Uddaka Ramaputta declared 
the base of neither-percej5tion-nor-non-perception. 

"I considered: 'Not only Rama had faith, [166] energy, mind- 
fulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, energy, 
mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I endeavour 
to realise the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon and 
abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge.' 

"I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by 
realising for myself with direct knowledge. Then I went to 
Uddaka Ramaputta and asked him: 'Friend, was it in this way 
that Rama declared that he entered upon and abided in this 
Dhamma by realising for himself with direct knowledge?' - 
'That is the way, friend.' - 'It is in this way, friend, that I also 
enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself 
with direct knowledge.' - 'It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great 
gain for us that we have such a venerable one for our companion 



The Noble Search 259 



in the holy life. So the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered 
upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowl- 
edge is the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realis- 
ing for yourself with direct knowledge. And the Dhamma that 
you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct 
knowledge is the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon 
and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge. So 
you know the Dhamma that Rama knew and Rama knew the 
Dhamma that you know. As Rama was, so are you; as you are, 
so was Rama. Come, friend, now lead this community.' 

"Thus Uddaka Ramaputta, my companion in the holy life, 
placed me in the position of a teacher and accorded me the high- 
est honour. But it occurred to me: 'This Dhamma does not lead 
to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct j 

knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only to reappear- 
ance in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.' Not j 

being satisfied with that Dhamma, I left it and went away. 

17. "Still in search, bhikkhus, of what is wholesome, seeking 0 
the supreme state of sublime peace, I wandered by stages / A 
through the Magadhan country until eventually I arrived at i 
Senanigama near Uruvela. [167] There I saw an agreeable piece 
of ground, a delightful grove with a clear-flowing river with j 
pleasant, smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. I , 
considered: 'This is an agreeable piece of ground, this is a ! j 

delightful grove with a clear^flowing river with pleasant, ■ 
smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. This will j j 

serve for the striving of a clansman intent on striving.' And I sat j 

down there thinking: 'This will serve for striving.' 304 > 

(enlightenment) 



18. "Then, bhikkhus, being myself subject to birth, having 
understood the danger in what is subject to birth, seeking the 
unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the 
unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being myself 
subject to ageing, having understood the danger in what is sub- 
ject to ageing, seeking the unageing supreme security from 
bondage, Nibbana, I attained the-unageing supreme security 
from bondage, Nibbana; being myself subject to sickness, having 
understood the danger in what is subject to sickness, seeking the 


i 168 


260 A riyapa riyesa n a Sutta: Sutta 26 


unailing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained 
the unailing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being 
myself subject to death, having understood the danger in what 
is subject to death, seeking the deathless supreme security from 
bondage, Nibbana, I attained the deathless supreme security 
from bondage, Nibbana; being myself subject to sorrow, having 
understood the danger in what is subject to sorrow, seeking the 
sorrowless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained 
the sorrowless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being 
myself subject to defilement, having understood the danger in 
what is subject to defilement, seeking the undefiled supreme 
security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the undefiled 
supreme security from bondage, Nibbana. The knowledge and 
vision arose in me: 'My deliverance is unshakeable; this is my 
last birth; now there is no renewal of being.' 

19. "I considered: 'This Dhamma that I have attained is pro- 
found, hard to see and hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, 
unattainable by mere reasoning, subtle, to be experienced by the 
wise. 305 But this generation delights in worldliness, takes delight 
in worldliness, rejoices in worldliness. 306 It is hard for such a gen- 
eration to see this truth, namely, specific conditionality, dependent 
origination. And it is hard to see this truth, namely, the stilling of 
all formations, the relinquishing of all attachments, the destruc- 
tion of craving, dispassion, cessation, Nibbana. [168] If I were to 
teach the Dhamma, others would not understand me, and that 
would be wearying and* troublesome for me.' Thereupon there 
came to me spontaneously these stanzas never heard before: 

'Enough with teaching the Dhamma 
That even I found hard to reach; 

For it will never be perceived 
By those who live in lust and hate. 

Those dyed in lust, wrapped in darkness 
Will never discern this abstruse Dhamma 
Which goes against the worldly stream. 

Subtle, deep, and difficult to see.' 

Considering thus, my mind inclined to inaction rather than to 
teaching the Dhamma. 307 


The Noble Search 261 


20. "Then, bhikkhus, the Brahma Sahampati knew with his 
mind the thought in my mind and he considered: "The world will 
be lost, the world will perish, since the mind of the Tathagata, 
accomplished and fully enlightened, inclines to inaction rather 
than to teaching the Dhamma/ Then, just as quickly as a strong 
man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, the 
Brahma Sahampati vanished in the Brahma-world and appeared 
before me. He arranged his upper robe on one shoulder, and 
extending his hands in reverential salutation towards me, said: 
'Venerable sir, let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma, let the 
Sublime One teach the Dhamma. There are beings with little dust 
in their eyes who are wasting through not hearing the Dhamma. 
There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.' The 
Brahma Sahampati spoke thus, and then he said further: 

'In Magadha there have appeared till now 
Impure teachings devised by those still stained. 

Open the doors to the Deathless! Let them hear 
The Dhamma that the Stainless One has found . 


Just as one who stands on a mountain peak 
Can see below the people all around. 

So, O Wise One, All-seeing Sage, 

Ascend the palace of the Dhamma. 

Let the Sorrowless One survey this human breed. 
Engulfed in sorrow, overcome by birth and old age. [169] 


Arise, victorious hero, caravan leader. 
Debtless one, and wander in the world. 
Let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma, 
There will be those who will understand.' 



21. "Then I listened to the Brahma's pleading, and out of com- 
passion for beings I surveyed the world with the eye of a 
Buddha. Surveying the world with the eye of a Buddha, I saw 
beings with little dust in their eyes and with much dust in their 
eyes, with keen faculties and with dull faculties, with good qual- 
ities and with bad qualities, easy to teach and hard to teach, and 
some who dwelt seeing fear in blame and in the other world. 
Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses 


262 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26 


i 170 


that are born and grow in the water thrive immersed in the 
water without rising out of it, and some other lotuses that are 
born and grow in the water rest on the water's surface, and 
some other lotuses that are bom and grow in the water rise out 
of the water and stand clear, unwetted by it; so too, surveying 
the world with the eye of a Buddha, I saw beings with little dust 
in their eyes and with much dust in their eyes, with keen facul- 
ties and with dull faculties, with good qualities and with bad 
qualities, easy to teach and hard to teach, and some who dwelt 
seeing fear in blame and in the other world. Then I replied to the 
Brahma Sahampati in stanzas: 

'Open for them are the doors to the Deathless, 

Let those with ears now show their faith. 

Thinking it would be troublesome, O Brahma, 

I did not speak the Dhamma subtle and sublime.' 

Then the Brahma Sahampati thought: 'I have created the 
opportunity for the Blessed One to teach the Dhamma.' And 
after paying homage to me, keeping me on the right, he there- 
upon departed at once. 

22. "I considered thus: 'To whom should I first teach the 
Dhamma? Who will understand this Dhamma quickly?' It then 
occurred to me: 'Alara Kalama is wise, intelligent, and discern- 
ing; he has long had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I [170] 
taught the Dhamma first’to Alara Kalama. He will understand it 
quickly.' Then deities approached me and said: 'Venerable sir, 
Alara Kalama died seven days ago.' And the knowledge and 
vision arose in me: 'Alara Kalama died seven days ago.' I 
thought: 'Alara Kalama 's loss is a great one. If he had heard this 
Dhamma, he would have understood it quickly.' 

23. "I considered thus: 'To whom should I first teach the 
Dhamma? Who will understand this Dhamma quickly?' It then 
occurred to me: 'Uddaka Ramaputta is wise, intelligent, and dis- 
cerning; he has long had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I taught 
the Dhamma first to Uddaka Ramaputta. He will understand it 
quickly.' Then deities approached me and said: 'Venerable sir, 
Uddaka Ramaputta died last night.' And the knowledge and 
vision arose in me: 'Uddaka Ramaputta died last night.' I 
thought: 'Uddaka Ramaputta's loss is a great one. If he had 
heard this Dhamma, he would have understood it quickly.' 


E- 



j YJ\ The Noble Search 263 


24. "I considered thus: 'To whom should I first teach the 
Dhamma? Who will understand this Dhamma quickly?' It then 
occurred to me: 'The bhikkhus of the group of five who attended 
upon me while I was engaged in my striving were very help- 
ful- 308 Suppose I taught the Dhamma first to them.' Then I 
thought: 'Where are the bhikkhus of the group of five now liv- 
ing?' And with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses 
the human, I saw that they were living at Benares in the Deer 
Park at Isipatana. 


(the teaching of the dhamma) 

25. "Then, bhikkhus, when I had stayed at Uruvela as long as I 
chose, I set out to wander by stages to Benares. Between Gaya 
and the Place of Enlightenment the Ajlvaka Upaka saw me on 
the road and said: 'Friend, your faculties are clear, the colour of 
your skin is pure and bright. Under whom have you gone forth, 
friend? Who is your teacher? Whose Dhamma do you [171] pro- 
fess?' I replied to the Ajlvaka Upaka in stanzas: 


'I am one who has transcended all, a knower of all. 
Unsullied among all things, renouncing all. 

By craving's ceasing freed. Having known this all 
For myself, to whom should I point as teacher? 

I have no teacher, and one like me 
Exists nowhere in all the world 
With all its gods, because I have 
No person for my counterpart. 

I am the Accomplished One in the world, 

I am the Teacher Supreme. 

I alone am a Fully Enlightened One 
Whose fires are quenched and extinguished. 

I go now to the city of Kasi 

To set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma. 

In a world that has become blind 
I go to beat the drum of the Deathless.' 


'By your claims, friend, you ought to be the Universal Victor.' 309 


264 Ariyayariyesatia Sutta: Sutta 26 


i 172 


'The victors are those like me 

Who have won to destruction of taints. 

I have vanquished all evil states. 

Therefore, Upaka, I am a victor.' 

"When this was said, the Ajlvaka Upaka said: 'May it be so, 
friend.' Shaking his head, he took a bypath and departed. 310 

26. "Then, bhikkhus, wandering by stages, I eventually came 
to Benares, to the Deer Park at Isipatana, and I approached the 
bhikkhus of the group of five. The bhikkhus saw me coming in 
the distance, and they agreed among themselves thus: 'Friends, 
here comes the recluse Gotama who lives luxuriously, who gave 
up his striving, and reverted to luxury. We should not pay 
homage to him or rise up for him or receive his bowl and outer 
robe. But a seat may be prepared for him. If he likes, he may sit 
down.' However, as 1 approached, those bhikkhus found them- 
selves unable to keep their pact. One came to meet me and took 
my bowl and outer robe, another prepared a seat, and another 
set out water for my feet; however, they addressed me by name 
and as 'friend.' 311 

27. "Thereupon I told them: 'Bhikkhus, do not address the 
Tathagata by name and as "friend." The Tathagata is an 
Accomplished One, [172] a Fully Enlightened One. Listen, 
bhikkhus, the Deathless has been attained. I shall instruct you, I 
shall teach you the Dhamma. Practising as you are instructed, 
by realising for yourselves here and now through direct knowl- 
edge you will soon enter upon and abide in that supreme goal of 
the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth 
from the home life into homelessness.' 

"When this was said, the bhikkhus of the group of five 
answered me thus: 'Friend Gotama, by the conduct, the practice, 
and the performance of austerities that you undertook, you did 
not achieve any superhuman states, any distinction in knowl- 
edge and vision worthy of the noble ones. 312 Since you now live 
luxuriously, having given up your striving and reverted to luxu- 
ry, how will you have achieved any superhuman states, any dis- 
tinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones?' 
When this was said, I told them: 'The Tathagata does not live 
luxuriously, nor has he given up his striving and reverted to 


The Noble Search 265 


il73 

luxury. The Tathagat a is an Accomplished One, a Fully 
j 7 n ljghtened One. Listen, bhikkhus, the Deathless has been 
attained... from the home life into homelessness.' 

"A second time the bhikkhus of the group of five said to me: 
'Friend Gotama...how will you have achieved any super- 
human states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy 
of the noble ones?' A second time I told them: 'The Tathagata 
does not live luxuriously... from the home life into homeless- 
ness.' A third time the bhikkhus of the group of five said to me: 
'Friend Gotama...how will you have achieved any superhuman 
states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the 
noble ones?' 

28. "When this was said I asked them: 'Bhikkhus, have you 
ever known me to speak like this before?' - 'No, venerable 
sir.' 313 - 'Bhikkhus, the Tathagata is an Accomplished One, a 
Fully Enlightened One. Listen, bhikkhus, the Deathless has 
been attained. I shall instruct you, I shall teach you the 
Dhamma. Practising as you are instructed, by realising for your- 
selves here and now through direct knowledge you will soon 
enter upon and abide in that supreme goal of the holy life for 
the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life 
into homelessness.' [173] 

29. "I was able to convince the bhikkhus of the group of 
five. 314 Then I sometimes instructed two bhikkhus while the 
other three went for alms, and the six of us lived on what those 
three bhikkhus brought back from their almsround. Sometimes I 
instructed three bhikkhus while the other two went for alms, 
and the six of us lived on what those two bhikkhus brought 
back from their almsround. 

30. "Then the bhikkhus of the group of five, thus taught and 
instructed by me, being themselves subject to birth, having 
understood the danger in what is subject to birth, seeking the 
unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, attained the 
unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being them- 
selves subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, 
having understood the danger in what is subject to ageing, sick- 
ness, death, sorrow, and defilement, seeking the unageing, 
unailing, deathless, sorrowless, and undefiled supreme security 
from bondage, Nibbana, they attained the unageing, unailing, 
deathless, sorrowless, and undefiled supreme security from 


266 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26 


i 174 


I bondage, Nibbana. The knowledge and vision arose in them: 

' 'Our deliverance is unshakeable; this is our last birth; there is no 

| renewal of being.' 

I 

(SENSUAL PLEASURE) 

31. "Bhikkhus, there are these five cords of sensual pleasure. 315 
What are the five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished 
for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sensual 
desire, and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by the 
ear... Odours cognizable by the nose... Flavours cognizable by 
the tongue... Tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished 
for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sensual 
desire, and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of sen- 
sual pleasure. 

32. "As to those recluses and brahmins who are tied to these 
five cords of sensual pleasure, infatuated with them and utterly 
committed to them, and who use them without seeing the dan- 
ger in them or understanding the escape from them, it may be 
understood of them: 'They have met with calamity, met with 
disaster, the Evil One may do with them as he likes.' Suppose a 
forest deer who was bound lay down on a heap of snares; it 
might be understood of him: 'He has met with calamity, met 
with disaster, the hunter can do with him as he likes, and when 
the hunter comes he cannot go where he wants.' So too, as to 
those recluses and brahmins who are tied to these five cords of 
sensual pleasure... it may be understood of them: 'They have 
met with calamity, met with disaster, the Evil One may do with 
them as he likes.' 

33. "As to those recluses and brahmins who are not tied to 
these five cords of sensual pleasure, who are not infatuated with 
them or utterly committed to them, and who use them seeing 
the danger in them and understanding the escape from them, 
[174] it may be understood of them: 'They have not met with 
calamity, not met with disaster, the Evil One cannot do with 
them as he likes.' 316 Suppose a forest deer who was unbound lay 
down on a heap of snares; it might be understood of him: 'He has 
not met with calamity, not met with disaster, the hunter cannot 
do with him as he likes, and when the hunter comes he can go 
where he wants.' So too, as to those recluses and brahmins who 



The Noble Search 267 


i 174 

ar e not tied to these five cords of sensual pleasure... it may be 
understood of them: 'They have not met with calamity, not met 
with disaster, the Evil One cannot do with them as he likes.' 

34. "Suppose a forest deer is wandering in the forest wilds: 
he walks without fear, stands without fear, sits without fear, 
lies down without fear. Why is that? Because he is out of the 
hunter's range. So too, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, 
secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclu- 
sion. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara, to have 
become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Mara's eye of its 
opportunity. 317 

35. "Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, 
a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which 
has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentra- 
tion. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

36. "Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu 
abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling 
pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third 
jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: 'He has a 
pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.' This 
bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

37. "Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and 
with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu 
enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither- 
pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. 
This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

38. "Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of 
form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, 
with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that 'space 
is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infi- 
nite space. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

39. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 
space, aware that 'consciousness is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters 
upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. This 
bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara. . . 

40. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 
consciousness, aware that 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu enters 


268 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26 


i 175 


upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This bhikkhu is said 
to have blindfolded Mara... 

41. "Again, by completely surrounding the base of nothingness, 
[175] a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception. This bhikkhu is said to have 
blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by 
depriving Mara's eye of its opportunity. 

42. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. And his taints 
are destroyed by his seeing with wisdom. This bhikkhu is said 
to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil 
One by depriving Mara's eye of its opportunity, and to have 
crossed beyond attachment to the world. 318 He walks without 
fear, stands without fear, sits without fear, lies down without 
fear. Why is that? Because he is out of the Evil One's range." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


27 Culahatthipadopama Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse on the Simile 
of the Elephant's Footprint 


1. Thus have I heard. 319 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living at Savatth! in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Now on that occasion the brahmin Janussoni was driving 
out of Savatth! in the middle of the day in an all-white chariot 
drawn by white mares. He saw the wanderer Pilotika coming in 
the distance and asked him: "Now where is Master Vacchayana 
coming from in the middle of the day?" 320 

"Sir, I am coming from the presence of the recluse Gotama." 

"What does Master Vacchayana think of the recluse Gotama's 
lucidity of wisdom? He is wise, is he not?" 

"Sir, who am I to know the recluse Gotama's lucidity of wis- 
dom? One would surely have to be his equal to know the 
recluse Gotama's lucidity of wisdom." 

"Master Vacchayana praises the recluse Gotama with high 
praise indeed." 

"Sir, who am I to praise the recluse Gotama? The recluse 
Gotama is praised by the praised as best among gods and 
humans." 

"What reasons does Master Vacchayana see that he has such 
confidence in the recluse Gotama?" 

3. "Sir, suppose a wise elephant woodsman were to enter an 
elephant wood and were to see in the elephant wood [176] a big 
elephant's footprint, long in extent and broad across. He would 
come to the conclusion: 'Indeed, this is a big bull elephant.' So 
too, when I saw four footprints of the recluse Gotama, I came to 
the conclusion: 'The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the 
Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is 
practising the good way.' What are the four? 

4. "Sir, I have seen here certain learned nobles who were 
clever, knowledgeable about the doctrines of others, as sharp as 


269 


270 Culahatthipadopama Sutta: Sutta 27 


i 177 


hairsplitting marksmen; they wander about, as it were, demol- 
ishing the views of others with their sharp wits. When they 
hear: 'The recluse Gotama will visit such and such a village or 
town/ they formulate a question thus: 'We will go to the recluse 
Gotama and ask him this question. If he is asked like this, he 
will answer like this, and so we will refute his doctrine in this 
way; and if he is asked like that, he will answer like that, and so 
we will refute his doctrine in that way.' 

"They hear: 'Tire recluse Gotama has come to visit such and 
such a village or town.' They go to the recluse Gotama, and the 
recluse Gotama instructs, urges, rouses, and encourages them 
with a talk on the Dhamma. After they have been instructed, 
urged, roused, and encouraged by the recluse Gotama with a 
talk on the Dhamma, they do not so much as ask him the ques- 
tion, so how should they refute his doctrine? In actual fact, they 
become his disciples. When I saw this first footprint of the 
recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: 'The Blessed One is 
fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the 
Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.' 

5. "Again, I have seen certain learned brahmins who were 
clever. . .In actual fact, they too become his disciples. When I saw 
this second footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the con- 
clusion: 'The Blessed One is fully enlightened. . .' 

6. "Again, I have seen certain learned householders who were 
clever. ..[177]. ..In actual fact, they too become his disciples. 
When I saw this third footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to 
the conclusion: 'The Blessed One is fully enlightened. . .' 

7. "Again, I have seen certain learned recluses who were 
clever. . .They do not so much as ask him the question, so how 
should they refute his doctrine? In actual fact, they ask the 
recluse Gotama to allow them to go forth from the home life into 
homelessness, and he gives them the going forth. Not long after 
they have gone forth, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, 
ardent, and resolute, by realising for themselves with direct 
knowledge they here and now enter upon and abide in that 
supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen 
rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. They say 
thus: 'We were very nearly lost, we very nearly perished, for 
formerly we claimed that we were recluses though we were not 


i 178 


The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Shorter) 271 


really recluses; we claimed that we were brahmins through we 
vvere not really brahmins; we claimed that we were arahants 
though we were not really arahants. But now we are recluses, 
n0 w we are brahmins, now we are arahants.' When I saw this 
fourth footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: 
'The Blessed One is fully enlightened...' 

"When I saw these four footprints of the recluse Gotama, I 
came to the conclusion: 'The Blessed One is fully enlightened, 
the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha 
is practising the good way.'" 

8. When this was said, the brahmin Janussoni got down from 
his all-white chariot drawn by white mares, and arranging his 
upper robe on one shoulder, he extended his hands in reverential 
salutation towards the Blessed One and uttered this exclamation 
three times: "Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully 
enlightened! Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully 
enlightened! Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully 
enlightened! Perhaps some time or other [178] we might meet 
Master Gotama and have some conversation with him." 

9. Then the brahmin Janussoni went to the Blessed One and 
exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and ami- 
able talk was finished, he sat down at one side and related to the 
Blessed One his entire conversation with the wanderer Pilotika. 
Thereupon the Blessed One told him: "At this point, brahmin, 
the simile of the elephant's footprint has not yet been completed 
in detail. As to how it is completed in detail, listen and attend 
carefully to what I shall say." - "Yes, sir," the brahmin Janussoni 
replied. The Blessed One said this: 

10. "Brahmin, suppose an elephant woodsman were to enter 
an elephant wood and were to see in the elephant wood a big 
elephant's footprint, long in extent and broad across. A wise ele- 
phant woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: 
'Indeed, this is a big bull elephant.' Why is that? In an elephant 
wood there are small she-elephants that leave a big footprint, 
and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it and sees 
in the elephant wood a big elephant's footprint, long in extent 
and broad across, and some scrapings high up. A wise elephant 
woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: 'Indeed, this 
is a big bull elephant.' Why is that? In an elephant wood there 


272 Culahatthipadopama Sutta: Sutta 27 


i 179 


are tall she-elephants that have prominent teeth and leave a big 
footprint, and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it 
further and sees in the elephant wood a big elephant's footprint, 
long in extent and broad across, and some scrapings high up, 
and marks made by tusks. A wise elephant woodsman would 
not yet come to the conclusion: 'Indeed, this is a big bull ele- 
phant.' Why is that? In an elephant wood there are tall she- 
elephants that have tusks and leave a big footprint, and this 
might be one of their footprints. He follows it further and sees in 
the elephant wood a big elephant's footprint, long in extent and 
broad across, and some scrapings high up, and marks made by 
tusks, and broken-off branches. And he sees that bull elephant 
at the root of a tree or in the open, walking about, sitting, or 
lying down. He comes to the conclusion: 'This is that big bull 
elephant.' 

11. "So too, [179] brahmin, here a Tathagata appears in the 
world, accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowl- 
edge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable 
leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, 
enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its 
Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and 
brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself 
realised with direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good 
in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with 
the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is 
utterly perfect and pure. 

12. "A householder or, householder's son or one born in some 
other clan hears that Dhamma. On hearing the Dhamma he 
acquires faith in the Tathagata. Possessing that faith, he consid- 
ers thus: 'Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is 
wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the holy 
life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave 
off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from 
the home life into homelessness.' On a later occasion, abandon- 
ing a small or a large fortune, abandoning a small or a large cir- 
cle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the yel- 
low robe, and goes forth from the home life into homelessness. 

13. "Having thus gone forth and possessing the bhikkhu's 
training and way of life, abandoning the killing of living beings, 
he abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid 


aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living 
beings- Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains 
from taking what is not given; taking only what is given, expect- 
ing only what is given, by not stealing he abides in purity. 
Abandoning incelibacy, he observes celibacy, living apart, 
abstaining from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse. 

"Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech; he 
speaks truth, adheres to truth, is trustworthy and reliable, one 
who is no deceiver of the world. Abandoning malicious speech, 
he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere 
what he has heard here in order to divide [those peoplej from 
these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard else- 
where in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is 
one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friend- 
ships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in con- 
cord, a speaker of words that promote concord. Abandoning 
harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such 
words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and loveable, as go to 
the heart, are courteous, desired by many [180] and agreeable to 
many. Abandoning gossip, he abstains from gossip; he speaks at 
the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, 
speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he 
speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moder- 
ate, and beneficial. 

"He abstains from injuring seeds and plants. He practises eat- 
ing only in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night 
and outside the proper time. 321 He abstains from dancing, 
singing, music, and theatrical shows. He abstains from wearing 
garlands, smartening himself with scent, and embellishing him- 
self with unguents. He abstains from high and large couches. He 
abstains from accepting gold and silver. He abstains from 
accepting raw grain. He abstains from accepting raw meat. He 
abstains from accepting women and girls. He abstains from 
accepting men and women slaves. He abstains from accepting 
goats and sheep. He abstains from accepting fowl and pigs. He 
abstains from accepting elephants, cattle, horses, and mares. He 
abstains from accepting fields and land. He abstains from going 
errands and running messages. He abstains from buying and 
selling. He abstains from false weights, false metals, and false 
Pleasures. He abstains from cheating, deceiving, defrauding. 



274 Culahatthipadopama Sutta: Sutta 27 


i 181 


and trickery. He abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, 
brigandage, plunder, and violence. 

14. "He becomes content with robes to protect his body and 
with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, 
he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a bird, wherever it 
goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too the bhikkhu 
becomes content with robes to protect his body and with alms- 
food to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, he sets out 
taking only these with him. Possessing this aggregate of noble 
virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that is blameless. 

15. "On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its 
signs and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, 
evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade 
him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye fac- 
ulty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. 322 On hearing 
a sound with the ear. ..On smelling an odour with the nose... On 
tasting a flavour with the tongue... On touching a tangible with 
the body... On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does 
not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind fac- 
ulty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and 
grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, 
[181] he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of 
the mind faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, 
he experiences within himself a bliss that is unsullied. 

16. "He becomes one who acts in full awareness when going 
forward and returning; who acts in full awareness when looking 
ahead and looking away; who acts in full awareness when flex- 
ing and extending his limbs; who acts in full awareness when 
wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; who 
acts in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, 
and tasting; who acts in full awareness when defecating and uri- 
nating; who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sit- 
ting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent. 

17. "Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, and this noble 
restraint of the faculties, and possessing this noble mindfulness 
and full awareness, he resorts to a secluded resting place: the 
forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a 
charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw. 

18. "On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits 
down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and 




The Simile of the Elephant's Footprint ( Shorter) 275 




establishing mindfulness before him. Abandoning covetousness 
for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he 
purifies his mind from covetousness. 323 Abandoning ill will and 
hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate 
for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill 
w ill and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free 
from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully 
aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning 
restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind 
inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and 
remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond 
doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his 
mind from doubt. 

19. "Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfec- 
tions of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensu- 
al pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon 
and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. 
This, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata, something 
scraped by the Tathagata, something marked by die Tathagata, 
but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: 'The 
Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed 
by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way/ 324 

20. "Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, 
a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which 
has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentra- 
tion. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata... 
but a noble [182] disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: 
'The Blessed One is fully enlightened...' 

21. "Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu 
abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling 
pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third 
jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: 'He has a 
pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.' This too, 
brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata... but a noble dis- 
ciple does not yet come to the conclusion: "The Blessed One is 
fully enlightened. . .' 

22. "Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and 
"dth the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu 



276 Culahatthipadopama Sutta: Sutta 27 


i 183 


enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither- 
pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. 
This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata... but a 
noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: 'The Blessed 
One is fully enlightened . . . ' 

23. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the 
recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, 
that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five 
births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty 
births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand 
births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world- 
expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: 
...(as Sutta 4, §27 )... Thus with their aspects and particulars he 
recollects his manifold past lives. This too, brahmin, is called a 
footprint of the Tathagata. . .but a noble disciple does not yet come 
to the conclusion: 'The Blessed One is fully enlightened.. / [183] 

24. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the 
passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, 
which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings 
passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and 
ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. He understands how beings 
pass on according to their actions thus:... (as Sutta 4, §29 )... Thus 
with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, 
he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and supe- 
rior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he under- 
stands how beings pass on according to their actions. This too, 
brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata... but a noble dis- 
ciple does not yet come to the conclusion: 'The Blessed One is 
fully enlightened . . / 

25. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the 
destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: 'This is 
suffering';... 'This is the origin of suffering';... 'This is the cessa- 
tion of suffering';... 'This is the way leading to the cessation of 
suffering';... 'These are the taints';... 'This is the origin of the 


184 


The Simile of the Elephant's Footprint (Shorter) 277 


taints';- 'This is the cessation of the taints';... 'This is the way 
leading to the cessation of the taints.' 

"This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata, 


something scraped by the Tathagata, something marked by the 
Tathagata, but a noble disciple still has not yet come to the conclu- 
sion: 'The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well 


proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good 
way.' Rather, he is in the process of coming to this conclusion. 325 
26. "When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from 


tire taint of sensual desire, [184] from the taint of being, and 


from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the 


knowledge: 'It is liberated.' He understands: 'Birth is destroyed, 
the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, 
there is no more coming to any state of being.' 

"This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata, 
something scraped by the Tathagata, something marked by the 
Tathagata. It is at this point that a noble disciple has come to the 
conclusion: 'The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma 
is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising 
the good way.' 326 And it is at this point, brahmin, that the simile 
of the elephant's footprint has been completed in detail." 

27. When this was said, the brahmin Janussoni said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many 
ways, as though he were turning upright what had been over- 
thrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one 
who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with 


eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to 
the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let 
Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to 
him for refuge for life." 


j 

-I 

ixk ■ 



28 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta 
The Greater Discourse on the Simile 
of the Elephant's Footprint 


1. Thus have I heard . 327 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There 
the venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Friends, 
bhikkhus." - "Friend," they replied. The venerable Sariputta 
said this: 

2. "Friends, just as the footprint of any living being that 
walks can be placed within an elephant's footprint, and so the 
elephant's footprint is declared the chief of them because of its 
great size; so too, all wholesome states can be included in the 
Four Noble Truths. 328 In what four? In the noble truth of suffer- 
ing, [185] in the noble truth of the origin of suffering, in the 
noble truth of the cessation of suffering, and in the noble truth 
of the way leading to the cessation of suffering. 

3. "And what is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, 
ageing is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair are suffering; not to obtain what one wants is 
suffering; in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are 
suffering. 

4. "And what are the five aggregates affected by clinging? 
They are: the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the 
feeling aggregate affected by clinging, the perception aggregate 
affected by clinging, the formations aggregate affected by cling- 
ing, and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. 

5. "And what is the material form aggregate affected by cling- 
ing? It is the four great elements and the material form derived 
from the four great elements. And what are the four great ele- 
ments? They are the earth element, the water element, the fire 
element, and the air element. 




278 


186 


The Simile of the Elephant's Footprint (Greater) 279 


(the earth element) 

"What, friends, is the earth element? The earth element may 
be either internal or external. What is the internal earth element? 
Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is solid, solidified, 
and clung-to; that is, head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, 
flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, 
diaphragm, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, con- 
tents of the stomach, feces, or whatever else internally, belong- 
ing to oneself, is solid, solidified, and clung-to: this is called the 
internal earth element. 329 Now both the internal earth element 
and the external earth element are simply earth element. 330 And 
that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 
'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' When one 
sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes 
disenchanted with the earth element and makes the mind dis- 
passionate toward the earth element. 

7. "Now there comes a time when the water element is dis- 
turbed and then the external earth element vanishes. 331 When 


even this external earth element, great as it is, is seen to be 
impermanent, subject to destruction, disappearance, and 
change, what of this body, which is clung to by craving and 
lasts but a while? There can be no considering that as T or 
mine' or 'I am.' 332 

8. "So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a bhikkhu 
[who has seen this element as it actually is], he understands 
thus: 'This painful feeling bom of ear-contact has arisen in me. 
That is dependent, not independent. Dependent on what? [186] 
Dependent on contact.' 333 Then he sees that contact is imperma- 
nent, that feeling is impermanent, that perception is imperma- 
nent, that formations are impermanent, and that consciousness 
is impermanent. And his mind, having made an element its 
objective support, enters into [that new objective support] and 
acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. 334 

9. "Now, if others attack that bhikkhu in ways that are 
unwished for, undesired, and disagreeable, by contact with fists, 
clods, sticks, or knives, he understands thus: 'This body is of 
such a nature that contact with fists, clods, sticks, and knives 
assail it. 335 But this has been said by the Blessed One in his 


advice on the simile of the saw": "Bhikkhus, even if bandits 


280 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta: Sutta 28 


i 187 


were to sever you savagely limb by limb with a two-handled 
saw, he who gave rise to a mind of hate towards them would 
not be carrying out my teaching." 336 So tireless energy shall be 
aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness established, my 
body shall be tranquil and untroubled, my mind concentrated 
and unified. And now let contact with fists, clods, sticks, and 
knives assail this body; for this is just how the Buddha's teach- 
ing is practised.' 

10. "When that bhikkhu thus recollects the Buddha, the 
Dhamma, and the Sangha, if equanimity supported by the 
wholesome does not become established in him, then he arouses 
a sense of urgency thus: 'It is a loss for me, it is no gain for me, it 
is bad for me, it is no good for me, that when I thus recollect the 
Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, equanimity supported 
by the wholesome does not become established in me.' 337 Just as 
when a daughter-in-law sees her father-in-law, she arouses a 
sense of urgency [to please him], so too, when that bhikkhu thus 
recollects the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, if equa- 
nimity supported by the wholesome does not become estab- 
lished in him, then he arouses a sense of urgency. But if, when 
he recollects the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, equa- 
nimity supported by the wholesome becomes established in 
him, [187] then he is satisfied with it. At that point, friends, 
much has been done by that bhikkhu. 

(the water element) 

11. "What, friends, is the water element? The water element may 
be either internal or external. What is the internal water ele- 
ment? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is water, 
watery, and clung-to; that is, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, 
tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil-of-the-joints, urine, or whatever 
else internally, belonging to oneself, is water, watery, and clung- 
to: this is called the internal water element. Now both the inter- 
nal water element and the external water element are simply 
water element. And that should be seen as it actually is with 
proper wisdom thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not 
my self.' When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wis- 
dom, one becomes disenchanted with the water element and 
makes the mind dispassionate toward the water element. 


The Simile of the Elephant's Footprint (Greater) 281 


12. "Now there comes a time when the external water element 
is disturbed. It carries away villages, towns, cities, districts, and 
countries. There comes a time when the waters in the great 
ocean sink down a hundred leagues, two hundred leagues, three 
hundred leagues, four hundred leagues, five hundred leagues, 
six hundred leagues, seven hundred leagues. There comes a 
time when the waters in the great ocean stand seven palms 
deep, six palms deep. . .two palms deep, only a palm deep. There 
comes a time when the waters in the great ocean stand seven 
fathoms deep, six fathoms deep... two fathoms deep, only a 
fathom deep. There comes a time when the waters in the great 
ocean stand half a fathom deep, only waist deep, only knee 
deep, only ankle deep. There comes a time when the waters in 
the great ocean are not enough to wet even the joint of a finger. 
When even this external water element, great as it is, [188] is 
seen to be impermanent, subject to destruction, disappearance, 
and change, what of this body, which is clung to by craving and 
lasts but a while? There can be no considering that as T or 
'mine' or 'I am.' 

13-15. "So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a 
bhikkhu [who has seen this element as it actually is], he under- 
stands thus :... (repeat §§8-10 ). ..At that point too, friends, much 
has been done by that bhikkhu. 

(the fire element) 

16. "What, friends, is the fire element? The fire element may be 
either internal or external. What is the internal fire element? 
Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is fire, fiery, and 
clung-to; that is, that by which one is warmed, ages, and is con- 
sumed, and that by which what is eaten, drunk, consumed, and 
tasted gets completely digested, or whatever else internally, 
belonging to oneself, is fire, fiery, and clung-to: this is called the 
internal fire element. Now both the internal fire element and the 
external fire element are simply fire element. And that should be 
seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This is not mine, 
this I am not, this is not my self.' When one sees it thus as it 
actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with 
the fire element and makes the mind dispassionate toward the 
fire element. 



282 Mnhahatthipadopama Sutta: Sutta 28 


i 189 


' 1 

|! 17. "Now there comes a time when the external fire element is 

disturbed. It burns up villages, towns, cities, districts, and coun- 
tries. It goes out due to lack of fuel only when it comes to green 
grass, or to a road, or to a rock, or to water, or to a fair open 
space. There comes a time when they seek to make a fire even 
with cocks' feathers and hide-parings. When even this external 
fire element, great as it is, is seen to be impermanent, subject to 
destruction, disappearance, and change, what of this body, 
which is clung to by craving and lasts but a while? There can be 
no considering that as T or 'mine' or 'I am.' 

18-20. "So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a 
bhikkhu [who has seen this element as it actually is], he under- 
stands thus:... (repeat §§8-10 ). ..At that point too, friends, much 
has been done by that bhikkhu. 

(the air element) 

21. "What, friends, is the air element? The air element may be 
either internal or external. What is the internal air element? 
Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is air, airy, and 
clung-to; that is, up-going winds, down-going winds, winds in 
the belly, winds in the bowels, winds that course through the 
limbs, in-breath and out-breath, or whatever else internally, 
belonging to oneself, is air, airy, and clung-to: this is called the 
internal air element. Now both the internal air element and the 
external air element are simply air element. And that should be 
seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This is not 
mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' When one sees it thus as 
it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted 
with the air element and makes the mind dispassionate toward 
the air element. [189] 

22. "Now there comes a time when the external air element is 
disturbed. It sweeps away villages, towns, cities, districts, and 
countries. There comes a time in the last month of the hot season 
when they seek wind by means of a fan or bellows and even the 
strands of straw in the drip-fringe of the thatch do not stir. When 
even this external air element, great as it is, is seen to be imper- 
manent, subject to destruction, disappearance, and change, what 
of this body, which is clung to by craving and lasts but a while? 
There can be no considering that as T or 'mine' or 'I am.' 


I 


j 191 


The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Greater) 283 


23-25- "So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a 
bhikkhu [who has seen this element as it actually is], he under- 
stands thus:... [190] ( repeat §§8~10)... At that point too, friends, 
much has been done by that bhikkhu. 

26. "Friends, just as when a space is enclosed by timber and 
creepers, grass, and clay, it comes to be termed 'house/ so too, 
when a space is enclosed by bones and sinews, flesh and skin, it 
comes to be termed 'material form.' 338 

27. "If, friends, internally the eye is intact but no external 
forms come into its range, and there is no corresponding [con- 
scious] engagement, then there is no manifestation of the 
corresponding class of consciousness. 339 If internally the eye is 
intact and external forms come into its range, but there is no 
corresponding, [conscious] engagement, then there is no mani- 
festation of the corresponding class of consciousness. But when 
internally the eye is intact and external forms come into its 
range and there is the corresponding [conscious] engagement, 
then there is the manifestation of the corresponding class of 
consciousness. 

28. "The rnaterial form in what has thus come to be is includ- 
ed in the material form aggregate affected by clinging. 340 The 
feeling in what has thus come to be is included in the feeling 
aggregate affected by clinging. The perception in what has thus 
come to be is included in the perception aggregate affected by 
clinging. The formations in what has thus come to be are 
included in the formations aggregate affected by clinging. The 
consciousness in what has thus come to be is included in the 
consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. He understands 
thus: 'This, indeed, is how there comes to be the inclusion, 
gathering, and amassing of things into these five aggregates 
affected by clinging. Now this has been said by the Blessed 
One: "One who sees [191] dependent origination sees the 
Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees dependent origina- 
tion." 341 And these five aggregates affected by clinging are 
dependently arisen. The desire, indulgence, inclination, and 
holding based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is 
the origin of suffering. 342 The removal of desire and lust, the 
abandonment of desire and lust for these five aggregates affect- 
ed by clinging is the cessation of suffering.' At that point too, 
friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu. 343 


284 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta: Sutta 28 


i 191 


29-30. "If, friends, internally the ear is intact but no external 
sounds come into its range. ..(as in §§27-28). ..At that point too, 
friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu. 

31-32. "If, friends, internally the nose is intact but no external 
smells come into its range... At that point too, friends, much has 
been done by that bhikkhu. 

33-34. "If, friends, internally the tongue is intact but no exter- 
nal flavours come into its range... At that point too, friends, 
much has been done by that bhikkhu. 

35-36. "If, friends, internally the body is intact but no external 
tangibles come into its range... At that point too, friends, much 
has been done by that bhikkhu. 

37. "If, friends, internally the mind is intact but no external 
mind-objects come into its range, and there is no corresponding 
[conscious] engagement, then there is no manifestation of the 
corresponding class of consciousness. 344 If internally the mind is 
intact and external mind-objects come into its range, but there is 
no corresponding [conscious] engagement, then there is no man- 
ifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness. 345 But 
when internally the mind is intact and external mind-objects 
come into its range and there is the corresponding [conscious] 
engagement, then there is the manifestation of the correspond- 
ing class of consciousness. 

38. "The material form in what has thus come to be is included 
in the material form aggregate affected by clinging. The feeling 
in what has thus come to be is included in the feeling aggregate 
affected by clinging. The perception in what has thus come to be 
is included in the perception aggregate affected by clinging. The 
formations in what has thus come to be are included in the for- 
mations aggregate affected by clinging. The consciousness in 
what has thus come to be is included in the consciousness aggre- 
gate affected by clinging. He understands thus: 'This, indeed, is 
how there comes to be the inclusion, gathering, and amassing of 
things into these five aggregates affected by clinging. Now this 
has been said by the Blessed One: "One who sees dependent 
origination sees the Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees 
dependent origination." And these five aggregates affected by 
clinging are dependently arisen. The desire, indulgence, inclina- 
tion, and holding based on these five aggregates affected by 
clinging is the origin of suffering. The removal of desire and 


191 


The Simile of the Elephant's Footprint (Greater) 285 


just, the abandonment of desire and lust for these five aggre- 
gates affected by clinging is the cessation of suffering.' At that 
point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu." 

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The bhikkhus were 
satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta's words. 


29 Mahasaropama Sutta 
The Greater Discourse 
on the Simile of the Heartwood 

[192] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at Rajagaha on the mountain Vulture Peak; it was 
soon after Devadatta had left. 346 There, referring to Devadatta, 
the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 

2. "Bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of faith from 
the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a victim of 
birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and 
despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an 
ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' When he 
has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He 
is pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention 
is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages oth- 
ers thus: 'I have gain, honour, and renown, but these other 
bhikkhus are unknown, of no account.' He becomes intoxicated 
with that gain, honour, and renown, grows negligent, falls into 
negligence, and being negligent, he lives in suffering. 

"Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 
possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, its sap- 
wood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, he would cut off its 
twigs and leaves and take them away thinking they were heart- 
wood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: 'This 
good man did not know the heartwood, the sapwood, the inner 
bark, the outer bark, or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while need- 
ing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of 
heartwood, he came to a great tree standing possessed of heart- 
wood, and passing over its heartwood, its sapwood, its inner 
bark, and its outer bark, he cut off its twigs and leaves and took 
them away thinking they were heartwood. Whatever it was this 


286 


The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 287 



ood man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be 
served.’ So too, bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of 
faith-- -[193]... he lives in suffering. This bhikkhu is called one 
vvho has taken the twigs and leaves of the holy life and stopped 
short with that. 

3. "Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith 
from the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a vic- 
tim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known/ 
When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and 
renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, 
and his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, 
laud himself and disparage others. He does not become intoxi- 
cated with that gain, honour, and renown; he does not grow 
negligent and fall into negligence. Being diligent, he achieves 
the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of 
virtue and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds 
himself and disparages others thus: 'I am virtuous, of good 
character, but these other bhikkhus are immoral, of evil charac- 
ter.' He becomes intoxicated with that attainment of virtue, 
grows negligent, falls into negligence, and being negligent, he 
lives in suffering. 

"Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 
possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, its sap- 
wood, and its inner bark, he would cut off its outer bark and 
take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with good 
sight, seeing him, might say: 'This good man did not know the 
heartwood... or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heart- 
wood. . .he cut off its outer bark and took it away thinking it was 
heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with 
heartwood, his purpose will not be served.' So too, bhikkhus, 
here some clansman goes forth out of faith... he lives in suffer- 
ing. [194] This bhikkhu is called one who has taken the outer 
bark of the holy life and stopped short with that. 

4. "Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith 
from the home life into homelessness, considering: 1 am a vic- 
tim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain. 


288 Mahasaropama Sutia: S utta 29 


i 195 


grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' 
When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and 
renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, 
and his intention is not fulfilled... Being diligent, he achieves the 
attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of 
virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account 
of it, laud himself and disparage others. He does not become 
intoxicated with that attainment of virtue; he does not grow neg- 
ligent and fall into negligence. Being diligent, he achieves the 
attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment 
of concentration and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he 
lauds himself and disparages others thus: 'I am concentrated, my 
mind is unified, but these other bhikkhus are unconcentrated, 
with their minds astray.' He becomes intoxicated with that 
attainment of concentration, grows negligent, falls into negli- 
gence, and being negligent, he lives in suffering. 

"Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 
possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood and its sap- 
wood, he would cut off its inner bark and take it away thinking 
it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, 
might say: 'This good man did not know the heartwood... or the 
twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood... he cut off its 
inner bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood. 
Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, 
his purpose will not be served.' So too, bhikkhus, here some 
clansman goes forth out of faith. . .he lives in suffering. [195] This 
bhikkhu is called one who has taken the inner bark of the holy 
life and stopped short with that. 

5. "Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith 
from the home life into homelessness, considering: 1 am a vic- 
tim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' 
When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and 
renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, 
and his intention is not fulfilled... Being diligent, he achieves the 
attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of 
virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled... Being diligent, he 


I -^96 The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 289 

achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that 
attainment of concentration, but his intention is not fulfilled. He 
does not, on account of it, laud himself and disparage others. He 
does not become intoxicated with that attainment of concentra- 
tion; he does not grow negligent and fall into negligence. Being 
diligent, he achieves knowledge and vision. 347 He is pleased 
with that knowledge and vision and his intention is fulfilled. On 
account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: 'I live 
knowing and seeing, but these other bhikkhus live unknowing 
and unseeing.' He becomes intoxicated with that knowledge 
and vision, grows negligent, falls into negligence, and being 
negligent, he lives in suffering, 

"Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 
possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, he would 
cut off its sapwood and take it away thinking it was heartwood. 
Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: 'This good 
man did not know the heartwood... or the twigs and leaves. 
Thus, while needing heartwood... he cut off its sapwood and 
took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was this 
good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be 
served.' [196] So too, bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth 
out of faith... he lives in suffering. This bhikkhu is called one 
who has taken the sapwood of the holy life and stopped short 
with that. 

6. "Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith 
from the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a vic- 
tim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' 
When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and 
renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, 
and his intention is not fulfilled... When he is diligent, he 
achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attain- 
ment of virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled... When he is dili- 
gent, he achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased 
with that attainment of concentration, but his intention is not 
fulfilled... When he is diligent, he achieves knowledge and 
vision. He is pleased with that knowledge and vision, but his 
intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud 




290 MaMsclropama Sutta: Sutta 2 9 


i 197 


himself and disparage others. He does not become intoxicated 
with that knowledge and vision; he does not grow negligent and 
fall into negligence. Being diligent, he attains perpetual libera- 
tion. And it is impossible for that bhikkhu to fall away from that 
perpetual deliverance. 348 

"Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 
possessed of heartwood, and cutting off only its heartwood, he 
would take it away knowing it was heartwood. Then a man 
with good sight, seeing him, might say: 'This good man knew 
the heartwood, the sapwood, the inner bark, the outer bark, and 
the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood, seeking 
heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, [197] he came to 
a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, and cutting off 
only its heartwood, he took it away knowing it was heartwood. 
Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, 
his purpose will be served.' So too, bhikkhus, here some clans- 
man goes forth out of faith. . .When he is diligent, he attains per- 
petual liberation. And it is impossible for that bhikkhu to fall 
away from that perpetual deliverance. 

7. "So this holy life, bhikkhus, does not have gain, honour, 
and renown for its benefit, or the attainment of virtue for its 
benefit, or the attainment of concentration for its benefit, or 
knowledge and vision for its benefit. But it is this unshakeable 
deliverance of mind that is the goal of this holy life, its heart- 
wood, and its end." 349 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


30 Culasaropama Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse on the Simile 
of the Heartwood 


[198] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. 

2. Then the brahmin Pingalakoccha went to the Blessed One 
and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and 
amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to 
the Blessed One: 

"Master Gotama, there are these recluses and brahmins, each 
the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, 
a well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many 
as a saint - that is, Parana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Ajita 
Kesakambalin, Pakudha Kaccayana, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, and 
the Nigantha Nataputta. 350 Have they all had direct knowledge 
as they claim, or have none of them had direct knowledge, or 
have some of them had direct knowledge and some not?" 

"Enough, brahmin! Let this be! - 'Have they all had direct 
knowledge as they claim, or have none of them had direct 
knowledge, or have some of them had direct knowledge and 
some not?' I shall teach you the Dhamma, brahmin. Listen and 
attend closely to what I shall say." 351 

"Yes, sir," the brahmin Pingalakoccha replied. The Blessed 
One said this: 

3. "Suppose, brahmin, a man needing heartwood, seeking 
heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great 
tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heart- 
wood, its sapwood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, he would 
cut off its twigs and leaves and take them away thinking they 
were heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, 
might say: 'This good man did not know the heartwood, the 
sapwood, the inner bark, the outer bark, or the twigs and leaves. 


291 


292 Cfilasaropama Sutta: Sutta 30 


i 199 


Thus, while needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering 
in search of heartwood, he came to a great tree standing pos- 
sessed of heartwood, and passing over its heartwood, its sap- 
wood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, he cut off its twigs and 
leaves and took them away thinking they were heartwood. 
Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, 
his purpose will not be served/ 

4. "Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 
possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, its sap- 
wood [199] and its inner bark, he would cut off its outer bark 
and take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with 
good sight, seeing him, might say: 'This good man did not know 
the heartwood... or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing 
heartwood... he cut off its outer bark and took it away thinking 
it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make 
with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.' 

5. "Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 
possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood and its sap- 
wood, he would cut off its inner bark and take it away thinking 
it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, 
might say: 'This good man did not know the heartwood... or the 
twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood... he cut off its 
inner bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood. What- 
ever it was this good man, had to make with heartwood, his pur- 
pose will not be served.' 

6. "Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree stand- 
ing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, he 
would cut off its sapwood and take it away thinking it was 
heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: 
'This good man did not know the heartwood... or the twigs and 
leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood... he cut off its sapwood 
and took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was 
this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will 
not be served.' 

7. "Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, 
wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing 



The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 293 

possessed of heartwood, and cutting off only its heartwood, he 
would take it away knowing it was heartwood. Then a man 
with good sight, seeing him, might say: 'This good man knew 
the heartwood, the sapwood, the inner bark, the outer bark, and 
the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood, seeking 
heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, he came to a 
great tree standing possessed of heartwood, and cutting off only 
its heartwood, [200] he took it away knowing it was heartwood. 
Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, 
his purpose will be served.' 

8. "So too, brahmin, here some clansman goes forth out of 
faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a 
victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' 
When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and 
renown. He is pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and 
his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and 
disparages others thus: 'I have gain, honour, and renown, but 
these other bhikkhus are unknown, of no account.' So he arouses 
no desire to act, he makes no effort for the realisation of those 
other states that are higher and more sublime than gain, honour, 
and renown; he hangs back and slackens. 352 I say that this per- 
son is like the man needing heartwood, who came to a great tree 
standing possessed of heartwood, and passing over its heart- 
wood, its sapwood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, cut off its 
twigs and leaves and took them away thinking they were heart- 
wood; and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, 
his purpose will not have been served. 

9. "Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith from 
the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a victim of 
birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and 
despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an 
ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' When he 
has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He 
is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his 
intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud him- 
self and disparage others. He arouses desire to act and he makes 
an effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher 



294 Culasdropama Sutta: Sutta 30 


i 201 


and more sublime than gain, honour, and renown; he does not 
hang back and slacken. He achieves the attainment of virtue. He 
is pleased with that attainment of virtue and his intention is ful- 
filled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others 
thus: 'I am virtuous, of good character, but these other bhikkhus 
are immoral, of evil character.' So he arouses no desire to act, he 
makes no effort for the realisation of those other states that are 
higher and more sublime than the attainment of virtue; [201] he 
hangs back and slackens. I say that this person is like the man 
needing heartwood...who passing over its heartwood, its sap- 
wood, and its inner bark, cut off its outer bark and took it away 
thinking it was heartwood; and so whatever it was he had to 
make with heartwood, his purpose will not have been served. 

10. "Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith 
from the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a vic- 
tim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' 
When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and 
renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, 
and his intention is not fulfilled. He achieves the attainment of 
virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his 
intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud him- 
self and disparage others. He arouses desire to act and he makes 
an effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher 
and more sublime than, the attainment of virtue; he does not 
hang back and slacken. He achieves the attainment of concentra- 
tion. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration and his 
intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and dis- 
parages others thus: 'I am concentrated, my mind is unified, but 
these other bhikkhus are unconcentrated, with their minds 
astray.' So he arouses no desire to act, he makes no effort for the 
realisation of those other states that are higher and more sub- 
lime than the attainment of concentration; he hangs back and 
slackens. I say that this person is like the man needing heart- 
wood... who passing over its heartwood and its sap wood, cut 
off its inner bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood; 
and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, his pur- 
pose will not have been served. 

11. "Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith 


i 203 Tfc Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 295 

from the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a victim 
of birth, ageing, and death, [202] of sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' 
When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and 
renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, 
and his intention is not fulfilled... He achieves the attainment of 
virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his 
intention is not fulfilled... He achieves the attainment of concen- 
tration. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration, but 
his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud 
himself and disparage others. He arouses desire to act and he 
makes an effort for the realisation of those other states that are 
higher and more sublime than the attainment of concentration; 
he does not hang back and slacken. He achieves knowledge and 
vision. He is pleased with that knowledge and vision and his 
intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and dis- 
parages others thus: 'I live knowing and seeing, but these other 
bhikkhus live unknowing and unseeing.' So he arouses no 
desire to act, he makes no effort for the realisation of those other 
states that are higher and more sublime than knowledge and 
vision; he hangs back and slackens. I say that this person is like 
the man needing heartwood... who passing over its heartwood, 
cut off its sapwood and took it away thinking it was heartwood; 
and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, his pur- 
pose will not have been served. 

12. "Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith 
from the home life into homelessness, considering: 'I am a vic- 
tim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. 
Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.' 
When he has gone forth thus, [203] he acquires gain, honour, 
and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and 
renown, and his intention is not fulfilled ... He achieves the 
attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of 
virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled... He achieves the attain- 
ment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment of 
concentration, but his intention is not fulfilled... He achieves 
knowledge and vision. He is pleased with that knowledge and 
vision, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account 


296 Culasaropama Sutta: Sutta 30 


i 204 




of it, laud himself and disparage others. He arouses desire to act 
and he makes an effort for the realisation of those other states 
that are higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision; 
he does not hang back and slacken. 

"But what, brahmin, are the states that are higher and more 
sublime than knowledge and vision? 

13. "Here, brahmin, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, 
secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 
This is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and 
vision. 353 

14. "Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, 
a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which 
has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of concentra- 
tion. This too is a state higher and more sublime than knowl- 
edge and vision. 

15. "Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu 
abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling 
pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third 
jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: 'He has a pleas- 
ant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.' This too [204] is 
a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision. 

16. "Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with 
the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters 
upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor- 
pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. This too is 
a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision. 

17. "Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of 
form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, 
with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that 'space 
is infinite', a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infi- 
nite space. This too is a state higher and more sublime than 
knowledge and vision. 

18. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 
space, aware that 'consciousness is infinite/ a bhikkhu enters 
upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. This too is 
a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision. 

19. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 


. 205 The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 297 

consciousness, aware that 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu enters 
upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This too is a state 
jygher and more sublime than knowledge and vision. 

20. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of nothing- 
ness, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception. This too is a state higher and 
more sublime than knowledge and vision. 

21. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. And his taints 
are destroyed by seeing with wisdom. This too is a state higher 
and more sublime than knowledge and vision. These are the 
states that are higher and more sublime than knowledge and 
vision. 

22. "I say that this person, brahmin, is like a man needing 
heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heart- 
wood, who came to a great tree standing possessed of heart- 
wood, and cutting off its heartwood, took it away knowing it 
was heartwood; and so whatever it was he had to make with 
heartwood, his purpose will have been served. 

23. "So this holy life, brahmin, does not have gain, honour, 
and renown for its benefit, or the attainment of virtue for its 
benefit, or the attainment of concentration for its benefit, or 
knowledge and vision for its benefit. But it is [205] this unshake- 
able deliverance of mind that is the goal of this holy life, its 
heartwood, and its end." 

24. When this was said, the brahmin Pingalakoccha said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many 
ways, as though he were turning upright what had been over- 
thrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one 
who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with 
eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to 
the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let 
Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to 
him for refuge for life." 





4 

The Great Division of Pairs 

(Mahayamakavagga) 




31 Culagosinga Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Nadika in the Brick House. 

2. Now on that occasion the venerable Anuruddha, the vener- 
able Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila were living at the Park 
of the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood. 354 

3. Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from med- 
itation and went to the Park of the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood. The 
park keeper saw the Blessed One coming in the distance and 
told him: "Do not enter this park, recluse. There are three clans- 
men here seeking their own good. Do not disturb them." 

4. The venerable Anuruddha heard the park keeper speaking 
to the Blessed One and told him: "Friend park keeper, do not 
keep the Blessed One out. It is our Teacher, the Blessed One, 
who has come." Then the venerable Anuruddha went to the 
venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila and said: "Come 
out, venerable sirs, come out! Our Teacher, [206] the Blessed 
One, has come." 

5. Then all three went to meet the Blessed One. One took his 
bowl and outer robe, one prepared a seat, and one set out water 
for washing the feet. The Blessed One sat down on the seat made 
ready and washed his feet. Then those three venerable ones paid 
homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side. When they 
were seated, the Blessed One said to them: "I hope you are all 
keeping well, Anuruddha, I hope you are all comfortable, I hope 
you are not having any trouble getting almsfood." 

"We are keeping well. Blessed One, we are comfortable, and 
we are not having any trouble getting almsfood." 

6. "I hope, Anuruddha, that you are all living in concord, with 
mutual appreciation, without disputing, blending like milk and 
water, viewing each other with kindly eyes." 


302 Culagosinga Sutta: Sutta 31 


i 20 7 


1 

"Surely, venerable sir, we are living in concord, with mutual 
appreciation, without disputing, blending like milk and water, 
viewing each other with kindly eyes." 

"But, Anuruddha, how do you live thus?" 

7. "Venerable sir, as to that, I think thus: 'It is a gain for me, it 
is a great gain for me, that I am living with such companions in 
the holy life.' I maintain bodily acts of loving-kindness towards 
those venerable ones both openly and privately; I maintain ver- 
bal acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and pri- 
vately; I maintain mental acts of loving-kindness towards them 
both openly and privately. 355 I consider: 'Why should I not [207] 
set aside what I wish to do and do what these venerable ones 
wish to do?' Then I set aside what I wish to do and do what 
these venerable ones wish to do. We are different in body, ven- 
erable sir, but one in mind." 

The venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila each spoke 
likewise, adding: "That is how, venerable sir, we are living in 
concord, with mutual appreciation, without disputing, blending 
like milk and water, viewing each other with kindly eyes." 

8. "Good, good, Anuruddha. I hope that you all abide diligent, 

I ardent, and resolute." 

"Surely, venerable sir, we abide diligent, ardent, and resolute." 

I "But, Anuruddha, how do you abide thus?" 

| 9. "Venerable sir, as to that, whichever of us returns first from 

I the village with almsfood prepares the seats, sets out the water for 

I drinking and for washing, and puts the refuse bucket in its place, 

j Whichever of us returns last eats any food left over, if he wishes; 

| otherwise he throws it away where there is no greenery or drops 

it into water where there is no life. He puts away the seats and 
the water for drinking and for washing. He puts away the refuse 
bucket after washing it and he sweeps out the refectory. 
Whoever notices that the pots of water for drinking, washing, or 
the latrine are low or empty takes care of them. If they are too 
heavy for him, he calls someone else by a signal of the hand and 
they move it by joining hands, but because of this we do not 
break out into speech. But every five days we sit together all 
night discussing the Dhamma. That is how we abide diligent, 
ardent, and resolute." 

10. "Good, good, Anuruddha. But while you abide thus dili- 
gent, ardent, and resolute, have you attained any superhuman 


The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga 303 


state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble 
ones, a comfortable abiding?" 

"Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we 
want, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from 
unwholesome states, we enter upon and abide in the first jhana, 
which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with 
rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. Venerable sir, this is a 
superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision wor- 
thy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which we have 
attained while abiding diligent, ardent, and resolute." 

11-13. "Good, good, Anuruddha. But is there any other super- 
human state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the 
noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which you have attained by 
surmounting that abiding, [208] by making that abiding subside?" 

"Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we 
want, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, we 
enter upon and abide in the second jhana... With the fading 
away as well of rapture... we enter upon and abide in the third 
jhana... With the abandoning of pleasure and pain... we enter 
upon and abide in the fourth jhana. . .Venerable sir, this is another 
superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision wor- 
thy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which we have 
attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by making that 
abiding subside." 

14. "Good, good, Anuruddha. But is there any other super- 
human state... which you have attained by surmounting that 
abiding, by making that abiding subside?" 

"Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we 
want, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, 
with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with 
non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that 'space is 
infinite,’ [209] we enter upon and abide in the base of infinite 
space. Venerable sir, this is another superhuman state... which 
we have attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by 
making that abiding subside." 

15-17. "Good, good, Anuruddha. But is there any other super- 
human state... which you have attained by surmounting that 
abiding, by making that abiding subside?" 

"Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we 
want, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space. 


304 Culagosinga Sutta: Sutta 32 


i 210 


aware that 'consciousness is infinite/, we enter upon and abide 
in the base of infinite consciousness... By completely surmount- 
ing the base of infinite consciousness, aware that 'there is noth- 
ing/ we enter upon and abide in the base of nothingness... By 
completely surmounting the base of nothingness, we enter upon 
and abide in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. 
Venerable sir, this is another superhuman state. . .which we have 
attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by making that 
abiding subside." 

18. "Good, good Anuruddha. But is there any other super- 
human state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of 
the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which you have attained 
by surmounting that abiding, by making that abiding subside?" 

"Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we 
want, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception- 
nor-non-perception, we enter upon and abide in the cessation of 
perception and feeling. And our taints are destroyed by our see- 
ing with wisdom. Venerable sir, this is another superhuman 
state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble 
ones, a comfortable abiding, which we have attained by sur- 
mounting the preceding abiding, by making that abiding sub- 
side. And, venerable sir, we do not see any other comfortable 
abiding higher or more sublime than this one." 

"Good, good Anuruddha. There is no other comfortable abid- 
ing higher or more sublime than that one." 

19. Then, when the Blessed One had instructed, urged, roused, 
and encouraged the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable 
Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila with a talk on the 
Dhamma, he rose from his seat and departed. 

20. After they had accompanied the Blessed One a little way 
and turned back again, the venerable [210] Nandiya and the 
venerable Kimbila asked the venerable Anuruddha: "Have we 
ever reported to the venerable Anuruddha that we have 
obtained those abidings and attainments that the venerable 
Anuruddha, in the Blessed One's presence, ascribed to us up to 
the destruction of the taints?" 

"The venerable ones have never reported to me that they have 
obtained those abidings and attainments. Yet by encompassing 
the venerable ones' minds with my own mind, I know that they 
have obtained those abidings and attainments. And deities have 



The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga 305 



a l s o reported to me: 'These venerable ones have obtained those 
abidings and attainments/ Then I declared it when directly 
questioned by the Blessed One." 

21. Then the spirit Dlgha Parajana 356 went to the Blessed One. 
After paying homage to the Blessed One, he stood at one side 
and said: "It is a gain for the Vajjians, venerable sir, a great gain 
for the Vajjian people that the Tathagata, accomplished and 
fully enlightened, dwells among them and these three clansmen, 
the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Nandiya, and the ven- 
erable Kimbila!" On hearing the exclamation of the spirit Dlgha 
Parajana, the earth gods exclaimed: "It is a gain for the Vajjians, 
a great gain for the Vajjian people that the Tathagata, accom- 
plished and fully enlightened, dwells among them and these 
three clansmen, the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable 
Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila!" On hearing the exclama- 
tion of the earth gods, the gods of the heaven of the Four Great 
Kings... the gods of the heaven of the Thirty- three... the Yama 
gods... the gods of the Tusita heaven... the gods who delight in 
creating. . .the gods who wield power over others' creations. . .the 
gods of Brahma's retinue exclaimed: "It is a gain for the Vajjians, 
a great gain for the Vajjian people that the Tathagata, accom- 
plished and fully enlightened, dwells among them and these 
three clansmen, the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable 
Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila!" Thus at that instant, at 
that moment, those venerable ones were known as far as the 
Brahma-world. 

22. [The Blessed One said:] "So it is, Dlgha, so it is! And if the 
clan from which those three clansmen went forth from the home 
life into homelessness should remember them with confident 
heart, that would lead to the welfare and happiness of that clan 
for a long time. And if the retinue of the clan from which those 
three clansmen went forth [2 11]... the village from which they 
went forth... the town from which they went forth... the city 
from which they went forth... the country from which those 
three clansmen went forth from the home life into homelessness 
should remember them with confident heart, that would lead to 
the welfare and happiness of that country for a long time. If all 
nobles should remember those three clansmen with confident 
heart, that would lead to the welfare and happiness of the nobles 
for a long time. If all brahmins... all merchants... all workers 


306 Culagosinga Sutta: Sutta 31 


i 211 


should remember those three clansmen with confident heart, 
that would lead to the welfare and happiness of the workers for 
a long time. If the world with its gods, its Maras, and its 
Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its 
princes and its people, should remember those three clansmen 
with confident heart, that would lead to the welfare and happi- 
ness of the world for a long time. See, Dlgha, how those three 
clansmen are practising for the welfare and happiness of the 
many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare 
and happiness of gods and humans." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The spirit Dlgha Parajana 
was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



32 Mahagosinga Sutta 
The Greater Discourse in Gosinga 


[212] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
living in the Park of the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood together with a 
number of very well-known elder disciples - the venerable 
Sariputta, the venerable Maha Moggallana, the venerable Maha 
Kassapa, the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Revata, the 
venerable Ananda, and other very well-known elder disciples. 

2. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Maha Moggallana 
rose from meditation, went to the venerable Maha Kassapa, and 
said to him: "Friend Kassapa, let us go to the venerable Sari- 
putta to listen to the Dhamma." - "Yes, friend," the venerable 
Maha Kassapa replied. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana, 
the venerable Maha Kassapa, and the venerable Anuruddha 
went to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma. 

3. The venerable Ananda saw them going to the venerable 
Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma. Thereupon he went to the 
venerable Revata and said to him: "Friend Revata, those true 
men are going to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the 
Dhamma. Let us also go to the venerable Sariputta to listen to 
the Dhamma." - "Yes, friend," the venerable Revata replied. 
Then the venerable Revata and the venerable Ananda went to 
the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma. 

4. Tire venerable Sariputta saw the venerable Revata and the 
venerable Ananda coming in the distance and said to the vener- 
able Ananda: "Let the venerable Ananda come, welcome to the 
venerable Ananda, the Blessed One's attendant, who is always 
in the Blessed One's presence. Friend Ananda, the Gosinga Sala- 
tree Wood is delightful, the night is moonlit, the sala trees are all 
in blossom, and heavenly scents seem to be floating in the air. 
What kind of bhikkhu, friend Ananda, could illuminate the 
Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?" 


307 


308 Mahagosinga Sutta: Sutta 32 


i 213 


"Here, friend [213] Sariputta, a bhikkhu has learned much, 
remembers what he has learned, and consolidates what he has 
learned. Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in 
the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and 
phrasing, and which affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and 
pure - such teachings as these he has learned much of, remem- 
bered, mastered verbally, investigated with the mind, and pene- 
trated well by view. And he teaches the Dhamma to the four 
assemblies with well-rounded and coherent statements and 
phrases for the eradication of the underlying tendencies. 357 That 
kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood." 

5. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the 
venerable Revata thus: "Friend Revata, the venerable Ananda 
has spoken according to his own inspiration. 358 Now we ask the 
venerable Revata: Friend Revata, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is 
delightful, the night is moonlit, the sala trees are all in blossom, 
and heavenly scents seem to be floating in the air. What kind of 
bhikkhu, friend Revata, could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree 
Wood?" 

"Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu delights in solitary medita- 
tion and takes delight in solitary meditation; he is devoted to 
internal serenity of mind, does not neglect meditation, possesses 
insight, and dwells in empty huts. 359 That kind of bhikkhu could 
illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood." 

6. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the 
venerable Anuruddha thus: "Friend Anuruddha, the venerable 
Revata has spoken according to his own inspiration. Now we 
ask the venerable Anuruddha: Friend Anuruddha, the Gosinga 
Sala-tree Wood is delightful... What kind of bhikkhu, friend 
Anuruddha, could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?" 

"Here, friend Sariputta, with the divine eye, which is purified 
and surpasses the human, a bhikkhu surveys a thousand 
worlds. Just as a man with good sight, when he has ascended to 
the upper palace chamber, might survey a thousand wheel-rims, 
so too, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the 
human, a bhikkhu surveys a thousand worlds. 360 That kind of 
bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood." 

7. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the 
venerable Maha Kassapa thus: "Friend Kassapa, the venerable 
Anuruddha has spoken according to his own inspiration. Now 


1214 


The Greater Discourse in Gosinga 309 


we a sk the venerable Maha Kassapa: Friend Kassapa, the Gosinga 
gala-tree Wood is delightful... What kind of bhikkhu, friend 
Kassapa, [214] could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?" 

"Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu is a forest dweller himself 
and speaks in praise of forest dwelling; he is an almsfood eater 
himself and speaks in praise of eating almsfood; he is a refuse- 
rag wearer himself and speaks in praise of wearing refuse-rag 
robes; he is a triple-robe wearer himself and speaks in praise of 
wearing the triple robe; 361 he has few wishes himself and speaks 
in praise of fewness of wishes; he is content himself and speaks 
in praise of contentment; he is secluded himself and speaks in 
praise of seclusion; he is aloof from society himself and speaks 
in praise of aloofness from society; he is energetic himself and 
speaks in praise of arousing energy; he has attained to virtue 
himself and speaks in praise of the attainment of virtue; he has 
attained to concentration himself and speaks in praise of the 
attainment of concentration; he has attained to wisdom himself 
and speaks in praise of the attainment of wisdom; he has 
attained to deliverance himself and speaks in praise of the 
attainment of deliverance; he has attained to the knowledge and 
vision of deliverance himself and speaks in praise of the attain- 
ment of the knowledge and vision of deliverance. That kind of 
bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood." 

8. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the 
venerable Maha Moggallana thus: "Friend Moggallana, the ven- 
erable Maha Kassapa has spoken according to his own inspira- 
tion. Now we ask the venerable Maha Moggallana: Friend 
Moggallana, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is delightful... What 
kind of bhikkhu, friend Moggallana, could illuminate this 
Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?" 



9. When this was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana 
addressed the venerable Sariputta thus: "Friend Sariputta, we 
have all spoken according to our own inspiration. Now we ask 
the venerable Sariputta: Friend Sariputta, the Gosinga Sala-tree 
Wood is delightful, the night is moonlit, the sala trees are all in 


310 Mahagosinga Sutta: Sutta 32 


i 216 


blossom, and heavenly scents seem to be floating in the air. 
What kind of bhikkhu, friend Sariputta, could illuminate this 
Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?" 

"Here, friend Moggallana, a bhikkhu wields mastery over his 
mind, he does not let the mind wield mastery over him. In the 
morning he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants 
[215] to abide in during the morning; at mid-day he abides in 
whatever abiding or attainment he wants to abide in at mid-day; 
in the evening he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he 
wants to abide in during the evening. Suppose a king or a king's 
minister had a chest full of variously coloured garments. In the 
morning he could put on whatever pair of garments he wanted 
to put on in the morning; at mid-day he could put on whatever 
pair of garments he wanted to put on at mid-day; in the evening 
he could put on whatever pair of garments he wanted to put on 
in the evening. So too, a bhikkhu wields mastery over his mind, 
he does not let the mind wield mastery over him. In the morn- 
ing... at mid-day... in the evening he abides in whatever abiding 
or attainment he wants to abide in during the evening. That 
kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood." 

10. Then the venerable Sariputta addressed those venerable 
ones thus: "Friends, we have all spoken according to our own 
inspiration. Let us go to the Blessed One and report this matter 
to him. As the Blessed One answers, so let us remember it." - 
"Yes, friend," they replied. Then those venerable ones went to 
the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they sat down 
at one side. The venerable Sariputta said to the Blessed One: 

11. "Venerable sir, the venerable Revata and the venerable 
Ananda came to me to listen to the Dhamma. I saw them com- 
ing in the distance and [216] said to the venerable Ananda: 'Let 
the venerable Ananda come, welcome to the venerable 
Ananda. ..Friend Ananda, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is 
delightful. ..What kind of bhikkhu, friend Ananda, could illumi- 
nate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?' When asked, venerable sir, 
the venerable Ananda replied: 'Here, friend Sariputta, a 
bhikkhu has learned much... (as in §4 ),.. That kind of bhikkhu 
could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood/" 

"Good, good, Sariputta. Ananda, speaking rightly, should 
speak just as he did. For Ananda has learned much, remembers 
what he has learned, and consolidates what he has learned. 


The Greater Discourse in Gosinga 311 


*218 

Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in the middle, 
and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and 
^rhich affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure - such 
teachings as these he has learned much of, remembered, mas- 
tered verbally, investigated with the mind, and penetrated well 
by view. And he teaches the Dhamma to the four assemblies 
with well-rounded and coherent statements and phrases for the 
eradication of the underlying tendencies." 

12. "When this was said, venerable sir, I addressed the vener- 
able Revata thus: 'Friend Revata...What kind of bhikkhu could 
illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?' And the venerable 
Revata replied: 'Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu delights in 
solitary meditation . ..(as in §5 ). . .That kind of bhikkhu could illu- 
minate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.'" 

"Good, good, Sariputta. Revata, speaking rightly, should 
speak just as he did. For Revata delights in solitary meditation, 
takes delight in solitary meditation, is devoted to internal seren- 
ity of mind, does not neglect meditation, possesses insight, and 
dwells in empty huts." [217] 

13. "When that was said, venerable sir, I addressed the vener- 
able Anuruddha thus: 'Friend Anuruddha...What kind of 
bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?' And 
the venerable Anuruddha replied: 'Here, friend Sariputta, with 
the divine eye.. .(as in §6 ). ..That kind of bhikkhu could illumi- 
nate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.'" 

"Good, good, Sariputta. Anuruddha, speaking rightly, 
should speak just as he did. For with the divine eye, which is 
purified and surpasses the human, Anuruddha surveys a thou- 
sand worlds." 

14. "When this was said, venerable sir, I addressed the vener- 
able Maha Kassapa thus: 'Friend Kassapa... What kind of 
bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?' And 
the venerable Maha Kassapa replied: 'Here, friend Sariputta, a 
bhikkhu is a forest-dweller himself. ..(as in §7 ). ..That kind of 
bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.'" [218] 

"Good, good, Sariputta. Kassapa, speaking rightly, should 
speak just as he did. For Kassapa is a forest-dweller himself and 
speaks in praise of forest dwelling. . .he has attained to the knowl- 
edge and vision of deliverance himself and speaks in praise of the 
attainment of the knowledge and vision of deliverance." 


312 MahSgosinga Sutta: Sutta 32 


i 219 


15. "When this was said, venerable sir, I addressed the vener- 
able Maha Moggallana thus: 'Friend Moggallana... What kind of 
bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?' And 
the venerable Maha Moggallana replied: 'Here, friend Sariputta, 
two bhikkhus engage in a talk on the higher Dhamma...(as in 
§8 )... That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala- 
tree Wood.'" 

"Good, good, Sariputta. Moggallana, speaking rightly, 
should speak just as he did. For Moggallana is one who talks on 
the Dhamma." 

16. When that was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana told 
the Blessed One: "Then, venerable sir, I addressed the venerable 
Sariputta thus: 'Friend Sariputta... What kind of bhikkhu could 
illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?' And the venerable 
Sariputta replied: 'Here, friend Moggallana, a bhikkhu wields 
mastery over his mind... [219] (as in §9 )...' That kind of bhikkhu 
could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood,"' 

"Good, good, Moggallana. Sariputta, speaking rightly, should 
speak just as he did. For Sariputta wields mastery over his 
mind, he does not let the mind wield mastery over him. In the 
morning he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants 
to abide in during the morning; at mid-day he abides in whatev- 
er abiding or attainment he wants to abide in at mid-day; in the 
evening he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants 
to abide in during the evening." 

17. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta asked the 
Blessed One: "Venerable sir, which of us has spoken well?" 

"You have all spoken well, Sariputta, each in his own way. 
Hear also from me what kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this 
Gosinga Sala-tree Wood. Here, Sariputta, when a bhikkhu has 
returned from his almsround, after his meal, he sits down, folds 
his legs crosswise, sets his body erect, and establishing mindful- 
ness in front of him, resolves: 'I shall not break this sitting posi- 
tion until through not clinging my mind is liberated from the 
taints.' That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala- 
tree Wood." 363 

That is what the Blessed One said. Those venerable ones were 
satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


33 Mahagopalaka Sutta 
The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd 


[220] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - 
"Venerable sir/' they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, when a cowherd possesses eleven factors, he is 
incapable of keeping and rearing a herd of cattle. What eleven? 
Here a cowherd has no knowledge of form, he is unskilled in 
characteristics, he fails to pick out flies' eggs, he fails to dress 
wounds, he fails to smoke out the sheds, he does not know the 
watering place, he does not know what it is to have drunk, he 
does not know the road, he is unskilled in pastures, he milks 
dry, and he shows no extra veneration to those bulls who are 
fathers and leaders of the herd. When a cowherd possesses 
these eleven factors, he is incapable of keeping and rearing a 
herd of cattle. 

3. "So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu possesses eleven quali- 
ties, he is incapable of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this 
Dhamma and Discipline. What eleven? Here a bhikkhu has no 
knowledge of form, he is unskilled in characteristics, he fails to 
pick out flies' eggs, he fails to dress wounds, he fails to smoke 
out the sheds, he does not know the watering place, he does not 
know what it is to have drunk, he does not know the road, he is 
unskilled in pastures, he milks dry, and he shows no extra ven- 
eration to those elder bhikkhus of long-standing who have long 
gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha. 

4. "How has a bhikkhu no knowledge of form? Here a 
bhikkhu does not understand as it actually is thus: 'All material 
form of whatever kind consists of the four great elements and 
the material form derived from the four great elements.' That is 
how a bhikkhu has no knowledge of form. 


313 


314 Mahagopalaka Sutta: Sutta 33 i 221 


5. "How is a bhikkhu unskilled in characteristics? Here a 
bhikkhu does not understand as it actually is thus: 'A fool is 
characterised by his actions; a wise man is characterised by his 
actions/ That is how a bhikkhu is unskilled in characteristics. 364 

6. "How does a bhikkhu fail to pick out flies 7 eggs? Here, 
when a thought of sensual desire has arisen, a bhikkhu tolerates 
it; he does not abandon it, remove it, do away with it, and anni- 
hilate it. When a thought of ill will has arisen... When a thought 
of cruelty has arisen... When evil unwholesome states have 
arisen, a bhikkhu tolerates them; [221] he does not abandon 
them, remove them, do away with them, and annihilate them. 
That is how a bhikkhu fails to pick out flies' eggs. 

7. "How does a bhikkhu fail to dress wounds? Here, on seeing 
a form with the eye, a bhikkhu grasps at its signs and features. 
Even though, when he leaves the eye faculty unguarded, evil 
unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade 
him, he does not practise the way of its restraint, he does not 
guard the eye faculty, he does not undertake the restraint of the 
eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear... On smelling an 
odour with the nose. . .On tasting a flavour with the tongue. . .On 
touching a tangible with the body... On cognizing a mind-object 
with the mind, he grasps at its signs and features. Even though, 
when he leaves the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome 
states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he does not 
practise the way of its restraint, he does not guard the mind fac- 
ulty, he does not undertake the restraint of the mind faculty. 
That is how a bhikkhu fails to dress wounds. 

8. "How does a bhikkhu fail to smoke out the sheds? Here a 
bhikkhu does not teach others in detail the Dhamma as he has 
learned it and mastered it. That is how a bhikkhu fails to smoke 
out the sheds. 

9. "How does a bhikkhu not know the watering place? Here a 
bhikkhu does not go from time to time to those bhikkhus who 
have learned much, who are well versed in the tradition, who 
maintain the Dhamma, the Discipline, and the Codes, 365 and he 
does not enquire and ask questions of them thus: 'How is this, 
venerable sir? What is the meaning of this?' These venerable 
ones do not reveal to him what has not been revealed, do not 
clarify what is not clear, or remove his doubts about the numer- 
ous things that give rise to doubt. That is how a bhikkhu does 


i 222 


The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd 315 


not know the watering place. 

10. "How does a bhikkhu not know what it is to have drunk? 
Here, when the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the 
Tathagata is being taught, a bhikkhu does not gain inspiration in 
the meaning, does not gain inspiration in the Dhamma, does not 
gain gladness connected with the Dhamma. 366 That is how a 
bhikkhu does not know what it is to have drunk. 

11. "How does a bhikkhu not know the road? Here a bhikkhu 
does not understand the Noble Eightfold Path as it actually is. 
That is how a bhikkhu does not know the road. 

12. "How is a bhikkhu unskilled in pastures? Here a bhikkhu 
does not understand the four foundations of mindfulness as 
they actually are. That is how [222] a bhikkhu is unskilled in 
pastures. 367 

13. "How does a bhikkhu milk dry? Here, when faithful 
householders invite a bhikkhu to take as much as he likes of 
robes, almsfood, resting places, and medicinal requisites, the 
bhikkhu does not know moderation in accepting. That is how a 
bhikkhu milks dry. 

14. "How does a bhikkhu show no extra veneration to those 
elder bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the 
fathers and leaders of the Sangha? Here a bhikkhu does not main- 
tain bodily acts of loving-kindness both openly and privately 
towards those elder bhikkhus; he does not maintain verbal acts 
of loving-kindness towards them both openly and privately; he 
does not maintain mental acts of loving-kindness towards them 
both openly and privately. That is how a bhikkhu shows no extra 
veneration to those elder bhikkhus of long-standing who have 
long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha. 

"When a bhikkhu possesses these eleven qualities, he is inca- 
pable of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and 
Discipline. 

15. "Bhikkhus, when a cowherd possesses eleven factors, he 
is capable of keeping and rearing a herd of cattle. What eleven? 
Here a cowherd has knowledge of form, he is skilled in charac- 
teristics, he picks out flies' eggs, he dresses wounds, he smokes 
out the sheds, he knows the watering place, he knows what it 
is to have drunk, he knows the road, he is skilled in pastures, 
he does not milk dry, and he shows extra veneration to those 
bulls who are fathers and leaders of the herd. When a cowherd 


316 Mahagopalaka Sutta: Suita 33 


i 223 


possesses these eleven factors, he is capable of keeping and rear- 
ing a herd of cattle. 

16. “So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu possesses these eleven 
qualities, he is capable of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this 
Dhamma and Discipline. What eleven? Here a bhikkhu has 
knowledge of form, he is skilled in characteristics, he picks out 
flies' eggs, he dresses wounds, he smokes out the sheds, he 
knows the watering place, he knows what it is to have drunk, he 
knows the road, he is skilled in pastures, he does not milk dry, 
and he shows extra veneration to those elder bhikkhus of long- 
standing who have long since gone forth, the fathers and leaders 
of the Sangha. 

17. “How does a bhikkhu have knowledge of form? Here a 
bhikkhu understands as it actually is thus: 'AH material form of 
whatever kind consists of the four [223] great elements and the 
material form derived from the four great elements/ That is how 
a bhikkhu has knowledge of form. 

18. “How is a bhikkhu skilled in characteristics? Here a 
bhikkhu understands as it actually is thus: 'A fool is charac- 
terised by his actions; a wise man is characterised by his actions/ 
That is how a bhikkhu is skilled in characteristics. 

19. "How does a bhikkhu pick out flies' eggs? Here, when a 
thought of sensual desire has arisen, a bhikkhu does not tolerate 
it; he abandons it, removes it, does away with it, and annihi- 
lates it. When a thought of ill will has arisen... When a thought 
of cruelty has arisen... When evil unwholesome states have 
arisen, a bhikkhu does not tolerate them; he abandons them, 
removes them, does away with them, and annihilates them. 
That is how a bhikkhu picks out flies' eggs. 

20. "How does a bhikkhu dress wounds? Here, on seeing a 
form with the eye, a bhikkhu does not grasp at its signs and fea- 
tures. Since if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwhole- 
some states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he 
practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he 
undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound 
with the ear . . .On smelling an odour with the nose . . . On tasting a 
flavour with the tongue. ..On touching a tangible with the 
body... On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, a bhikkhu 
does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind 
faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness 


The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd 317 


i 224 


an d grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, 
ke guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the 
mind faculty. That is how a bhikkhu dresses wounds. 

21. "How does a bhikkhu smoke out the sheds? Here a 
bhikkhu teaches others in detail the Dhamma as he has learned 
it and mastered it. That is how a bhikkhu smokes out the sheds. 

22. "How does a bhikkhu know the watering place? Here a 
bhikkhu goes from time to time to such bhikkhus who have 
learned much, who are well versed in the tradition, who main- 
tain the Dhamma, the Discipline, and the Codes, and he enquires 
and asks questions of them thus: 'How is this, venerable sir? 
What is the meaning of this?' These venerable ones reveal to him 
what has not been revealed, clarify what is not clear, and remove 
his doubts about the numerous things that give rise to doubt. 
That is how a bhikkhu knows the watering place. 

23. "How does [224] a bhikkhu know what it is to have drunk? 
Here, when the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the 
Tathagata is being taught, a bhikkhu gains inspiration in the 
meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness con- 
nected with the Dhamma. That is how a bhikkhu knows what it 
is to have drunk. 

24. "How does a bhikkhu know the road? Here a bhikkhu 
understands the Noble Eightfold Path as it actually is. That is 
how a bhikkhu understands the road. 

25. "How is a bhikkhu skilled in pastures? Here a bhikkhu 
understands the four foundations of mindfulness as they actually 
are. That is how a bhikkhu is skilled in pastures. 

26. "How does a bhikkhu not milk dry? Here, when faithful 
householders invite a bhikkhu to take as much as he likes of 
robes, almsfood, resting places, and medicinal requisites, the 
bhikkhu knows moderation in accepting. That is how a bhikkhu 
does not milk dry. 

27. "How does a bhikkhu show extra veneration to those elder 
bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the fathers 
and leaders of the Sangha? Here a bhikkhu maintains bodily 
acts of loving-kindness both openly and privately towards those 
elder bhikkhus; he maintains verbal acts of loving-kindness 
towards them both openly and privately; he maintains mental 
acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and private- 
ly. That is how a bhikkhu shows extra veneration to those elder 


318 MaMgopalaka Sutta: Sutta 33 


i 224 


bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the fathers 
and leaders of the Sangha. 

"When a bhikkhu possesses these eleven qualities, he is capa- 
ble of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and 
Discipline." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


34 Culagopalaka Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd 


[225] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living in the Vajjian country at Ukkacela on the banks of the 
river Ganges. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, there was once a foolish Magadhan cowherd 
who, in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, with- 
out examining the near shore or the further shore of the river 
Ganges, drove his cattle across to the other shore in the Videhan 
country at a place that had no ford. Then the cattle bunched 
together in mid-stream in the river Ganges, and they met with 
calamity and disaster. Why was that? Because that foolish 
Magadhan cowherd, in the last month of the rainy season, in the 
autumn, without examining the near shore or the further shore 
of the river Ganges, drove his cattle across to the other shore in 
the Videhan country at a place that had no ford. 

3. "So too, bhikkhus, as to those recluses and brahmins who 
are unskilled in this world and the other world, unskilled in 
Mara's realm and what is outside Mara's realm, unskilled in the 
realm of Death and what is outside the realm of Death - it will 
lead to the harm and suffering for a long time of those who 
think they should listen to them and place faith in them. 

4. "Bhikkhus, there was once a wise Magadhan cowherd who, 
in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, after exam- 
ining the near shore and the further shore of the river Ganges, 
drove his cattle across to the other shore in the Videhan country 
at a place that had a ford. He made the bulls, the fathers and 
leaders of the herd, enter first, and they breasted the stream of 
the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore. He made 
the strong cattle and the cattle to be tamed enter next, and they 


319 


320 Culagopalaka Sutta: Sutta 34 


i226 


too breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to 
the further shore. He made the heifers and young oxen enter 
next, and they too breasted the stream of the Ganges and got 
safely across to the further shore. He made the calves and the 
feeble cattle enter next, and they too breasted the stream of the 
Ganges and got safely across to the further shore. At the time 
there was a tender calf just born, and being urged on by its 
mother's lowing, it too breasted the stream of the Ganges and 
got safely across to the further shore. Why was that? Because 
that wise Magadhan cowherd, [226] in the last month of the 
rainy season, in the autumn, after examining the near shore and 
the further shore of the river Ganges, drove his cattle across to 
the other shore in the Videhan country at a place that had a ford. 

5. "So too, bhikkhus, as to those recluses and brahmins who 
are skilled in this world and the other world, skilled in Mara's 
realm and what is outside Mara's realm, skilled in the realm of 
Death and what is outside the realm of Death - it will lead to the 
welfare and happiness for a long time of those who think they 
should listen to them and place faith in them. 

6. "Bhikkhus, just as the bulls, the fathers and leaders of the 
herd, breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to 
the further shore, so too, those bhikkhus who are arahants with 
taints destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to 
be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed 
the fetters of being, and are completely liberated through final 
knowledge - by breasting Mara's stream they have gotten safely 
across to the further shore. 

7. "Just as the strong cattle and the cattle to be tamed breasted 
the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further 
shore, so too, those bhikkhus who, with the destruction of the 
five lower fetters, will reappear spontaneously [in the Pure 
Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning 
from that world - by breasting Mara's stream they will get safely 
across to the further shore. 

8. "Just as the heifers and young oxen breasted the stream of 
the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore, so too, those 
bhikkhus who, with the destruction of three fetters and with the 
attenuation of lust, hate, and delusion, are once-returners, 
returning once to this world to make an end of suffering - by 
breasting Mara's stream they too will get safely across to the fur- 


i22 7 


The Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd 321 


ther shore. 

9. "Just as the calves and the feeble cattle breasted the stream 
of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore, so too, 
those bhikkhus who, with the destruction of three fetters, are 
stream-enterers, no longer subject to perdition, bound [for deliv- 
erance!, headed for enlightenment - by breasting Mara's stream 
they too will get safely across to the further shore. 

10. "Just as that tender calf just born, being urged on by its 
mother's lowing, also breasted the stream of the Ganges and got 
safely across to the further shore, so too, those bhikkhus who are 
Dhamma-followers and faith-followers - by breasting Mara's 
stream they too will get safely across to the further shore. 368 

11. "Bhikkhus, I am [227] skilled in this world and in the other 
world, skilled in Mara's realm and in what is outside Mara's 
realm, skilled in the realm of Death and in what is outside the 
realm of Death. It will lead to the welfare and happiness for a 
long time of those who think they should listen to me and place 
faith in me." 

12. That is what the Blessed One said. When the Sublime One 
had said that, the Teacher said further. 

"Both this world and the world beyond 
Are well described by the one who knows. 

And what is still in Mara's reach 
And what is out of reach of Death. 

Knowing directly all the world. 

The Enlightened One who understands 
Opened the door to the deathless state 
By which Nibbana may be safely reached; 

For Mara's stream is breasted now. 

Its current blocked, its reeds removed; 

Rejoice then, bhikkhus, mightily 
And set your hearts where safety lies." 


35 Culasaccaka Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Vesall in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. 

2. Now on that occasion Saccaka the Nigantha's son was stay- 
ing at Vesall, a debater and a clever speaker regarded by many as 
a saint. 369 He was making this statement before the Vesall assem- 
bly: "I see no recluse or brahmin, the head of an order, the head 
of a group, the teacher of a group, even one claiming to be 
accomplished and fully enlightened, who would not shake, shiv- 
er, and tremble, and sweat under the armpits if he were to 
engage in debate with me. Even if I were to engage a senseless 
post in debate, it would shake, shiver, and tremble if it were to 
engage in debate with me, so what shall I say of a human being?" 

3. Then, when it was morning, the venerable Assaji dressed, 
and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Vesall for alms. 370 
As Saccaka the Nigantha's son was walking and wandering for 
exercise in Vesall, [228] he saw the venerable Assaji coming in 
the distance and went up’ to him and exchanged greetings with 
him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son stood at one side and said to him: 

4. "Master Assaji, how does the recluse Gotama discipline his 
disciples? And how is the recluse Gotama 's instruction usually 
presented to his disciples?" 

"This is how the Blessed One disciplines his disciples, Aggi- 
vessana, and this is how the Blessed One's instruction is usually 
presented to his disciples: 'Bhikkhus, material form is imperma- 
nent, feeling is impermanent, perception is impermanent, forma- 
tions are impermanent, consciousness is impermanent. Bhikkhus, 
material form is not self, feeling is not self, perception is not self, 
formations are not self, consciousness is not self. All formations 
are impermanent; all things are not self.' 371 That is how the 


322 


The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 323 


' i 229 

Blessed One disciplines his disciples, and that is how the Blessed 
One's instruction is usually presented to his disciples." 

"If this is what the recluse Gotama asserts, we hear indeed 
what is disagreeable. Perhaps sometime or other we might meet 
Master Gotama and have some conversation with him. Perhaps 
we might detach him from that evil view." 

5. Now at that time five hundred Licchavis had met together 
in an assembly hall for some business or other. Then Saccaka the 
Nigantha's son went to them and said: "Come forth, good 
Licchavis, come forth! Today there will be some conversation 
between me and the recluse Gotama. If the recluse Gotama 
maintains before me what was maintained before me by one of 
his famous disciples, the bhikkhu named Assaji, then just as a 
strong man might seize a long-haired ram by the hair and drag 
him to and drag him fro and drag him round about, so in debate 
I will drag the recluse Gotama to and drag him fro and drag him 
round about. Just as a strong brewer's workman might throw a 
big brewer's sieve into a deep water tank, and taking it by the 
corners, drag it to and drag it fro and drag it round about, so in 
debate I will drag the recluse Gotama to and drag him fro and 
drag him round about. Just as a strong brewer's mixer [229] 
might take a strainer by the corners and shake it down and 
shake it up and thump it about, so in debate I will shake the 
recluse Gotama down and shake him up and thump him about. 
And just as a sixty-year-old elephant might plunge into a deep 
pond and enjoy playing the game of hemp-washing, so I shall 
enjoy playing the game of hemp-washing with the recluse 
Gotama. 372 Come forth, good Licchavis, come forth! Today there 
will be some conversation between me and the reduse Gotama." 

6. Thereupon some Licchavis said: "How can the recluse 
Gotama refute Saccaka the Nigantha's son's assertions? On the 
contrary, Saccaka the Nigantha's son will refute the recluse 
Gotama's assertions." And some Licchavis said: "Who is 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son that he could refute the Blessed 
One's assertions? On the contrary, the Blessed One will refute 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son's assertions." Then Saccaka the 
Nigantha's son went with five hundred Licchavis to the Hall 
with the Peaked Roof in the Great Wood. 

7. Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus were walking 
up and down in the open. Then Saccaka the Nigantha's son 


324 Culasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 35 


i 230 


went up to them and asked: "Where is Master Gotama staying 
now, sirs? We want to see Master Gotama." 

"The Blessed One has entered the Great Wood, Aggivessana, 
and is sitting at the root of a tree for the day's abiding." 

8. Then Saccaka the Nigantha's son, together with a large fol- 
lowing of Licchavis, entered the Great Wood and went to the 
Blessed One. He exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and 
after this courteous and amiable talk was finished, sat down at 
one side. Some of the Licchavis paid homage to the Blessed One 
and sat down at one side; some exchanged greetings with him, 
and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, sat 
down at one side; some extended their hands in reverential 
salutation towards the Blessed One and sat down at one side; 
some pronounced their name and clan in the Blessed One's 
presence and sat down at one side; some kept silent and sat 
down at one side. 

9. When Saccaka the Nigantha's son had sat down, he said to 
the Blessed One: "I would like to question Master Gotama on a 
certain point, if Master Gotama would grant me the favour of an 
answer to the question." 

"Ask what you like, Aggivessarta." [230] 

"How does Master Gotama discipline his disciples? And how is 
Master Gotama's instruction usually presented to his disciples?" 

"This is how I discipline my disciples, Aggivessana, and this is 
how my instruction is usually presented to my disciples: 
'Bhikkhus, material form is impermanent, feeling is imperma- 
nent, perception is impermanent, formations are impermanent, 
consciousness is impermanent. Bhikkhus, material form is not 
self, feeling is not self, perception is not self, formations are not 
self, consciousness is not self. All formations are impermanent; all 
things are not self.' That is the way I discipline my disciples, and 
that is how my instruction is usually presented to my disciples." 

10. "A simile occurs to me. Master Gotama." 

"Explain how it occurs to you, Aggivessana," the Blessed 
One said. 

"Just as when seeds and plants, whatever their kind, reach 
growth, increase, and maturation, all do so in dependence upon 
the earth, based upon the earth; and just as when strenuous 
works, whatever their kind, are done, all are done in depen- 
dence upon the earth, based upon the earth - so too. Master 



Gotama, a person has material form as self, and based upon 
material form he produces merit or demerit. A person has feeling 
a s self, and based upon feeling he produces merit or demerit. A 
person has perception as self, and based upon perception he 
produces merit or demerit. A person has formations as self, and 
based upon formations he produces merit or demerit. A person 
has consciousness as self, and based upon consciousness he pro- 
duces merit or demerit." 

11. "Aggivessana, are you not asserting thus: 'Material form is 
my self, feeling is my self, perception is my self, formations are 
my self, consciousness is my self'?" 

"I assert thus. Master Gotama: 'Material form is my self, feel- 
ing is my self, perception is my self, formations are my self, con- 
sciousness is my self.' And so does this great multitude." 373 

"What has this great multitude to do with you, Aggivessana? 
Please confine yourself to your own assertion alone." 

"Then, Master Gotama, I assert thus: 'Material form is my self, 
feeling is my self, perception is my self, formations are my self, 
consciousness is my self. ' " j 

12. "In that case, Aggivessana, I shall ask you a question in 
return. Answer it as you choose. [231] What do you think, 
Aggivessana? Would a head-anointed noble king - for example, 
King Pasenadi of Kosala or King Ajatasattu Vedehiputta of 
Magadha - exercise the power in his own realm to execute those 
who should be executed, to fine those who should be fined, and 
to banish those who should be banished?" 

"Master Gotama, a head-anointed noble king - for example. 
King Pasenadi of Kosala or King Ajatasattu Vedehiputta of 
Magadha - would exercise the power in his own realm to execute 
those who should be executed, to fine those who should be fined, 
and to banish those who should be banished. For even these [oli- 
garchic] communities and societies such as the Vajjians and the 
Mallians exercise the power in their own realm to execute those 
who should be executed, to fine those who should be fined, and 
to banish those who should be banished; so all tire more so should 
a head-anointed noble king such as King Pasenadi of Kosala or 
King Ajatasattu Vedehiputta of Magadha. He would exercise it. 
Master Gotama, and he would be worthy to exercise it." 

13. "What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say thus: 
Material form is my self,' do you exercise any such power over 



326 Culasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 35 


i 232 


that material form as to say: 'Let my form be thus; let my form 1 
not be thus'?" 374 When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha's son 
was silent. 

A second time the Blessed One asked the same question, and a 
second time Saccaka the Nigantha's son was silent. Then the 
Blessed One said to him: "Aggivessana, answer now. Now is not 
the time to be silent. If anyone, when asked a reasonable ques- 
tion up to the third time by the Tathagata, still does not answer, 
his head splits into seven pieces there and then." 

14. Now on that occasion a thunderbolt-wielding spirit hold- 
ing an iron thunderbolt that burned, blazed, and glowed, 
appeared in the air above Saccaka the Nigantha's son, thinking: 

"If this Saccaka the Nigantha's son, when asked a reasonable 
question up to the third time by the Blessed One, still does not 
answer, I shall split his head into seven pieces here and now." 375 
The Blessed One saw the thunderbolt-wielding spirit and so did 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son. Then Saccaka the Nigantha's son 
was frightened, alarmed, and terrified. [232] Seeking his shelter, 
asylum, and refuge in the Blessed One, he said: "Ask me. Master 
Gotama, I will answer." 

15. "What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say thus: 
'Material form is my self,' do you exercise any such power over 
that material form as to say: 'Let my form be thus; let my form 
not be thus'?" - "No, Master Gotama." 

16. "Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! 
What you said before does not agree with what you said after- 
wards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you 
said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say 
thus: 'Feeling is my self,' do you exercise any power over that 
feeling as to say: 'Let my feeling be thus; let my feeling not be 
thus'?" - "No, Master Gotama." 

17. "Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! 
What you said before does not agree with what you said after- 
wards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you 
said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say 
thus: 'Perception is my self,' do you exercise any power over 
that perception as to say; 'Let my perception be thus; let my per- 
ception not be thus'?" - "No, Master Gotama." 

18. "Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you 
reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said 


The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 327 


afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what 
oU said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When you 
ga y thus: 'Formations are my self/ do you exercise any such 
power over those formations as to say: 'Let my formations be 
thus; let my formations not be thus'?" - "No, Master Gotama." 

19. "Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you 
reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said 
afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with 
what you said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When 
you say thus: 'Consciousness is my self/ do you exercise any 
such power over that consciousness as to say: 'Let my con- 
sciousness be thus; let my consciousness not be thus'?" - "No, 
Master Gotama." 

20. "Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! 
What you said before does not agree with what you said after- 
wards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you 
said before. What do you think, Aggivessana, is material form 
permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, Master Gotama." 
- "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?" - "Suffering, 
Master Gotama." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and sub- 
ject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, 
[233] this is my self'?" - "No, Master Gotama." 

"What do you think, Aggivessana? Is feeling permanent or 
impermanent?... Is perception permanent or impermanent?... 
Are formations permanent or impermanent?... Is consciousness 
permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, Master 
Gotama." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?" - 
"Suffering, Master Gotama." - "Is what is impermanent, suffer- 
ing, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, 
this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, Master Gotama." 

21. "What do you think, Aggivessana? When one adheres to 
suffering, resorts to suffering, holds to suffering, and regards 
what is suffering thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self/ 
could one ever fully understand suffering oneself or abide with 
suffering utterly destroyed?" 

"How could one. Master Gotama? No, Master Gotama." 

*"What do you think, Aggivessana? That being so, do you 
not adhere to suffering, resort to suffering, hold to suffering, 
and regard what is suffering thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this 
is my self'?" 


328 Culasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 35 


i 234 


"How could I not. Master Gotama? Yes, Master Gotama."* 376 

22. "It is as though a. man needing heartwood, seeking heart- 
wood, wandering in search of heartwood, were to take a sharp 
axe and enter the wood, and there he would see a large plantain 
trunk, straight, young, with no fruit-bud core. Then he would 
cut it down at the root, cut off the crown, and unroll the leaf- 
sheaths; but as he went on unrolling the leaf sheaths, he would 
never come even to any sapwood, let alone heartwood. So too, 
Aggivessana, when you are pressed, questioned, and cross- 
questioned by me about your own assertion, you turn out to be 
empty, vacant, and mistaken. But it was you who made this 
statement before the Vesali assembly: 'I see no recluse or brah- 
min, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a 
group, even one claiming to be accomplished and fully enlight- 
ened, who would not shake, shiver, and tremble and sweat 
under the armpits if he were to engage in debate with me. Even 
if I were to engage a senseless post in debate, it would shake, 
shiver, and tremble if it were to engage in debate with me, so 
what shall I say of a human being?' Now there are drops of 
sweat on your forehead and they have soaked through your 
upper robe and fallen to the ground. But there is no sweat on 
my body now." And the Blessed One uncovered his golden- 
coloured body before the assembly. [234] When this was said, 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son sat silent, dismayed, with shoulders 
drooping and head down, glum, and without response. 

23. Then Dummukha, the son of the Licchavis, seeing Saccaka 
the Nigantha's son in such a condition, said to the Blessed One: 
"A simile occurs to me, Master Gotama." 

"Explain how it occurs to you, Dummukha." 

"Suppose, venerable sir, not far from a village or town there 
was a pond with a crab in it. And then a party of boys and girls 
went out from the town or village to the pond, went into the 
water, and pulled the crab out of the water and put it on dry 
land. And whenever the crab extended a leg, they cut it off, 
broke it, and smashed it with sticks and stones, so that the crab 
with all its legs cut off, broken, and smashed, would be unable to 
get back to the pond as before. So too, all Saccaka the Nigantha's 
son's contortions, writhings, and vacillations have been cut off, 
broken, and smashed by the Blessed One, and now he cannot get 
near the Blessed One again for the purpose of debate." 


The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 329 


i 235 

24. When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha's son told him: 
"Wait, Dummukha, wait! We are not speaking with you, here 
Y/e are speaking with Master Gotama." 

[Then he said]: "Let that talk of ours be. Master Gotama. Like 
that of ordinary recluses and brahmins, it was mere prattle, I 
think. But in what way is a disciple of the recluse Gotama one 
who carries out his instruction, who responds to his advice, who 
has crossed beyond doubt, become free from perplexity, gained 
intrepidity, and become independent of others in the Teacher's 
Dispensation?" 377 

"Here, Aggivessana, any kind of material form whatever, 
whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or 
subtle, inferior or superior, far or near - a disciple of mine sees 
all material form as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This 
is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' [235] Any kind of 
feeling whatever... Any kind of perception whatever... Any kind 
of formations whatever. ..Any kind of consciousness whatever, 
whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or 
subtle, inferior or superior, far or near - a disciple of mine sees 
all consciousness as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This 
is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' It is in this way 
that a disciple of mine is one who carries out my instruction, 
who responds to my advice, who has crossed beyond doubt, 
become free from perplexity, gained intrepidity, and become 
independent of others in the Teacher's Dispensation." 

25. "Master Gotama, in what way is a bhikkhu an arahant 
with taints destroyed, one who has lived the holy life, done 
what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true 
goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and is completely liberated 
through final knowledge?" 

"Here, Aggivessana, any kind of material form whatever, 
whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or 
subtle, inferior or superior, far or near - a bhikkhu has seen all 
material form as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'This is 
not mine, this I am not, this is not my self/ and through not 
clinging he is liberated. Any kind of feeling whatever... Any 
kind of perception whatever... Any kind of formations whatever 
...Any kind of consciousness whatever, whether past, future, or 
present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, 
far or near - a bhikkhu has seen all consciousness as it actually is 


330 Culasaccaka Suita: Sutta 35 


i 236 


with proper wisdom thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is 
not my self,' and through not clinging he is liberated. It is in this 
way that a bhikkhu is an arahant with taints destroyed, one who 
has lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the 
burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, 
and is completely liberated through final knowledge. 

26. "When a bhikkhu's mind is thus liberated, he possesses 
three unsurpassable qualities: unsurpassable vision, unsurpass- 
able practice of the way, and unsurpassable deliverance. 378 When 
a bhikkhu is thus liberated, he still honours, reveres, and vener- 
ates the Tathagata thus: 'The Blessed One is enlightened and he 
teaches the Dhamma for the sake of enlightenment. The Blessed 
One is tamed and he teaches the Dhamma for taming oneself. 
The Blessed One is at peace and he teaches the Dhamma for the 
sake of peace. The Blessed One has crossed over and he teaches 
the Dhamma for crossing over. The Blessed One has attained 
Nibbana and he teaches the Dhamma for attaining Nibbana.'" 

27. When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha's son [236] 
replied: "Master Gotama, we were bold and impudent in think- 
ing we could attack Master Gotama in debate. A man might 
attack a mad elephant and find safety, yet he could not attack 
Master Gotama and find safety. A man might attack a blazing 
mass of fire and find safety, yet he could not attack Master 
Gotama and find safety. A man might attack a terrible poiso- 
nous snake and find safety, yet he could not attack Master 
Gotama and find safety. We were bold and impudent in think- 
ing we could attack Master Gotama in debate. 

"Let the Blessed One together with the Sangha of bhikkhus 
consent to accept tomorrow's meal from me." The Blessed One 
consented in silence. 

28. Then, knowing that the Blessed One had consented, 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son addressed the Licchavis: "Hear me, 
Licchavis. The recluse Gotama together with the Sangha of 
bhikkhus has been invited by me for tomorrow's meal. You may 
bring to me whatever you think would be suitable for him." 

29. Then, when the night had ended, the Licchavis brought 
five hundred ceremonial dishes of milk rice as gifts of food. 
Then Saccaka the Nigantha's son had good food of various 
kinds prepared in his own park and had the time announced to 
the Blessed One: "It is time. Master Gotama, the meal is ready." 


The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 


30. Then, it being morning, the Blessed One dressed, and tak- 
ing his bowl and outer robe, he went with the Sangha of 
bhikkhus to the park of Saccaka the Nigantha's son and sat 
down on the seat made ready. Then, with his own hands, 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son served and satisfied the Sangha of 
bhikkhus headed by the Buddha with the various kinds of good 
food. When the Blessed One had eaten and had withdrawn his 
hand from the bowl, Saccaka the Nigantha's son took a low seat, 
sat down at one side, and said to the Blessed One: "Master 
Gotama, may the merit and the great meritorious fruits of this 
act of giving be for the happiness of the givers." 

"Aggivessana, whatever comes about from giving to a recipi- 
ent such as yourself - one who is not free from lust, not free 
from hate, not free from delusion - [237] that will be for the 
givers. And whatever comes about from giving to a recipient 
such as myself - one who is free from lust, free from hate, free 
from delusion - that will be for you." 379 


36 Mahasaccaka Sutta 
The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. 

2. Now on that occasion, when it was morning, the Blessed 
One had finished dressing and had taken his bowl and outer 
robe, desiring to go into Vesali for alms. 

3. Then, as Saccaka the Nigantha's son was walking and wan- 
dering for exercise, he came to the Hall with the Peaked Roof in 
the Great Wood. 380 The venerable Ananda saw him coming in 
the distance and said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, here 
comes Saccaka the Nigantha's son, a debater and a clever 
speaker regarded by many as a saint. He wants to discredit the 
Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. It would be good if the 
Blessed One would sit down for a while out of compassion." 381 
The Blessed One sat down on the seat made ready. Then 
Saccaka the Nigantha's son went up to the Blessed One and 
exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and ami- 
able talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the 
Blessed One: 

4. "Master Gotama, there are some recluses and brahmins 
who abide pursuing development of body, but not development 
of mind. 382 They are touched by bodily painful feeling. In the 
past, when one was touched by bodily painful feeling, one's 
thighs would become rigid, one's heart would burst, hot blood 
would gush from one's mouth, and one would go mad, go out 
of one's mind. So then the mind was subservient to the body, 
the body wielded mastery over it. Why is that? [238] Because the 
mind was not developed. But there are some recluses and brah- 
mins who abide pursuing development of mind, but not devel- 
opment of body. They are touched by mental painful feeling. Li 
the past, when one was touched by mental painful feeling, one's 


332 


i 239 


The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 333 


thighs would become rigid, one's heart would burst, hot blood 
would gush from one's mouth, and one would go mad, go out 
of one's mind. So then the body was subservient to the mind, 
the mind wielded mastery over it. Why is that? Because the 
body was not developed. Master Gotama, it has occurred to me: 
'Surely Master Gotama's disciples abide pursuing development 
of mind, but not development of body.'" 

5. "But, Aggivessana, what have you learned about develop- 
ment of body?" 

"Well, there are, for example, Nanda Vaccha, Kisa Sankicca, 
Makkhali Gosala. 383 They go naked, rejecting conventions, lick- 
ing their hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when 
asked; they do not accept food brought or food specially made 
or an invitation to a meal; they receive nothing from a pot, from 
a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from 
two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman 
giving suck, from a woman lying with a man, from where food is 
advertised to be distributed, from where a dog is waiting, from 
where flies are buzzing; they accept no fish or meat, they drink 
no liquor, wine, or fermented brew. They keep to one house, to 
one morsel; they keep to two houses, to two morsels... they keep 
to seven houses, to seven morsels. They live on one saucerful a 
day, on two saucerfuls a day... on seven saucerfuls a day. They 
take food once a day, once every two days... once every seven 
days, and so on up to once every fortnight; they dwell pursuing 
the practice of taking food at stated intervals." 

6. "But do they subsist on so little, Aggivessana?" 

"No, Master Gotama, sometimes they consume excellent hard 
food, eat excellent soft food, taste excellent delicacies, drink 
excellent drinks. Thereby they again regain their strength, forti- 
fy themselves, and become fat." 

"What they earlier abandoned, Aggivessana, they later gather 
together again. That is how there is increase and decrease of 
this body. But what have you learned about development of 
mind?" [239] 

When Saccaka the Nigantha's son was asked by the Blessed 
One about development of mind, he was unable to answer. 

7. Then the Blessed One told him: "What you have just spo- 
ken of as development of body, Aggivessana, is not develop- 
ment of body according to the Dhamma in the Noble One's 



334 Mahasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 36 


i 240 


Discipline. Since you do not know what development of body 
is, how could you know what development of mind is? Never- 
theless, Aggivessana, as to how one is undeveloped in body 
and undeveloped in mind, listen and attend closely to what I 
shall say." - "Yes, sir," Saccaka the Nigantha's son replied. The 
Blessed One said this: 

8. "How, Aggivessana, is one undeveloped in body and unde- 
veloped in mind? Here, Aggivessana, pleasant feeling arises in 
an untaught ordinary person. Touched by that pleasant feeling, 
he lusts after pleasure and continues to lust after pleasure. That 
pleasant feeling of his ceases. With the cessation of the pleasant 
feeling, painful feeling arises. Touched by that painful feeling, 
he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast 
and becomes distraught. When that pleasant feeling has arisen 
in him, it invades his mind and remains because body is not 
developed. And when that painful feeling has arisen in him, it 
invades his mind and remains because mind is not developed. 
Anyone in whom, in this double manner, arisen pleasant feeling 
invades his mind and remains because body is not developed, 
and arisen painful feeling invades his mind and remains 
because mind is not developed, is thus undeveloped in body 
and undeveloped in mind. 

9. “And how, Aggivessana, is one developed in body and 
developed in mind? Here, Aggivessana, pleasant feeling arises 
in a well-taught noble disciple. Touched by that pleasant feeling, 
he does not lust after pleasure or continue to lust after pleasure. 
That pleasant feeling of his ceases. With the cessation of the 
pleasant feeling, painful feeling arises. Touched by that painful 
feeling, he does not sorrow, grieve, and lament, he does not 
weep beating his breast and become distraught. When that 
pleasant feeling has arisen in him, it does not invade his mind 
and remain because body is developed. And when that painful 
feeling has arisen in him, it does not invade his mind and remain 
because mind is developed. Anyone in whom, in this double 
manner, arisen pleasant feeling [240] does not invade his mind 
and remain because body is developed, and arisen painful feel- 
ing does not invade his mind and remain because mind is devel- 
oped, is thus developed in body and developed in mind." 384 

10. "I have confidence in Master Gotama thus: 'Master 
Gotama is developed in body and developed in mind.'" 


i 241 


The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 335 


"Surely, Aggivessana, your words are offensive and discour- 
teous, but still I will answer you. Since I shaved off my hair and 
beard, put on the yellow robe, and went forth from the home life 
into homelessness, it has not been possible for arisen pleasant 
feeling to invade my mind and remain or for arisen painful feel- 
ing to invade my mind and remain." 

11. "Has there never arisen in Master Gotama a feeling so 
pleasant that it could invade his mind and remain? Has there 
never arisen in Master Gotama a feeling so painful that it could 
invade his mind and remain?" 

12. "Why not, Aggivessana? 385 Here, Aggivessana, before my 
enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhi- 
satta, I thought: 'Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone 
forth is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead 
the holy life Utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. 
Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, 
and go forth from the home life into homelessness.' 

13-16. "Later, while still young, a black-haired young man 
endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life... (as 
Sutta 26, §§14-1 7)... And I sat down there thinking: 'This will 
serve for striving.' 

17. "Now these three similes occurred to me spontaneously, 
never heard before. Suppose there were a wet sappy piece of 
wood lying in water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, 
thinking: 'I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.' What do you 
think, Aggivessana? Could the man light a fire and produce 
heat by taking the upper fire-stick and rubbing it against the wet 
sappy piece of wood lying in the water?" 

"No, Master Gotama. Why not? Because it is a wet sappy 
piece of wood, [241] and it is lying in water. Eventually the man 
would reap only weariness and disappointment." 

"So too, Aggivessana, as to those recluses and brahmins who 
still do not live bodily and mentally withdrawn from sensual 
pleasures, and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, 
thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has not been fully aban- 
doned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses 
and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exer- 
tion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme 
enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do 
not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they 



336 Mahasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 36 


i 242 


are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlighten- 
ment. This was the first simile that occurred to me spontaneously, 
never heard before. 

18. "Again, Aggivessana, a second simile occurred to me 
spontaneously, never heard before. Suppose there were a wet 
sappy piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a 
man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: T shall light a fire, I 
shall produce heat.' What do you think, Aggivessana? Could the 
man light a fire and produce heat by taking the upper fire-stick 
and rubbing it against the wet sappy piece of wood lying on dry 
land far from water?" 

"No, Master Gotama. Why not? Because it is a wet sappy 
piece of wood, even though it is lying on dry land far from 
water. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and dis- 
appointment." 

"So too, Aggivessana, as to those recluses and brahmins who 
live bodily and mentally withdrawn from sensual pleasures, 386 
but whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever 
for sensual pleasures has not been fully abandoned and sup- 
pressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel 
painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are inca- 
pable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and 
even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, 
racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of 
knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. This was 
the second simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never 
heard before. * 

19. "Again, Aggivessana, a third simile occurred to me [242] 
spontaneously, never heard before. Suppose there were a dry 
sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a 
man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: 'I shall light a fire, I 
shall produce heat.' What do you think, Aggivessana? Could the 
man light a fire and produce heat by rubbing it against the dry 
sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water?" 

"Yes, Master Gotama. Why so? Because it is a dry sapless 
piece of wood, and it is lying on dry land far from water." 

"So too, Aggivessana, as to those recluses and brahmins who 
live bodily and mentally withdrawn from sensual pleasures, 
and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever 
for sensual pleasures has been fully abandoned and suppressed 


The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 337 



internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel 
painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capa- 
ble of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and 
even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, 
racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capable of 
knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. 387 This was 
the third simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard 
before. These are the three similes that occurred to me sponta- 
neously, never heard before. 

20. "I thought: 'Suppose, with my teeth clenched and my 
tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, con- 
strain, and crush mind with mind.' So, with my teeth clenched 
and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat 
down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind. While I did 
so, sweat ran from my armpits. Just as a strong man might seize 
a weaker man by the head or shoulders and beat him down, 
constrain him, and crush him, so too, with my teeth clenched 
and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat 
down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind, and sweat ran 
from my armpits. But although tireless energy was aroused in 
me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was 
overwrought [243] and uncalm because I was exhausted by the 
painful striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did 
not invade my mind and remain. 388 

21. "I thought: 'Suppose I practise the breathingless medita- 
tion.' So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my 
mouth and nose. While I did so, there was a loud sound of 
winds coming out from my earholes. Just as there is a loud 
sound when a smith's bellows are blown, so too, while I stopped 
the in-breaths and out-breaths through my nose and ears, there 
was a loud sound of winds coming out from my earholes. But 
although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting 
mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and 
uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving. But 
such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind 
and remain. 

22. "I thought: 'Suppose I practise further the breathingless 
meditation.' So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through 
my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, violent winds cut 
through my head. Just as if a strong man were splitting my head 




a 


338 Mahasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 36 


i 244 


open with a sharp sword, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths 
and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, violent 
winds cut through my head. But although tireless energy was 
aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, 
my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted 
by the painful striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me 
did not invade my mind and remain. 

23. "I thought: 'Suppose I practise further the breathingless 
meditation.' So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through 
my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, there were violent 
pains in my head. Just as if a strong man [244] were tightening a 
tough leather strap around my head as a headband, so too, 
while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my 
mouth, nose, and ears, there were violent pains in my head. But 
although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting 
mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and 
uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving. But 
such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind 
and remain. 

24. "I thought: 'Suppose I practise further the breathingless 
meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through 
my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, violent winds carved 
up my belly. Just as if a skilled butcher or his apprentice were to 
carve up an ox's belly with a sharp butcher's knife, so too, while 
I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, 
nose, and ears, violent winds carved up my belly. But although 
tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness 
was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because 
I was exhausted by the painful striving. But such painful feeling 
that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain. 

25. "I thought: 'Suppose I practise further the breathingless 
meditation.' So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through 
my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, there was a violent 
burning in my body. Just as if two strong men were to seize a 
weaker man by both arms and roast him over a pit of hot coals, 
so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through 
my mouth, nose, and ears, there was a violent burning in my 
body. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and 
unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was over- 
wrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful 


i 246 


The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 33 9 


striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade 
xny mind and remain. 

26. "Now when [245] deities saw me, some said: 'The recluse 
Gotama is dead/ Other deities said: 'The recluse Gotama is not 
dead, he is dying.' And other deities said: 'The recluse Gotama 
is not dead nor dying; he is an arahant, for such is the way ara- 
hants abide.' 

27. "I thought: 'Suppose I practise entirely cutting off food.' 
Then deities came to me and said: 'Good sir, do not practise 
entirely cutting off food. If you do so, we shall infuse heavenly 
food into the pores of your skin and you will live on that.' I con- 
sidered: 'If I claim to be completely fasting while these deities 
infuse heavenly food into the pores of my skin and I live on that, 
then I shall be lying.' So I dismissed those deities, saying: 'There 
is no need.' 

28. "I thought: 'Suppose I take very little food, a handful each 
time, whether of bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea 
soup.' So I took very little food, a handful each time, whether of 
bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea soup. While I did 
so, my body reached a state of extreme emaciation. Because of 
eating so little my limbs became like the jointed segments of 
vine stems or bamboo stems. Because of eating so little my back- 
side became like a camel's hoof. Because of eating so little the 
projections on my spine stood forth like corded beads. Because 
of eating so little my ribs jutted out as gaunt as the crazy rafters 
of an old roofless barn. Because of eating so little the gleam of 
my eyes sank far down in their sockets, looking like the gleam of 
water that has sunk far down in a deep well. Because of eating 
so little my scalp shrivelled and withered as [246] a green bitter 
gourd shrivels and withers in the wind and sun. Because of eat- 
ing so little my belly skin adhered to my backbone; thus if I 
touched my belly skin I encountered my backbone and if I 
touched my backbone I encountered my belly skin. Because of 
eating so little, if I urinated or defecated, I fell over on my face 
there. Because of eating so little, if I tried to ease my body by 
rubbing my limbs with my hands, the hair, rotted at its roots, 
fell from my body as I rubbed. 

29. "Now when people saw me, some said: 'The recluse Gotama 
is black.' Other people said: 'The recluse Gotama is not black, he 
is brown.' Other people said: 'The recluse Gotama is neither 


340 Mahcisaccaka Suita: Suita 36 


1247 


black nor brown, he is golden-skinned.' So much had the clear, 
bright colour of my skin deteriorated through eating so little. 

30. "I thought: 'Whatever recluses or brahmins in the past 
have experienced painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exer- 
tion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. And whatever 
recluses and brahmins in the future will experience painful, 
racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, 
there is none beyond this. And whatever recluses and brahmins 
at present experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to 
exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. But by this 
racking practice of austerities I have not attained any super- 
human states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of 
the noble ones. Could there be another path to enlightenment?' 

31. “I considered: 'I recall that when my father the Sakyan was 
occupied, while I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple 
tree, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from 
unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first 
jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, 
with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 389 Could that be the 
path to enlightenment?' Then, following on that memory, came 
the realisation: 'That is the path to enlightenment.' 

32. "I thought: 'Why [247] am I afraid of that pleasure that has 
nothing to do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states?' 
1 thought: 'I am not afraid of that pleasure since it has nothing to 
do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states.' 390 

33. "I considered: ‘It is not easy to attain that pleasure with a 
body so excessively emaciated. Suppose I ate some solid food - 
some boiled rice and bread.' And I ate some solid food - some 
boiled rice and bread. Now at that time five bhikkhus were 
waiting upon me, thinking: 'If our recluse Gotama achieves 
some higher state, he will inform us.' But when I ate the boiled 
rice and bread, the five bhikkhus were disgusted and left me, 
thinking: 'The recluse Gotama now lives luxuriously; he has 
given up his striving and reverted to luxury.' 

34. "Now when I had eaten solid food and regained my 
strength, then quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded 
from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first 
jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, 
with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. But such pleasant 
feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain. 391 


i 249 


The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 341 


35-37. "With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I 
entered upon and abided in the second jhana...With the fading 
away as well of rapture. . .1 entered upon and abided in the third 
jhana...With the abandoning of pleasure and pain... I entered 
upon and abided in the fourth jhana...But such pleasant feeling 
that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain. 

38. "When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, 
and attained to imperturbability, [248] I directed it to knowl- 
edge of the recollection of past lives. I recollected my manifold 
past lives, that is, one birth, two births . ..(as Sutta 4, §27 ). ..Thus 
with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold 
past lives. 

39. "This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the 
first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true 
knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as 
happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. But 
such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind 
and remain. 

40. "When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the 
passing away and reappearance of beings... (as Sutta 4, §29)... 
Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the 
human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior 
and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I 
understood how beings pass on according to their actions. 

41. "This was the second true knowledge attained by me in 
the second watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true 
knowledge arose, [249] darkness was banished and light arose, 
as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. But 
such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind 
and remain. 

42. "When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the 
destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: 'This is 
suffering';.. .'This is the origin of suffering';... 'This is the cessa- 
tion of suffering';... 'This is the way leading to the cessation of 
suffering';... 'These are the taints';... 'This is the origin of the 


Mahasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 36 


taints';... 'This is the cessation of the taints';... 'This is the way 
leading to the cessation of the taints.' 

43. "When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from 
the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the 
taint of ignorance. When it was liberated there came the knowl- 
edge: 'It is liberated.' I directly knew: 'Birth is destroyed, the 
holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, 
there is no more coming to any state of being.' 

44. "This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the 
third watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true 
knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as 
happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. But 
such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind 
and remain. 

45. "Aggivessana, I recall teaching the Dhamma to an assem- 
bly of many hundreds. Perhaps each person thinks: 'The recluse 
Gotama is teaching the Dhamma especially for me.' But it 
should not be so regarded; the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma 
to others only to give them knowledge. When the talk is fin- 
ished, Aggivessana, then I steady my mind internally, quieten it, 
bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of 
concentration as before, in which I constantly abide." 392 

"This can be believed of Master Gotama, since he is accom- 
plished and fully enlightened. But does Master Gotama recall 
sleeping during the day?" 393 

46. "I recall, Aggivessana, in the last month of the hot season, 
on returning from my alfnsround, after my meal I lay out my 
outer robe folded in four, and lying down on my right side, I fall 
asleep mindful and fully aware." 

"Some recluses and brahmins call that abiding in delusion. 
Master Gotama." [250] 

"It is not in such a way that one is deluded or undeluded, 
Aggivessana. As to how one is deluded or undeluded, listen and 
attend closely to what I shall say." - "Yes, sir," Saccaka the 
Nigantha's son replied. The Blessed One said this: 

47. "Him I call deluded, Aggivessana, who has not abandoned 
the taints that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen 
in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death; for it is 
with the non-abandoning of the taints that one is deluded. Him I 
call undeluded who has abandoned the taints that defile, bring 


i 251 


The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 343 


renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to 
future birth, ageing, and death; for it is with the abandoning of 
the taints that one is undeluded. The Tathagata, Aggivessana, 
has abandoned the taints that defile, bring renewal of being, 
give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, 
and death; he has cut them off at the root, made them like a 
palm stump, done away with them so that they are no longer 
subject to future arising. Just as a palm tree whose crown is cut 
off is incapable of further growth, so too, the Tathagata has 
abandoned the taints that defile... done away with them so that 
they are no longer subject to future arising." 

48. When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha's son said: "It is 
wonderful. Master Gotama, it is marvellous how when Master 
Gotama is spoken to offensively again and again, assailed by 
discourteous courses of speech, the colour of his skin brightens 
and the colour of his face clears, as is to be expected of one who 
is accomplished and fully enlightened. I recall. Master Gotama, 
engaging Purana Kassapa in debate, and then he prevaricated, 
led the talk aside, and showed anger, hate, and bitterness. But 
when Master Gotama is spoken to offensively again and again, 
assaulted by discourteous courses of speech, the colour of his 
skin brightens and the colour of his face clears, as is to be 
expected of one who is accomplished and fully enlightened. I 
recall, Master Gotama, engaging Makkhali Gosala...Ajita 
Kesakambalin...Pakudha Kaccayana...Sanjaya Belatthiputta... 
the Nigantha Nataputta in debate, [251] and then he prevaricated, 
led the talk aside, and showed anger, hate, and bitterness. But 
when Master Gotama is spoken to offensively again and again, 
assailed by discourteous courses of speech, the colour of his skin 
brightens and the colour of his face clears, as is to be expected of 
one who is accomplished and fully enlightened. And now, 
Master Gotama, we depart. We are busy and have much to do." 

"Now is the time, Aggivessana, to do as you think fit." 

Then Saccaka the Nigantha's son, having delighted and 
rejoiced in the Blessed One's words, got up from his seat and 
departed. 394 


37 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse on the 
Destruction of Craving 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in the Eastern Park, in the Palace of Migara's 
Mother. 

2. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, went to the Blessed One, and 
after paying homage to him, he stood at one side and asked: 
"Venerable sir, how in brief is a bhikkhu liberated by the 
destruction of craving, one who has reached the ultimate end, 
the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy life, the 
ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and 
humans?" 395 

3. "Here, ruler of gods, a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is 
worth adhering to. When a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is 
worth adhering to, he directly knows everything; having directly 
known everything, he fully understands everything; having 
fully understood everything, whatever feeling he feels, whether 
pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, he abides 
contemplating impermanence in those feelings, contemplating 
fading away, contemplating cessation, contemplating relin- 
quishment. Contemplating thus, he does not cling to anything in 
the world. When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he 
is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbana. 396 [252] He under- 
stands: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had 
to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state 
of being/ Briefly, it is in this way, ruler of gods, that a bhikkhu 
is liberated by the destruction of craving, one who has reached 
the ultimate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ulti- 
mate holy life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among 
gods and humans." 

4. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, delighting and rejoicing in the 


344 


1253 


The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 345 


Blessed One's words, paid homage to the Blessed One, and 
keeping him on his right, he vanished at once. 

5. Now on that occasion the venerable Maha Moggallana was 
sitting not far from the Blessed One. Then he considered: "Did 
that spirit penetrate to the meaning of the Blessed One’s words 
when he rejoiced, or did he not? Suppose I found out whether 
he did or not." 

6. Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his 
flexed arm or flex his extended arm, the venerable Maha 
Moggallana vanished from the Palace of Migara's Mother in the 
Eastern Park and appeared among the gods of the Thirty-three. 

7. Now on that occasion Sakka, ruler of gods, was furnished 
and endowed a hundredfold with the five kinds of heavenly 
music, and he was enjoying it in the Pleasure Park of the Single 
Lotus. When he saw the venerable Maha Moggallana coming in 
the distance, he dismissed the music, went to the venerable Maha 
Moggallana, and said to him: "Come, good sir Moggallana! 
Welcome, good sir Moggallana! It is long, good sir Moggallana, 
since you found am opportunity to come here. Sit down, good sir 
Moggallana; this seat is ready." 

The venerable Maha Moggallana sat down on the seat made 
ready, and Sakka took a low seat and sat down at one side. The 
venerable Maha Moggallana then asked him: 

8. "Kosiya, 397 how did the Blessed One state to you in brief 
deliverance through the destruction of craving? It would be 
good if we might also get to hear that statement." 

"Good sir Moggallana, we are so busy, we have so much to 
do, not only with our own business, but also with the business 
of the gods of the Thirty-three. Besides, good sir Moggallana, 
what is well heard, well learned, [253] well attended to, well 
remembered, does not vanish all of a sudden. Good sir 
Moggallana, it once happened that war broke out between the 
gods and the titans. 398 In that war the gods won and the titans 
were defeated. When I had won that war and returned from it 
as a conqueror, I had the Vejayanta Palace built. Good sir 
Moggallana, the Vejayanta Palace has a hundred towers, and 
each tower has seven hundred upper chambers, and each upper 
chamber has seven nymphs, and each nymph has seven maids. 
Would you like to see the loveliness of the Vejayanta Palace, 


346 CulatanhMsankhaya Sutta: Sutta 37 


i 254 


good sir Moggallana?" The venerable Maha Moggallana con- 
sented in silence. 

9. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, and the divine King Vessavana 399 
went to the Vejayanta Palace, giving precedence to the venerable 
Maha Moggallana. When the maids of Sakka saw the venerable 
Maha Moggallana coming in the distance, they were embar- 
rassed and ashamed and they went each into their own rooms. 
Just as a daughter-in-law is embarrassed and ashamed on seeing 
her father-in-law, so too, when the maids of Sakka saw the ven- 
erable Maha Moggallana coming, they were embarrassed and 
ashamed and they went each into their own rooms. 

10. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, and the divine King Vessavana 
had the venerable Maha Moggallana walk all over and explore 
the Vejayanta Palace: "See, good sir Moggallana, this loveliness 
of the Vejayanta Palace! See, good sir Moggallana, this loveli- 
ness of the Vejayanta Palace!" 

"It does the venerable Kosiya credit as one who has formerly 
made merit; and whenever human beings see anything lovely, 
they say: 'Sirs, it does credit to the gods of the Thirty-three!' It 
does the venerable Kosiya credit as one who has formerly 
made merit.” 

11. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana considered thus: 
"This spirit is living much too negligently. What if I stirred up a 
sense of urgency in him?" Then the venerable Maha Moggallana 
performed such a feat of supernormal power that with the point 
of his toe he made the Vejayanta Palace shake and quake and 
tremble. 400 [254] Sakka and the divine King Vessavana and the 
gods of the Thirty-three were filled with wonder and amaze- 
ment, and they said: "Sirs, it is wonderful, it is marvellous, what 
power and might the recluse has, that with the point of his toe 
he makes the heavenly region shake and quake and tremble!" 

12. When the venerable Maha Moggallana knew that Sakka, 
ruler of the gods, was stirred to a sense of urgency with his 
hair standing on end, he asked him: "Kosiya, how did the 
Blessed One state to you in brief deliverance through the 
destruction of craving? It would be good if we might also get to 
hear that statement." 

"Good sir Moggallana, I went to the Blessed One, and after 
paying homage to him, I stood at one side and said: 'Venerable 
sir,... [as in §2]... of gods and humans?' When this was said, good 


i 255 


The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 347 


sir Moggallana, the Blessed One told me: 'Here, ruler of gods,... 
[as in §3]... of gods and humans.' That is how the Blessed One 
stated to me in brief deliverance through the destruction of crav- 
ing, good sir Moggallana." 

13. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana delighted and 
rejoiced in the words of Sakka, ruler of gods. [255] Then, just as 
quickly as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his 
extended arm, he vanished from among the gods of the Thirty- 
three and appeared in the Eastern Park in the Palace of Migara's 
Mother. 

14. Then, soon after the venerable Maha Moggallana had 
gone, the attendants of Sakka, ruler of gods, asked him: "Good 
sir, was that your teacher, the Blessed One?" - "No, good sirs, 
that was not my teacher, the Blessed One. That was one of my 
companions in the holy life, tire venerable Maha Moggallana." 401 
- "Good sir, it is a gain for you that your companion in the holy 
life has such power and might. Oh, how much more so that the 
Blessed One is your teacher!" 

15. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana went to the Blessed 
One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side 
and asked him: "Venerable sir, does the Blessed One recall stat- 
ing in brief - to a certain one of the renowned spirits with a great 
following - deliverance through the destruction of craving?" 

"I do recall doing so, Moggallana. Here Sakka, ruler of gods, 
came to me, and after paying homage to me, he stood at one 
side and asked: 'Venerable sir, how in brief is a bhikkhu liberat- 
ed by the destruction of craving, one who has reached the ulti- 
mate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy 
life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and 
humans?' When this was said, I told him: 'Here, ruler of gods, a 
bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to. When a 
bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to, he directly 
knows everything; having directly known everything, he fully 
understands everything; having fully understood everything, 
whatever feeling he feels, whether pleasant or painful or neither- 
painful-nor-pleasant, he abides contemplating impermanence in 
those feelings, contemplating fading away, contemplating cessa- 
tion, contemplating relinquishment. Contemplating thus, he 
does not cling to anything in the world. When he does not cling, 
he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains 


348 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta: Sutto 37 


i 254 


Nibbana. He understands: "Birth is destroyed, the holy life has 
been lived, [256] what had to be done has been done, there is no 
more coming to any state of being." Briefly, it is in this way, 
ruler of gods, that a bhikkhu is liberated by the destruction of 
craving. . .one who is foremost among gods and humans.' That is 
how I recall stating in brief to Sakka, ruler of gods, deliverance 
through the destruction of craving." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Maha 
Moggallana was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's 
words. 



38 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta 
The Greater Discourse on the 
Destruction of Craving 


(setting) 

1. Thus have I. heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Now on that occasion a pernicious view had arisen in a 
bhikkhu named Sati, son of a fisherman, thus: "As I understand 
the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, it is this same con- 
sciousness that runs and wanders through the round of rebirths, 
not another." 402 

3. Several bhikkhus, having heard about this, went to the 
bhikkhu Sati and asked him: "Friend Sati, is it true that such a 
pernicious view has arisen in you?" 

"Exactly so, friends. As I understand the Dhamma taught by 
the Blessed One, it is this same consciousness that runs and 
wanders through the round of rebirths, not another." 

Then those bhikkhus, desiring to detach him from that perni- 
cious view, pressed and questioned and cross-questioned him 
thus: "Friend Sati, do not say so. Do not misrepresent the Blessed 
One; it is not good to misrepresent the Blessed One. The Blessed 
One would not speak thus. For in many discourses the Blessed 
One has stated consciousness to be dependently arisen, [257] since 
without a condition there is no origination of consciousness." 

Yet although pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by 
those bhikkhus in this way, the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, 
still obstinately adhered to that pernicious view and continued 
to insist upon it. 

4. Since the bhikkhus were unable to detach him from that 
pernicious view, they went to the Blessed One, and after paying 


349 


350 MaMtanhasankhaya Sutta: Sutta 38 


i 258 


homage to him, they sat down at one side and told him all that 
had occurred, adding: "Venerable sir, since we could not detach 
the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, from this pernicious view, 
we have reported this matter to the Blessed One." 

5. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: 
"Come, [258] bhikkhu, tell the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, 
in my name that the Teacher calls him." - "Yes, venerable sir," 
he replied, and he went to the bhikkhu Sati and told him: "The 
Teacher calls you, friend Sati." 

"Yes, friend," he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and 
after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed 
One then asked him: "Sati, is it true that the following perni- 
cious view has arisen in you: 'As I understand the Dhamma 
taught by the Blessed One, it is this same consciousness that 
runs and wanders through the round of rebirths, not another'?" 

"Exactly so, venerable sir. As I understand the Dhamma 
taught by the Blessed One, it is this same consciousness that 
runs and wanders through the round of rebirths, not another." 

"What is that consciousness, Sati?" 

"Venerable sir, it is that which speaks and feels and experi- 
ences here and there the result of good and bad actions." 403 

"Misguided man, to whom have you ever known me to teach 
the Dhamma in that way? Misguided man, in many discourses 
have I not stated consciousness to be dependency arisen, since 
without a condition there is no origination of consciousness? But 
you, misguided man, have misrepresented us by your wrong 
grasp and injured yourself'and stored up much demerit; for this 
will lead to your harm and suffering for a long time." 

6. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus, what do you think? Has this bhikkhu Sati, son of a 
fisherman, kindled even a spark of wisdom in this Dhamma and 
Discipline?" 

"How could he, venerable sir? No, venerable sir." 

When this was said, the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, sat 
silent, dismayed, with shoulders drooping and head down, glum, 
and without response. Then, knowing this, the Blessed One told 
him: "Misguided man, you will be recognised by your own per- 
nicious view. I shall question the bhikkhus on this matter." 

7. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus, do you understand the Dhamma taught by me as 



The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 351 


this bhikkhu Sati, [259] son of a fisherman, does when he mis- 
r epresents us by his wrong grasp and injures himself and stores 
u p much demerit?" 

"No, venerable sir. For in many discourses the Blessed One 
has stated consciousness to be dependently arisen, since without 
a condition there is no origination of consciousness." 

"Good, bhikkhus. It is good that you understand the Dhamma 
taught by me thus. For in many discourses I have stated con- 
sciousness to be dependently arisen, since without a condition 
there is no origination of consciousness. But this bhikkhu Sati, 
son of a fisherman, misrepresents us by his wrong grasp and 
injures himself and stores up much demerit; for this will lead to 
the harm and suffering of this misguided man for a long time. 


(CONDITIONALITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS) 

8. "Bhikkhus, consciousness is reckoned by the particular 
condition dependent upon which it arises. When consciousness 
arises dependent on the eye and forms, it is reckoned as eye- 
consciousness; when consciousness arises dependent on the ear 
and sounds, it is reckoned as ear-consciousness; when con- 
sciousness arises dependent on the nose and odours, [260] it is 
reckoned as nose-consciousness; when consciousness arises 
dependent on the tongue and flavours, it is reckoned as tongue- 
consciousness; when consciousness arises dependent on the 
body and tangibles, it is reckoned as body-consciousness; when 
consciousness arises dependent on the mind and mind-objects, 
it is reckoned as mind-consciousness. Just as fire is reckoned by 
the particular condition dependent on which it burns - when 
fire bums dependent on logs, it is reckoned as a log fire; when 
fire burns dependent on faggots, it is reckoned as a faggot fire; 
when fire bums dependent on grass, it is reckoned as a grass 
fire; when fire burns dependent on cowdung, it is reckoned as a 
cowdung fire; when fire burns dependent on chaff, it is reckoned 
as a chaff tire; when fire burns dependent on rubbish, it is reck- 
oned as a rubbish fire - so too, consciousness is reckoned by the 
particular condition dependent on which it arises. 404 When con- 
sciousness arises dependent on the eye and forms, it is reckoned 
as eye-consciousness... when consciousness arises dependent on 
tire mind and mind-objects, it is reckoned as mind-consciousness. 


352 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta: Sutta 38 


i 260 


(general questionnaire on being) 

9. "Bhikkhus, do you see: 'This has come to be'?" 405 - "Yes, ven- 
erable sir." - "Bhikkhus, do you see: 'Its origination occurs with 
that as nutriment'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, do you 
see: 'With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is 
subject to cessation’?" - "Yes, venerable sir." 

10. "Bhikkhus, does doubt arise when one is uncertain thus: 
'Has this come to be or not'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - 
"Bhikkhus, does doubt arise when one is uncertain thus: 'Does 
its origination occur with that as nutriment or not'?" - "Yes, 
venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, does doubt arise when one is uncer- 
tain thus: 'With the cessation of that nutriment, is what has 
come to be subject to cessation or not’?" - "Yes, venerable sir." 

11. "Bhikkhus, is doubt abandoned in one who sees as it actu- 
ally is with proper wisdom thus: 'This has come to be'?" - "Yes, 
venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, is doubt abandoned in one who sees 
as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 'Its origination occurs 
with that as nutriment'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, is 
doubt abandoned in one who sees as it actually is with proper 
wisdom thus: 'With the cessation of that nutriment, what has 
come to be is subject to cessation'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." 

12. "Bhikkhus, are you free from doubt here: 'This has come to 
be'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, are you free from 
doubt here: 'Its origination occurs with that as nutriment'?" - 
"Yes, venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, are you free from doubt here: 
'With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is 
subject to cessation'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." 

13. "Bhikkhus, has it been seen well by you as it actually is 
with proper wisdom thus: 'This has come to be'?" - "Yes, vener- 
able sir." - "Bhikkhus, has it been seen well by you as it actually 
is with proper wisdom thus: 'Its origination occurs with that as 
nutriment'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." - "Bhikkhus, has it been 
seen well by you as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: 
'With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is 
subject to cessation'?" - "Yes, venerable sir." 

14. "Bhikkhus, purified and bright as this view is, if you 
adhere to it, cherish it, treasure it, and treat it as a possession, 
would you then understand the Dhamma that has been taught 
as similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not 



i 261 


The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 353 


for the purpose of grasping?" 406 - "No, venerable sir." - "Bhik- 
Ichus, purified and bright as this view is, [261] if you do not 
adhere to it, cherish it, treasure it, and treat it as a possession, 
would you then understand the Dhamma that has been taught 
as similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not 
for the purpose of grasping?" - "Yes, venerable sir." 

(NUTRIMENT AND DEPENDENT ORIGINATION) 

15. "Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of nutriment for the 
maintenance of beings that already have come to be and for the 
support of those seeking a new existence. What four? They are: 
physical food as nutriment, gross or subtle; contact as the second; 
mental volition as the third; and consciousness as the fourth. 407 

16. "Now, bhikkhus, these four kinds of nutriment have what 
as their source, what as their origin, from what are they born 
and produced? These four kinds of nutriment have craving as 
their source, craving as their origin; they are born and produced 
from craving. And this craving has what as its source...? 
Craving has feeling as its source... And this feeling has what as 
its source...? Feeling has contact as its source... And this contact 
has what as its source...? Contact has the sixfold base as its 
source... And this sixfold base has what as its source...? The six- 
fold base has mentality-materiality as its source. ..And this 
mentality-materiality has what as its source...? Mentality- 
materiality has consciousness as its source... And this conscious- 
ness has what as its source...? Consciousness has formations as 
its source... And these formations have what as their source, 
what as their origin, from what are they born and produced? 
Formations have ignorance as their source, ignorance as their 
origin; they are born and produced from ignorance. 

(FORWARD EXPOSITION ON ARISING) 

17. "So, bhikkhus, with ignorance as condition, formations [come 
to be]; with formations as condition, consciousness; with con- 
sciousness as condition, mentality-materiality; with mentality- 
materiality as condition, the sixfold base; with the sixfold base 
as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with 
feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, clinging; 


354 MaMtanMsankhaya Sutta: Sutta 38 


i 262 


with clinging as condition, being; with being as condition, birth; 
with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, 
pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this 
whole mass of suffering. 

(reverse order questionnaire on arising) 

18. "'With birth as condition, ageing and death': so it was said. 
Now, bhikkhus, do ageing and death have birth as condition or 
not, or how do you take it in this case?" 

"Ageing and death have birth as condition, venerable sir. Thus 
we take it in this case: 'With birth as condition, ageing and death.'" 

"'With being as condition, birth': so it was said. Now, 
bhikkhus, does birth have being as condition or not, or how do 
you take it in this case?" 

"Birth has being as condition, [262] venerable sir. Thus we 
take it in this case: 'With being as condition, birth.'" 

‘"With clinging as condition, being': so it was said. Now, 
bhikkhus, does being have clinging as condition or not, or how 
do you take it in this case?" 

"Being has clinging as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take 
it in this case: 'With clinging as condition, being.'" 

"'With craving as condition, clinging': so it was said. Now, 
bhikkhus, does clinging have craving as condition or not, or 
how do you take it in this case?" 

"Clinging has craving as condition, venerable sir. Thus we 
take it in this case: 'With craving as condition, clinging.'" 

"'With feeling as condition, craving': so it was said. Now, 
bhikkhus, does craving have feeling as condition or not, or how 
do you take it in this case?" 

"Craving has feeling as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take 
it in this case: 'With feeling as condition, craving.'" 

"'With contact as condition, feeling': so it was said. Now, 
bhikkhus, does feeling have contact as condition or not, or how 
do you take it in this case?" 

"Feeling has contact as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take 
it in this case: 'With contact as condition, feeling.'" 

"'With the sixfold base as condition, contact': so it was said. 
Now, bhikkhus, does contact have the sixfold base as condition 
or not, or how do you take it in this case?" 


The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 355 


"Contact has the sixfold base as condition, venerable sir. 
fhus we take it in this case: 'With the sixfold base as condition, 

contact. 

"'With mentality-materiality as condition, the sixfold base': 
s o it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does the sixfold base have men- 
tality-materiality as condition or not, or how do you take it in 
this case?" 

"The sixfold base has mentality-materiality as condition, vener- 
able sir. Thus we take it in this case: 'With mentality-materiality 
as condition, the sixfold base.’" 

'"With consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality': so 
it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does mentality-materiality have 
consciousness as condition or not, or how do you take it in 
this case?" 

"Mentality-materiality has consciousness as condition, 
venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: 'With consciousness 
as condition, mentality-materiality.'" 

"'With formations as condition, consciousness': so it was said. 
Now, bhikkhus, does consciousness have formations as condi- 
tion or not, or how do you take it in this case?" 

"Consciousness has formations as condition, venerable sir. 
Thus we take it in this case: 'With formations as condition, 
consciousness.'" 

"'With ignorance as condition, formations': so it was said. 
Now, bhikkhus, do formations have ignorance as condition or 
not, or how do you take it in this case?" 

"Formations have ignorance as condition, venerable sir. 
Thus we take it in this case: 'With formations as condition, 
ignorance.'" 

(recapitulation on arising) 

19. "Good, bhikkhus. So you say thus, and I also say thus: 
'When this exists, that comes to be; [263] with the arising of this, 
that arises.' 408 That is, with ignorance as condition, formations 
[come to be]; with formations as condition, consciousness; with 
consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality; with mentality- 
materiality as condition, the sixfold base; with the sixfold base 
as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with 
feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, clinging; 


356 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta: Sutta 38 


i 264 


with clinging as condition, being; with being as condition, birth; 
with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, 
pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this 
whole mass of suffering. 

(forward exposition on cessation) 

20. "But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of 
ignorance comes cessation of formations; with the cessation of 
formations, cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of con- 
sciousness, cessation of mentality-materiality; with the cessation of 
mentality-materiality, cessation of the sixfold base; with the cessa- 
tion of the sixfold base, cessation of contact; with the cessation of 
contact, cessation of feeling; with the cessation of feeling, cessation 
of craving; with the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging; 
with the cessation of clinging, cessation of being; with the cessa- 
tion of being, cessation of birth; with the cessation of birth, age- 
ing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair 
cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. 

(reverse order questionnaire on cessation) 

21. '"With the cessation of birth, cessation of ageing and death': 
so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, do ageing and death cease with 
the cessation of birth or not, or how do you take it in this case?" 

"Ageing and death cease with the cessation of birth, venerable 
sir. Thus we take it in this case: 'With the cessation of birth, ces- 
sation of ageing and death.'" 

"'With the cessation of being, cessation of birth'... 'With the 
cessation of clinging, cessation of being'.. .'With the cessation of 
craving, cessation of clinging'... 'With the cessation of feeling, 
cessation of craving'. . . 'With the cessation of contact, cessation of 
feeling' [264]... 'With the cessation of the sixfold base, cessation 
of contact'... 'With the cessation of mentality-materiality, cessa- 
tion of the sixfold base'... 'With the cessation of consciousness, 
cessation of mentality-materiality'... 'With the cessation of for- 
mations, cessation of consciousness'... 'With the cessation of 
ignorance, cessation of formations': so it was said. Now, 
bhikkhus, do formations cease with the cessation of ignorance or 
not, or how do you take it in this case?" 


i 265 The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 357 


"Formations cease with the cessation of ignorance, venerable 
sir. Thus we take it in this case: 'With the cessation of ignorance, 
cessation of formations.'" 

(recapitulation on cessation) 

22. "Good, bhikkhus. So you say thus, and I also say thus: 
'When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the 
cessation of this, that ceases/ That is, with the cessation of 
ignorance comes cessation of formations; with the cessation of 
formations, cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of 
consciousness, cessation of mentality-materiality; with the ces- 
sation of mentality-materiality, cessation of the sixfold base; 
with the cessation of the sixfold base, cessation of contact; with 
the cessation of contact, cessation of feeling; with the cessation 
of feeling, cessation of craving; with the cessation of craving, 
cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of 
being; with the cessation of being, cessation of birth; with the 
cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass 
of suffering. 

(personal knowledge) 

23. "Bhikkhus, knowing and seeing in this way, [265] would you 
run back to the past thus: 'Were we in the past? Were we not in 
the past? What were we in the past? How were we in the past? 
Having been what, what did we become in the past?'?" - "No, 
venerable sir." - "Knowing and seeing in this way, would you 
run forward to the future thus: 'Shall we be in the future? Shall 
we not be in the future? What shall we be in the future? How 
shall we be in the future? Having been what, what shall we 
become in the future?'?" - "No, venerable sir." - "Knowing and 
seeing in this way, would you now be inwardly perplexed about 
the present thus: 'Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? 
Where has this being come from? Where will it go?'?" 409 - "No, 
venerable sir." 

24. "Bhikkhus, knowing and seeing in this way, would you 
speak thus: 'The Teacher is respected by us. We speak as we do 
out of respect for the Teacher'?" - "No, venerable sir." - 


358 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta: Sutta 38 


1266 

"Knowing and seeing in this way, would you speak thus: 'The 
Recluse says this, and so do [other] recluses, but we do not 
speak thus'?" - "No, venerable sir." - "Knowing and seeing in 
this way, would you acknowledge another teacher?" - "No, 
venerable sir." - "Knowing and seeing in this way, would you 
return to the observances, tumultuous debates, and auspicious 
signs of ordinary recluses and brahmins, taking them as the core 
[of the holy life]?" - "No, venerable sir." - "Do you speak only 
of what you have known, seen, and understood for yourselves?" 
- "Yes, venerable sir." 

25. "Good, bhikkhus. So you have been guided by me with 
this Dhamma, which is visible here and now, immediately effec- 
tive, inviting inspection, onward leading, to be experienced by 
the wise for themselves. For it was with reference to this that it 
has been said: 'Bhikkhus, this Dhamma is visible here and now, 
immediately effective, inviting inspection, onward leading, to be 
experienced by the wise for themselves.' 

(the round of existence: conception to maturity) 

26. "Bhikkhus, the conception of an embryo in a womb takes 
place through the union of three things. 410 Here, there is the 
union of the mother and father, but it is not the mother's season, 
and the being to be reborn 411 is not present - in this case there is 
no [266] conception of an embryo in a womb. Here, there is the 
union of the mother and father, and it is the mother's season, 
but the being to be reborn is not present - in this case too there 
is no conception of an embryo in a womb. But when there is the 
union of the mother and father, and it is the mother's season, 
and the being to be reborn is present, through the union of these 
three things the conception of an embryo in a womb takes place. 

27. "The mother then carries the embryo in her womb for nine 
or ten months with much anxiety, as a heavy burden. Then, at 
the end of nine or ten months, the mother gives birth with much 
anxiety, as a heavy burden. Then, when the child is bom, she 
nourishes it with her own blood; for the mother's breast-milk is 
called blood in the Noble One's Discipline. 

28. "When he grows up and his faculties mature, the child 
plays at such games as toy ploughs, tipcat, somersaults, toy 
windmills, toy measures, toy cars, and a toy bow and arrow. 


The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 359 


29 . "When he grows up and his faculties mature [still further ], 
youth enjoys himself provided and endowed with the five 
cords of sensual pleasure, with forms cognizable by the eye... 
sounds cognizable by the ear... odours cognizable by the nose... 
flavours cognizable by the tongue... tangibles cognizable by the 
body that are wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, con- 
nected with sensual desire, and provocative of lust. 


(THE CONTINUATION OF THE ROUND) 

30. "On seeing a form with the eye, he lusts after it if it is pleasing; 
he dislikes it if it is unpleasing. He abides with mindfulness of the 
body unestablished, with a limited mind, and he does not under- 
stand as it actually is the deliverance of mind and deliverance by 
wisdom wherein those evil unwholesome states cease without 
remainder. Engaged as he is in favouring and opposing, whatever 
feeling he feels - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful- 
nor-pleasant - he delights in that feeling, welcomes it, and remains 
holding to it. 412 As he does so, delight arises in him. Now delight 
in feelings is clinging. With his clinging as condition, being [comes 
to be]; with being as condition, birth; with birth as condition, 
ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair 
come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. 

"On hearing a sound with the ear... On smelling an odour 
with the nose. ..On tasting a flavour with the tongue. ..On touch- 
ing a tangible with the body... On cognizing a mind-object with 
the mind, [267J he lusts after it if it is pleasing; he dislikes it if it 
is unpleasing... Now delight in feelings is clinging. With his 
clinging as condition, being [comes to be]; with being as condi- 
tion, birth; with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, 
lamentation, pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the ori- 
gin of this whole mass of suffering. 

(THE ENDING OF THE ROUND: THE GRADUAL TRAINING) 

31-38. "Here, bhikkhus, a Tathagata appears in the world, 
accomplished, fully enlightened... (as Sutta 27, §§11-18) 
[268-69] . . .he purifies his mind from doubt. [270] 

39. "Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfec- 
tions of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from 


360 MahatanhUsankhaya Sutta: Sutta 38 


i 270 


sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he 
enters upon and abides in the first jhana... With the stilling of 
applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in 
the second jhana. . .With the fading away as well of rapture. . .he 
enters upon and abides in the third jhana... With the abandon- 
ing of pleasure and pain... he enters upon and abides in the 
fourth jhana... which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity 
of mindfulness due to equanimity. 

(the ending of the round: full cessation) 

40. "On seeing a form with the eye, he does not lust after it if it is 
pleasing; he does not dislike it if it is unpleasing. He abides with 
mindfulness of the body established, with an immeasurable 
mind, and he understands as it actually is the deliverance of 
mind and deliverance by wisdom wherein those evil unwhole- 
some states cease without remainder. 413 Having thus abandoned 
favouring and opposing, whatever feeling he feels, whether 
pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, he does not 
delight in that feeling, welcome it, or remain holding to it. 414 As 
he does not do so, delight in feelings ceases in him. With the ces- 
sation of his delight comes cessation of clinging; with the cessa- 
tion of clinging, cessation of being; with the cessation of being, 
cessation of birth; with the cessation of birth, ageing and death, 
sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. Such is the 
cessation of this whole mass of suffering. 

"On hearing a sound »with the ear... On smelling an odour 
with the nose. . .On tasting a flavour with the tongue. . .On touch- 
ing a tangible with the body... On cognizing a mind-object with 
the mind, he does not lust after it if it is pleasing; he does not 
dislike it if it is unpleasing... With the cessation of his delight 
comes cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessa- 
tion of being; with the cessation of being, cessation of birth; with 
the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, 
pain, grief, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole 
mass of suffering. 


The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 361 j, 

■f 

INCLUSION) 

£l' "Bhikkhus, remember this deliverance through the destruc- 
tion of craving as taught in brief by me. But the bhikkhu Sati, 

[271] son of a fisherman, is caught up in a vast net of craving, in 
the trammel of craving." 

that is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


39 MaM-Assapura Sutta 
The Greater Discourse at Assapura 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing in the Angan country at a town of the Angans named 
Assapura. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus." - “Venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

2. "'Recluses, recluses/ bhikkhus, that is how people perceive 
you. And when you are asked, 'What are you?', you claim that 
you are recluses. Since that is what you are designated and what 
you claim to be, you should train thus: 'We will undertake and 
practise those things that make one a recluse, that make one a 
brahmin, 41s so that our designations may be true and our claims 
genuine, and so that the services of those whose robes, alms- 
food, resting place, and medicinal requisites we use shall bring 
them great fruit and benefit, and so that our going forth shall 
not be in vain but fruitful and fertile.' 

(CONDUCT AND LIVELIHOOD) 

3. "And what, bhikkhus, are the things that make one a recluse, 
that make one a brahmin? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: 'We 
will be possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing.' 416 Now, 
bhikkhus, you may think thus: 'We are possessed of shame and 
fear of wrongdoing. That much is enough, that much has been 
done, the goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing 
more for us to do'; and you may rest content with that much. 
Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the 
recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while 
there is more to be done. 417 

4. "What more is to be done? [272] Bhikkhus, you should train 
thus: 'Our bodily conduct shall be purified, clear and open. 


362 


The Greater Discourse at Assapura 363 


lawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and dis- 
parage others on account of that purified bodily conduct.' Now, 
bhikkhus, you may think thus: 'We are possessed of shame and 
fear of wrongdoing and our bodily conduct has been purified. 
That much is enough, that much has been done, the goal of 
recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for us to 
do'; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I 
inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, 
do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to 


be done. 

5. "What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train 
thus: 'Our verbal conduct shall be purified, clear and open, 
flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and 
disparage others on account of that purified verbal conduct.' 
Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: 'We are possessed of 
shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct has been 
purified, and our verbal conduct has been purified. That much 
is enough...'; and you may rest content with that much. 
Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the 
recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while 
there is more to be done. 

6. "What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: 
'Our mental conduct shall be purified, clear and open, flawless 
and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage 
others on account of that purified mental conduct.' Now, 
bhikkhus, you may think thus: 'We are possessed of shame and 
fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct and verbal conduct 
have been purified, and our mental conduct has been purified. 
That much is enough...'; and you may rest content with that 
much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek 
the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship 
while there is more to be done. 

7. "What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: 
'Our livelihood shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and 
restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others 
on account of that purified livelihood.' Now, bhikkhus, you may 
think thus: 'We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, 
our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, and mental conduct have 
been purified, and our livelihood has been purified. [273] That 
much is enough...'; and you may rest content with that much. 


364 MaM-Assapura Sutta: Sutta 39 


i273 


Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the 
recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while 
there is more to be done. 

(restraint of the senses) 

8. "What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: 
'We will guard the doors of our sense faculties. On seeing a 
form with the eye, we will not grasp at its signs and features. 
Since, if we left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome 
states of covetousness and grief might invade us, we will prac- 
tise the way of its restraint, we will guard the eye faculty, we 
will undertake the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a 
sound with the ear... On smelling an odour with the nose... On 
tasting a flavour with the tongue... On touching a tangible with 
the body... On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, we will 
not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if we left the mind fac- 
ulty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and 
grief might invade us, we will practise the way of its restraint, 
we will guard the mind faculty, we will undertake the restraint 
of the mind faculty.' Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: 'We 
are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily con- 
duct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been 
purified, and we guard the doors of our sense faculties. That 
much is enough...'; and you may rest content with that much. 
Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the 
recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while 
there is more to be done. 

(moderation in eating) 

9. "What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: 
'We will be moderate in eating. Reflecting wisely, we will take 
food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake 
of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the 
endurance and continuance of this body, for ending discomfort, 
and for assisting the holy life, considering: "Thus I shall termi- 
nate old feelings without arousing new feelings and I shall be 
healthy and blameless and shall live in comfort."' Now, 
bhikkhus, you may think thus: 'We are possessed of shame and 


The Greater Discourse at Assapura 365 


fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental 
conduct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors 
f oU r sense faculties, and we are moderate in eating. That much 
enough../; and you may rest content with that much, 
ghikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the 
recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of reduseship while 
there is more to be done. 


(wakefulness) 

10. "What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: 
'We will be devoted to wakefulness. During the day, while 
walking back and forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of 
obstructive states. In the first watch of the night, [274] while 
walking back arid forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of 
obstructive states. In the middle watch of the night we will lie 
down on the right side in the lion's pose with one foot overlap- 
ping the other, mindful and fully aware, after noting in our 
minds the time for rising. After rising, in the third watch of the 
night, while walking back and forth and sitting, we will purify 
our minds of obstructive states.' Now, bhikkhus, you may think 
thus: 'We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our 
bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood 
have been purified, we guard the doors of our sense faculties, 
we are moderate in eating, and we are devoted to wakefulness. 
That much is enough...'; and you may rest content with that 
much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek 
the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of reduseship 
while there is more to be done. 


(mindfulness and full awareness) 

11. "What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: 
'We will be possessed of mindfulness and full awareness. We 
will act in full awareness when going forward and returning; we 
will act in full awareness when looking ahead and looking 
away; we will act in full awareness when flexing and extending 
our limbs; we will act in full awareness when wearing our robes 
and carrying our outer robe and bowl; we will act in full aware- 
ness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; we 


366 Maha-Assapura Sutta: Sutta 39 


i 275 


, 

will act in full awareness when defecating and urinating; we 
will act in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling 
asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.' Now, bhikkhus, 
you may think thus: 'We are possessed of shame and fear of 
wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental con- 
duct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors of 
our sense faculties, we are moderate in eating, we are devoted to 
wakefulness, and we are possessed of mindfulness and full 
awareness. That much is enough, that much has been done, the 
goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for 
us to do'; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I 
inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, 
do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to 
be done. 

(abandoning of the hindrances) 

12. "What more is to be done? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu resorts 
to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a moun- 
tain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, 
an open space, a heap of straw. 

13. "On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits 
down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect and 
establishing mindfulness before him. Abandoning covetousness 
for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he 
purifies his mind from covetousness. Abandoning ill will and 
hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate 
for the welfare of all living beings; [275] he purifies his mind 
from ill will and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides 
free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully 
aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning 
restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind 
inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and 
remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond 
doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his 
mind from doubt. 

14. "Bhikkhus, suppose a man were to take a loan and under- 
take business and his business were to succeed so that he could 
repay all the money of the old loan and there would remain 
enough extra to maintain a wife; then on considering this, he 


The Greater Discourse at Assapura 367 


would be glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man were afflicted, 
guffering and gravely ill, and his food would not agree with him 
and his body had no strength, but later he would recover from 
the affliction and his food would agree with him and his body 
would regain strength; then on considering this, he would be 
glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man were imprisoned in a 
prisonhouse, but later he would be released from prison, safe 
and secure, with no loss to his property; then on considering 
this, he would be glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man were a 
slave, not self-dependent but dependent on others, unable to go 
where he wants, but later on he would be released from slavery, 
self-dependent, independent of others, a freed man able to go 
where he wants; then on considering this, [276] he would be 
glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man with wealth and property 
were to enter a road across a desert, but later on he would cross 
over the desert, safe and secure, with no loss to his property; 
then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy. So 
too, bhikkhus, when these five hindrances are unabandoned in 
himself, a bhikkhu sees them respectively as a debt, a disease, a 
prisonhouse, slavery, and a road across a desert. But when these 
five hindrances have been abandoned in himself, he sees that as 
freedom from debt, healthiness, release from prison, freedom 
from slavery, and a land of safety. 418 


(the four jhAnas) 


15. "Having abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of 
the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensual 
pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon 
and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied 
and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclu- 
sion. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion 
drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part 
of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure bom 
of seclusion. Just as a skilled bath man or a bath man's appren- 
tice heaps bath powder in a metal basin and, sprinkling it grad- 
ually with water, kneads it until the moisture wets his ball of 
bath powder, soaks it, and pervades it inside and out, yet the 
ball itself does not ooze; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture 
and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade 


368 Mahcl-Assapura Sutta: Sutta 39 


i 277 


this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded 
by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. 

16. "Again, bhikkhus, with the stilling of applied and sustained 
thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, 
which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without 
applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born 
of concentration. He makes the rapture and pleasure bom of con- 
centration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there 
is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and 
pleasure born of concentration. Just as though there were a lake 
whose waters welled up from below [277] and it had no inflow 
from east, west, north, or south, and would not be replenished 
from time to time by showers of rain, then the cool fount of water 
welling up in the lake would make the cool water drench, steep, 
fill, and pervade the lake, so that there would be no part of the 
whole lake unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes 
the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, 
and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body 
unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure bom of concentration. 

17. "Again, bhikkhus, with the fading away as well of rapture, 
a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, 
still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in 
the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: 'He 
has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.' He 
makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and 
pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body 
unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture. Just as, in a 
pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses that are born 
and grow in the water thrive immersed in the water without ris- 
ing out of it, and cool water drenches, steeps, fills, and pervades 
them to their tips and their roots, so that there is no part of all 
those lotuses unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu 
makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and 
pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body 
unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture. 

18. "Again, bhikkhus, with the abandoning of pleasure and 
pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a 
bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has 
neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to 
equanimity. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright 


The Greater Discourse at Assapura 369 

j^jnd, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by 
pure bright mind. Just as though a man were sitting covered 
from the head down with a white cloth, so that there would be 
n o part of his whole [278] body unpervaded by the white cloth; 
so too, a bhikkhu sits pervading this body with a pure bright 
mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by 
the pure bright mind. 


(THE THREE TRUE KNOWLEDGES) 

19. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the 
recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, 
that is, one birth, two births... (as Sutta 4, §27 )...' Thus with their 
aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. Just 
as a man might go from his own village to another village and 
then back again to his own village, he might think: 'I went from 
my own village to that village, and there I stood in such a way, 
sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, kept silent in such a 
way; and from that village I went to that other village, and there 
I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, 
kept silent in such a way; and from that village I came back 
again to my own village.' So too, a bhikkhu recollects his mani- 
fold past lives. . .Thus with their aspects and particulars he recol- 
lects his manifold past lives. 

20. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and 
attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the 
passing away and reappearance of beings. ..(as Sutta 4, §29) 
[279]... Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses 
the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferi- 
or and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he 
understands how beings pass on according to their actions. Just 
as though there were two houses with doors and a man with 
good sight standing there between them saw people entering the 
houses and coming out and passing to and fro, so too, with the 
divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, a 
bhikkhu sees beings passing away and reappearing... and he 
understands how beings pass on according to their actions. 


370 Maha-Assapura Sutta: Sutta 39 


i28Q 1 


21. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright 1 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and i 
attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the 
destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: 'This is 
suffering';... 'This is the origin of suffering';... 'This is the cessa- 
tion of suffering';... 'This is the way leading to the cessation of 
suffering';... 'These are the taints';... 'This is the origin of the 
taints';... 'This is the cessation of the taints';... 'This is the way 
leading to the cessation of the taints.' 

"When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the 
taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint 
of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It 
is liberated.' He understands: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life 
has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no 
more coming to any state of being.' 

"Just as if there were a lake in a mountain recess, clear, limpid, 
and undisturbed, so that a man with good sight standing on the 
bank could see shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of 
fish swimming about and resting, he might think: "There is this 
lake, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, and there are these [280] 
shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these shoals of fish swim- 
ming about and resting.' So too, a bhikkhu understands as it 
actually is: 'This is suffering. '...He understands: 'Birth is 
destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has 
been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.' 

(the akahant) , 

22. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu such as this is called a recluse, a brah- 
min, one who has been washed, one who has attained to knowl- 
edge, a holy scholar, a noble one, an arahant. 419 

23. "And how is a bhikkhu a recluse? He has quieted down 
evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give 
trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and 
death. That is how a bhikkhu is a recluse. 

24. "And how is a bhikkhu a brahmin? He has expelled evil 
unwholesome states that defile... and lead to future birth, age- 
ing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is a brahmin. 

25. "And how is a bhikkhu one who has been washed? 420 He 
has washed off evil unwholesome states that defile... and lead to 


The Greater Discourse at Assapura 371 



future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is one 
w ho has been washed. 

26. "And how is a bhikkhu one who has attained to knowl- 
edge? He has known evil unwholesome states that defile... and 
lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is 
one who has attained to knowledge. 

27. "And how is a bhikkhu a holy scholar? 421 The evil 
unwholesome states that defile... and lead to future birth, age- 
ing, and death, have streamed away from him. That is how a 
bhikkhu is a holy scholar. 

28. "And how is a bhikkhu a noble one? Evil unwholesome 
states that defile... and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, 
are far away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is a noble one. 

29. "And how is a bhikkhu an arahant? Evil unwholesome 
states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in 
suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, are far 
away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is an arahant." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



40 Cula- Assapura Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse at Assapura 


[281] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living in the Angan country at a town of the Angans named 
Assapura. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir/' they replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

2. '"Recluses, recluses,' bhikkhus, that is how people perceive 
you. And when you are asked, 'What are you?' you claim that 
you are recluses. Since that is what you are designated and what 
you claim to be, you should train thus: 'We will practise the way 
proper to the recluse 422 so that our designations may be true and 
our claims genuine, and so that the services of those whose 
robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites we use 
shall bring them great fruit and benefit, and so that our going 
forth shall not be in vain but fruitful and fertile.' 

3. "How, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu not practise the way proper 
to the recluse? For so long as a bhikkhu who is covetous has not 
abandoned covetousness, who has a mind of ill will has not 
abandoned ill will, who is angry has not abandoned anger, who 
is revengeful has not abandoned revenge, who is contemptuous 
has not abandoned contempt, who is domineering has not aban- 
doned his domineering attitude, who is envious has not aban- 
doned envy, who is avaricious has not abandoned avarice, who 
is fraudulent has not abandoned fraud, who is deceitful has not 
abandoned deceit, who has evil wishes has not abandoned evil 
wishes, who has wrong view has not abandoned wrong view, 423 
for so long he does not practise the way proper to the recluse, I 
say, because of his failure to abandon these stains for the 
recluse, these faults for the recluse, these dregs for the recluse, 
which are grounds for rebirth in a state of deprivation and 
whose results are to be experienced in an unhappy destination. 

372 



1283 


The Shorter Discourse at Assapura 373 


4. "Suppose the weapon called a niataja, well whetted on both 
edges, were enclosed and encased in a patchwork sheath. I say 
that such a bhikkhu's going forth is comparable to that. 

5. "I do not say that the recluse's status comes about in a 
patchwork-cloak wearer through the mere wearing of the patch- 
work cloak, nor in a naked ascetic through mere nakedness, nor 
in a dweller in dust and dirt through mere dust and dirt, nor in 
a washer in water through mere washing in water, nor in a tree- 
root dweller through mere [282] dwelling at the root of a tree, 
nor in an open-air dweller through mere dwelling in the open 
air, nor in a practitioner of continuous standing through mere 
continuous standing, nor in a taker of food at stated intervals 
through mere taking of food at stated intervals, nor in a reciter 
of incantations through mere recitation of incantations; nor do I 
say that the recluse's status comes about in a matted-hair ascetic 
through mere wearing of the hair matted. 

6. "Bhikkhus, if through the mere wearing of the patchwork 
cloak a patchwork-cloak wearer who was covetous abandoned 
covetousness, who had a mind of ill will abandoned ill will... 
who had wrong view abandoned wrong view, then his friends 
and companions, his kinsmen and relatives, would make him a 
patchwork-cloak wearer as soon as he was born and have him 
undertake the patchwork-cloak wearing thus: 'Come, my dear, 
be a patchwork-cloak wearer so that, as a patchwork-cloak 
wearer, when you are covetous you will abandon covetousness, 
when you have a mind of ill will you will abandon ill will... 
when you have wrong view you will abandon wrong view/ But 
I see here a patchwork-cloak wearer who is covetous, who has a 
mind of ill will. . .who has wrong view; and that is why I do not 
say that the recluse's status comes about in a patchwork-cloak 
wearer through the mere wearing of the patchwork cloak. 

"If through mere nakedness a naked ascetic who was covetous 
abandoned covetousness... If through mere dust and dirt. ..If 
through mere washing in water. . .If through mere dwelling at the 
root of a tree. ..If through mere dwelling in the open air.. .If 
through mere continuous standing... If through mere taking of 
food at stated intervals... If through mere recitation of incanta- 
tions... If through mere wearing of the hair matted... [283]... and 
that is why I do not say that the recluse's status comes about in a 
matted-hair ascetic through the mere wearing of the hair matted. 


374 Cula-Assapura Sutta: Sutta 40 


i 284 


7. "How, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu practise the way proper to 
the recluse? When any bhikkhu who was covetous has aban- 
doned covetousness, who had a mind of ill will has abandoned ill 
will, who was angry has abandoned anger, who was revengeful 
has abandoned revenge, who was contemptuous has abandoned 
contempt, who was domineering has abandoned his domineer- 
ing attitude, who was envious has abandoned envy, who was 
avaricious has abandoned avarice, who was fraudulent has 
abandoned fraud, who was deceitful has abandoned deceit, who 
had evil wishes has abandoned evil wishes, who had wrong 
view has abandoned wrong view, then he practises the way 
proper to the recluse, I say, because of his abandoning these 
stains for the recluse, these faults for the recluse, these dregs for 
the recluse, which are grounds for rebirth in a state of depriva- 
tion and whose results are to be experienced in an unhappy 
destination. 

8. "He sees himself purified of all these evil unwholesome 
states, he sees himself liberated from them. When he sees this, 
gladness is born in him. When he is glad, rapture is born in him; 
in one who is rapturous, the body becomes tranquil; one whose 
body is tranquil feels pleasure; in one who feels pleasure, the 
mind becomes concentrated. 

9. "He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with 
loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise 
the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all 
as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world 
with a mind imbued wifla loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, 
immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. 

10-12. "He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued 
with compassion... with a mind imbued with appreciative 
joy... with a mind imbued with equanimity... abundant, exalted, 
immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. 

13. "Suppose there were a pond with clear, agreeable cool 
water, transparent, with smooth banks, delightful. [284] If a 
man, scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, 
and thirsty, came from the east or from the west or from the 
north or from the south or from where you will, having come 
upon the pond he would quench his thirst and his hot-weather 
fever. So too, bhikkhus, if anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth 
from the home life into homelessness, and after encountering the 


i 284 


The Shorter Discourse at Assapura 375 


Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata, develops 
loving-kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity, 
and thereby gains internal peace, then because of that internal 
peace he practises the way proper to the recluse, I say. And if 
anyone from a clan of brahmins goes forth... If anyone from a 
clan of merchants goes forth... If anyone from a clan of workers 
goes forth from the home life into homelessness, and after 
encountering the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the 
Tathagata, develops loving-kindness, compassion, appreciative 
joy, and equanimity, and thereby gains internal peace, then 
because of that internal peace he practises the way proper to the 
recluse, I say. 

14. "Bhikkhus, if anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth from 
the home life into homelessness, and by realising for himself 
with direct knowledge here and now enters upon and abides in 
the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are 
taintless with the destruction of the taints, then he is already a 
recluse because of the destruction of the taints. 424 And if anyone 
from a clan of brahmins goes forth... If anyone from a clan of 
merchants goes forth... If anyone from a clan of workers goes 
forth from the home life into homelessness, and by realising for 
himself with direct knowledge here and now enters upon and 
abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom 
that are taintless with the destruction of the taints, then he is 
already a recluse because of the destruction of the taints." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



5 

The Shorter Division of Pairs 

(Culayamakavagga) 




41 Saleyyaka Sutta 
The Brahmins of Sala 


[285] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was wandering by stages in the Kosalan Country with a large 
Sangha of bhikkhus, and eventually he arrived at a Kosalan 
brahmin village named Sala. 

2. The brahmin householders of Sala heard: "The recluse 
Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan 
clan, has been wandering in the Kosalan country with a large 
Sangha of bhikkhus and has come to Sala. Now a good report of 
Master Gotama has been spread to this effect: That Blessed One 
is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge 
and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of 
persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, 
blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its 
Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its 
princes and its people, which he has himself realised with direct 
knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, 
good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning 
and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect 
and pure.' Now it is good to see such arahants." 

3. Then the brahmin householders of Sala went to the Blessed 
One. Some paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one 
side; some exchanged greetings with him, and when this courte- 
ous and amiable talk was finished, sat down at one side; some 
extended their hands in reverential salutation towards the 
Blessed One and sat down at one side; some pronounced their 
name and clan in the Blessed One's presence and sat down at 
one side; some kept silent and sat down at one side. 

4. When they were seated, they said to the Blessed One: 
"Master Gotama, what is the cause and condition why some 
beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear 


379 


380 Saleyyaka Sutta: Sutta 41 


i 286 


in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, 
even in hell? And what is the cause and condition why some 
beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear 
in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world?" 

5. "Householders, it is by reason of conduct not in accordance 
with the Dhamma, by reason of unrighteous conduct that some 
beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear 
in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, 
even in hell. It is by reason of conduct in accordance with the 
Dhamma, by reason of righteous conduct that some beings here, 
on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy 
destination, even in the heavenly world." [286] 

6. "We do not understand the detailed meaning of Master 
Gotama's utterance, which he has spoken in brief without 
expounding the detailed meaning. It would be good if Master 
Gotama would teach us the Dhamma so that we might under- 
stand the detailed meaning of his utterance." 

"Then, householders, listen and attend closely to what I 
shall say." 

"Yes, venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

7. "Householders, there are three kinds of bodily conduct not in 
accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. There are 
four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, 
unrighteous conduct. There are three kinds of mental conduct 
not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. 

8. "And how, householders, are there three kinds of bodily 
conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous con- 
duct? Here someone kills living beings; he is murderous, bloody- 
handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings. 
He takes what is not given; he takes by way of theft the wealth 
and property of others in the village or forest. He misconducts 
himself in sensual pleasures; he has intercourse with women 
who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, 
brother, sister, or relatives, who have a husband, who are pro- 
tected by law, and even with those who are garlanded in token 
of betrothal. That is how there are three kinds of bodily conduct 
not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. 

9. "And how, householders, are there four kinds of verbal con- 
duct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct? 
Here someone speaks falsehood; when summoned to a court, or 


i 287 


The Brahmins o/Sala 381 


to a meeting, or to his relatives' presence, or to his guild, or to 
the royal family's presence, and questioned as a witness thus: 
'So, good man, tell what you know,' not knowing, he says, 'I 
know,' or knowing, he says, 'I do not know'; not seeing, he says, 
T see,' or seeing, he says, 'I do not see'; in full awareness he 
speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for 
some trifling worldly end. He speaks maliciously; he repeats 
elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those peo- 
ple] from these, or he repeats to these people what he has heard 
elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he 
is one who divides those who are united, a creator of divisions, 
who enjoys discord, rejoices in discord, delights in discord, a 
speaker of words that create discord. He speaks harshly; he 
utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive 
to others, bordering on anger, unconducive to concentration. 
[287] He is a gossip; he speaks at the wrong time, speaks what is 
not fact, speaks what is useless, speaks contrary to the Dhamma 
and the Discipline; at the wrong time he speaks such words as 
are worthless, unreasonable, immoderate, and unbeneficial. 
That is how there are four kinds of verbal conduct not in accor- 
dance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. 

10. "And how, householders, are there three kinds of mental 
conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous con- 
duct? Here someone is covetous; he covets the wealth and prop- 
erty of others thus: 'Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!' 
Or he has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate thus: 'May these 
beings be slain and slaughtered, may they be cut off, perish, or be 
annihilated!' Or he has wrong view, distorted vision, thus: 
'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed; no 
fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other 
world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn sponta- 
neously; no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the 
world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and 
declare this world and the other world.' 425 That is how there are 
three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the 
Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. So, householders, it is by reason 
of such conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason 
of such unrighteous conduct that some beings here on the disso- 
lution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, 
in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. 


382 Saleyyaka Sutta: Sutta 41 


i 288 


11. "Householders/ there are three kinds of bodily conduct in 
accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. There are four 
kinds of verbal conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, right- 
eous conduct. There are three kinds of mental conduct in accor- 
dance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. 

12. "And how, householders, are there three kinds of bodily 
conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct? 
Here someone, abandoning the killing of living beings, abstains 
from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid aside, gen- 
tle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings. 
Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from 
taking what is not given; he does not take by way of theft the 
wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest. 
Abandoning misconduct in sensual pleasures, he abstains from 
misconduct in sensual pleasures; he does not have intercourse 
with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother 
and father, brother, sister, or relatives, who have a husband, who 
are protected by law, or with those who are garlanded in token 
of betrothal. That is how there are three kinds of bodily conduct 
in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. [288] 

13. "And how, householders, are there four kinds of verbal 
conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct? 
Here someone, abandoning false speech, abstains from false 
speech; when summoned to a court, or to a meeting, or to his 
relatives' presence, or to his guild, or to the royal family's pres- 
ence, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what 
you know,' not knowing, he says, 'I do not know,' or knowing, 
he says, 'I know'; not seeing, he says, 'I do not see,' or seeing, he 
says, 'I see'; he does not in full awareness speak falsehood for 
his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly 
end. Abandoning malicious speech, he abstains from malicious 
speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in 
order to divide [those people] from these, nor does he repeat to 
these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide 
[these people] from those; thus he is one who reunites those 
who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys con- 
cord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words 
that promote concord. Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains 
from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing 
to the ear, and loveable, as go to the heart, are courteous, 



The Brahmins of Sola 383 


i2 89 

desired by many, and agreeable to many. Abandoning gossip, 
tie abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what 
is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the 
discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth 
recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial. That is how 
there are four kinds of verbal conduct in accordance with the 
Dhamma, righteous conduct. 

14. "And how, householders, are there three kinds of mental 
conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct? 
Here someone is not covetous; he does not covet the wealth and 
property of others thus: 'Oh, may what belongs to another be 
mine!' His mind is without ill will and he has intentions free 
from hate thus: 'May these beings be free from enmity, afflic- 
tion and anxiety! May they live happily!' He has right view, 
undistorted vision, thus: 'There is what is given and what is 
offered and what is sacrificed; there is fruit and result of good 
and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there 
is mother and father; there are beings who are reborn sponta- 
neously; there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in 
the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge 
and declare this world and the other world.' That is how there 
are three kinds of mental conduct in accordance with the 
Dhamma, righteous conduct. So, householders, it is by reason 
of such conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of 
such righteous conduct that some beings here, on the dissolu- 
tion of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, 
even in the heavenly world, [289] 

15. "If, householders, one who observes conduct in accordance 
with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: 'Oh, that on 
the dissolution of the body, after death, I might reappear in the 
company of well-to-do nobles!' it is possible that, on the dissolu- 
tion of the body, after death, he will reappear in the company of 
well-to-do nobles. Why is that? Because he observes conduct 
that is in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. 

16-17. "If, householders, one who observes conduct in accor- 
dance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: 'Oh, 
that on the dissolution of the body, after death, 1 might reappear 
in the company of well-to-do brahmins!... in the company of 
well-to-do householders!' it is possible that, on the dissolution 
of the body, after death, he will reappear in the company of 


384 Saleyyaka Sutta: Sutta 41 


i 290 


well-to-do householders. Why is that? Because he observes con- 
duct that is in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct 

18-42. "If, householders, one who observes conduct in accor- 
dance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: 'Oh, 
that on the dissolution of the body, after death, I might reappear 
in the company of the gods of the heaven of the Four Great 
Kings!... in the company of the gods of the heaven of the Thirty- 
three . . . the Y ama gods . . . the gods of the T usita heaven . . . the gods 
who delight in creating... the gods who wield power over oth- 
ers' creations... the gods of Brahma's retinue. ..the gods of 
Radiance 426 ... the gods of Limited Radiance. ..the gods of 
Immeasurable Radiance... the gods of Streaming Radiance... the 
gods of Glory. ..the gods of Limited Glory. ..the gods of 
Immeasurable Glory... the gods of Refulgent Glory... the gods of 
Great Fruit... the Aviha gods... the Atappa gods... the Sudassa 
gods. ..the SudassI gods.. .the Akanittha gods. ..the gods of the 
base of infinite space. . .the gods of the base of infinite conscious- 
ness. . .the gods of the base of nothingness. . .the gods of the base 
of neither-perception-nor-non-perception!' it is possible that on 
the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in the 
company of the gods of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. 
Why is that? Because he observes conduct in accordance with 
the Dhamma, righteous conduct. 

43. "If, householders, one who observes conduct in accordance 
with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: 'Oh, that by 
realising for myself with direct knowledge I might here and 
now enter upon and abidfe in the deliverance of mind and deliv- 
erance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the 
taints!' it is possible that, by realising for himself with direct 
knowledge, he will here and now enter upon and abide in the 
deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taint- 
less with the destruction of the taints. Why is that? Because he 
observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous 
conduct." 427 [290] 

44. When this was said, the brahmin householders of Sala said 
to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, 
Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in 
many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been 
overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to 
one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness for 




1 




42 Veranjaka Sutta 
The Brahmins of Veranja 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

2. Now on that occasion some brahmin householders of 
Veranja were on a visit to Savatthl for some business or other. 
[291] 

3-44. [The text of this sutta is the same as that of Sutta 41, except 
that where the preceding sutta is phrased in terms of "conduct not in 
accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct" (§§7-10) 
and "conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous con- 
duct" (§§11-14), this sutta is phrased in terms of "one who does 
not observe conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, one of 
unrighteous conduct" and "one who observes conduct in accor- 
dance with the Dhamma, one of righteous conduct"; substitute 
"Veranja" for "Sala" throughout.] 






43 Mahavedalla Sutta 
The Greater Series of 
Questions and Answers 


[292] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

Then, when it was evening, the venerable Maha Kotthita rose 
from meditation, went to the venerable Sariputta, and 
exchanged greetings with him. 428 When this courteous and ami- 
able talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the 
venerable Sariputta: 

(wisdom) 

2. ""One who is unwise, one who is unwise' is said, friend. With 
reference to what is this said, 'one who is unwise'?" 

"'One does not wisely understand, one does not wisely 
understand/ friend; that is why it is said, 'one who is unwise/ 
And what doesn't one wisely understand? One does not wisely 
understand: 'This is suffering'; one does not wisely under- 
stand: 'This is the origin of suffering'; one does not wisely 
understand: 'This is the cessation of suffering'; one does not 
wisely understand: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of 
suffering.' 'One does not wisely understand, one does not 
wisely understand/ friend; that is why it is said, 'one who is 
unwise.'" 

Saying, "Good, friend," the venerable Maha Kotthita delighted 
and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta's words. Then he asked 
him a further question: 

3. "'One who is wise, one who is wise,' is said, friend. With 
reference to what is this said, 'one who is wise'?" 

"'One wisely understands, one wisely understands/ friend; 
that is why it is said, 'one who is wise.' What does one wisely 
understand? One wisely understands: 'This is suffering'; one 


387 


388 Mahavedalla Sutta: Sutta 43 


i293 


wisely understands: 'This is the origin of suffering'; one wisely 
understands: 'This is the cessation of suffering'; one wisely 
understands: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffer- 
ing.' 'One wisely understands, one wisely understands/ friend; 
that is why it is said, 'one who is wise/" 429 

(consciousness) 

4. "'Consciousness, consciousness' is said, friend. With reference 
to what is 'consciousness' said?" 

"'It cognizes, it cognizes/ friend; that is why 'consciousness' is 
said. 430 What does it cognize? It cognizes: '[This is] pleasant'; it 
cognizes: '[This is] painful'; it cognizes: '[This is] neither- 
painful-nor-pleasant.' 'It cognizes, it cognizes/ friend; that is 
why 'consciousness' is said." 431 

5. "Wisdom and consciousness, friend - are these states con- 
joined or disjoined? And is it possible to separate each of these 
states from the other in order to describe the difference between 
them?" 

"Wisdom and consciousness, friend - these states are con- 
joined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of 
these states from the other in order to describe the difference 
between them. For what one wisely understands, that one cog- 
nizes, and what one cognizes, that one wisely understands. [293] 
That is why these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is 
impossible to separate each of these states from the other in 
order to describe the difference between them." 432 

6. "What is the difference, friend, between wisdom and con- 
sciousness, these states that are conjoined, not disjoined?" 

"The difference, friend, between wisdom and consciousness, 
these states that are conjoined, not disjoined, is this: wisdom is 
to be developed, consciousness is to be fully understood." 433 

(feeling) 

7, "'Feeling, feeling' is said, friend. With reference to what is 
'feeling' said?" 

"'It feels, it feels,' friend; that is why 'feeling' is said. What does 
it feel? It feels pleasure, it feels pain, it feels neither-pain-nor- 
pleasure. 'It feels, it feels/ friend, that is why 'feeling' is said." 434 


The Greater Series of Questions and Answers 389 


Perception) 

-"perception, perception/ is said, friend. With reference to 
w hat is 'perception' said?" 

'"It perceives, it perceives,' friend; that is why 'perception' is 
said- What does it perceive? It perceives blue, it perceives yellow, 
it perceives red, and it perceives white. 'It perceives, it perceives/ 
friend; that is why 'perception' is said." 435 

9. "Peeling, perception, and consciousness, friend - are these 
states conjoined or disjoined? And is it possible to separate each 
of these states from the others in order to describe the difference 
between them?" 

"Feeling, perception, and consciousness, friend - these states 
are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each 
of these states from the others in order to describe the difference 
between them. For what one feels, that one perceives; and what 
one perceives, that one cognizes. That is why these states are con- 
joined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of 
these states from the others in order to describe the difference 
between them." 436 


(KNOW ABLE BY MIND ALONE) 

10. "Friend, what can be known by purified mind-consciousness 
released from the five faculties?" 

"Friend, by purified mind-consciousness released from the 
five faculties the base of infinite space can be known thus; 'Space 
is infinite'; the base of infinite consciousness can be known thus; 
'Consciousness is infinite'; and the base of nothingness can be 
known thus; 'There is nothing.'" 437 

11. "Friend, with what does one understand a state that can 
be known?" 

"Friend, one understands a state that can be known with the 
eye of wisdom." 438 

12. "Friend, what is the purpose of wisdom?" 

"The purpose of wisdom, friend, is direct knowledge, its pur- 
pose is full understanding, its purpose is abandoning." 439 


390 Mahavedalla Sutta: Sutta 43 


£294 

(right view) 

[294] 13. "Friend, how many conditions are there for the arising 
of right view?" 

"Friend, there are two conditions for the arising of right view- 
the voice of another and wise attention. These are the two condi- 
tions for the arising of right view." 440 

14. "Friend, by how many factors is right view assisted when it 
has deliverance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its 
fruit and benefit, when it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, 
deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit?" 

"Friend, right view is assisted by five factors when it has deliv- 
erance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and 
benefit, when it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliver- 
ance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit. Here, friend, right view 
is assisted by virtue, learning, discussion, serenity, and insight. 
Right view assisted by these five factors has deliverance of mind 
for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit; it has 
deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliverance by wisdom for its 
fruit and benefit ." 441 

(being) 

15. "Friend, how many kinds of being are there?" 

"There are these three kinds of being, friend: sense-sphere 
being, fine-material being, and immaterial being." 

16. "Friend, how is renewal of being in the future generated?" 
"Friend, renewal of being in the future is generated through 

the delighting in this and that on the part of beings who are hin- 
dered by ignorance and fettered by craving." 442 

17. "Friend, how is renewal of being in the future not generated?" 
"Friend, with the fading away of ignorance, with the arising of 

true knowledge, and with the cessation of craving, renewal of 
being in the future is not generated." 

(the first jhana) 

18. "Friend, what is the first jhana?" 

"Here, friend, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded 
from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in 
the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained 


The Greater Series of Questions and Answers 391 


; ought- with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. This is 
Pled the first jhana." 

19 . "Friend, how many factors does the first jhana have?" 

| "priend, the first jhana has five factors. Here, when a bhikkhu 
k aS entered upon the first jhana, there occur applied thought, 
sustained thought, rapture, pleasure, and unification of mind, 
fhat is how the first jhana has five factors." 

20. "Friend, how many factors are abandoned in the first jhana 
and how many factors are possessed?" 

"Friend, in the first jhana five factors are abandoned and five 
factors are possessed. Here, when a bhikkhu has entered upon 
the first jhana, sensual desire is abandoned, ill will is abandoned, 
sloth and torpor are abandoned, restlessness and remorse [295] 
are abandoned, and doubt is abandoned; and there occur applied 
thought, sustained thought, rapture, pleasure, and unification of 
mind. That is how in the first jhana five factors are abandoned 
and five factors are possessed." 


(the five faculties) 

21. "Friend, these five faculties each have a separate field, a sepa- 
rate domain, and do not experience each other's field and 
domain, that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, 
the tongue faculty, and the body faculty. Now of these five facul- 
ties, each having a separate field, a separate domain, not experi- 
encing each other's field and domain, what is their resort, what 
experiences their fields and domains?" 443 

"Friend, these five faculties each have a separate field, a sepa- 
rate domain, and do not experience each other's field and 
domain, that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, 
the tongue faculty, and the body faculty. Now these five faculties, 
each having a separate field, a separate domain, not experiencing 
each other's field and domain, have mind as their resort, and 
mind experiences their fields and domains." 

22. "Friend, as to these five faculties - that is, the eye faculty, 
the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body 
faculty - what do these five faculties stand in dependence on?" 

"Friend, as to these five faculties - that is, the eye faculty, the 
e ar faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body fac- 
ulty - these five faculties stand in dependence on vitality." 444 

"Friend, what does vitality stand in dependence on?" 


392 MahS.vedalla Sutta: Sutta 43 


i296 


"Friend, as to these five faculties - that is, the eye faculty, the 
ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body 
faculty - these five faculties stand in dependence on vitality. 

"Friend, what does vitality stand in dependence on?" 

"Vitality stands in dependence on heat." 445 

"Friend, what does heat stand in dependence on?" 

"Heat stands in dependence on vitality." 

"Just now, friend, we understood the venerable Sariputta to 
have said: 'Vitality stands in dependence on heat'; and now we 
understand him to say: 'Heat stands in dependence on vitality.' 
How should the meaning of these statements be regarded?" 

"In that case, friend, I shall give you a simile, for some wise 
men here understand the meaning of a statement by means of a 
simile. Just as when an oil-lamp is burning, its radiance is seen 
in dependence on its flame and its flame is seen in dependence 
on its radiance; so too, vitality stands in dependence on heat and 
heat stands in dependence on vitality." 

(vital formations) 

23. "Friend, are vital formations states of feeling or are vital for- 
mations one thing and states of feeling another?" [296] 

"Vital formations, friend, are not states of feeling. 446 If vital 
formations were states of feeling, then when a bhikkhu has 
entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, he would 
not be seen to emerge from it. Because vital formations are one 
thing and states of feeling another, when a bhikkhu has entered 
upon the cessation of perception and feeling, he can be seen to 
emerge from it." 

24. "Friend, when this body is bereft of how many states is it 
then discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log?" 447 

"Friend, when this body is bereft of three states - vitality, 
heat, and consciousness - it is then discarded and forsaken, left 
lying senseless like a log." 

25. "Friend, what is the difference between one who is dead, 
who has completed his time, and a bhikkhu who has entered 
upon the cessation of perception and feeling?" 

"Friend, in the case of one who is dead, who has completed his 
time, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his verbal 
formations have ceased and subsided, his mental formations 


have ceased and subsided, his vitality is exhausted, his heat has 
keen dissipated, and his faculties are fully broken up. In the case 
0 f a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception 
a nd feeling, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his 
verbal formations have ceased and subsided, his mental forma- 
tions have ceased and subsided, but his vitality is not exhausted, 
his heat has not been dissipated, and his faculties become excep- 
tionally clear. 448 This is the difference between one who is dead, 
who has completed his time, and a bhikkhu who has entered 
upon the cessation of perception and feeling." 

(DELIVERANCE OF MIND) 

26. "Friend, how many conditions are there for the attainment of 
the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind?" 

"Friend, there are four conditions for the attainment of the 
neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind: here, with 
the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous dis- 
appearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides 
in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and 
purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. These are the four 
conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant 
deliverance of mind." 

27. "Friend, how many conditions are there for the attainment 
of the signless deliverance of mind?" 

"Friend, there are two conditions for the attainment of the 
signless deliverance of mind: non-attention to all signs and 
attention to the signless element. These are the two conditions 
for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind." 449 

28. "Friend, how many conditions are there for the persistence 
of the signless deliverance of mind?" 

"Friend, there are three conditions for the persistence of the 
signless deliverance of mind; [297] non-attention to all signs, 
attention to the signless element, and the prior determination [of 
its duration]. These are the three conditions for the persistence 
of the signless deliverance of mind." 

29. "Friend, how many conditions are there for emergence 
from the signless deliverance of mind?" 

"Friend, there are two conditions for emergence from the sign- 
less deliverance of mind: attention to all signs and non-attention 



394 Mahavedalla Sutta: Sutta 43 


i 298 


to the signless element. These are the two conditions for emer- 
gence from the signless deliverance of mind." 

30. "Friend, the immeasurable deliverance of mind, the deliv- 
erance of mind through nothingness, the deliverance of mind 
through voidness, and the signless deliverance of mind: are 
these states different in meaning and different in name, or are 
they one in meaning and different only in name?" 

"Friend, the immeasurable deliverance of mind, the deliver- 
ance of mind through nothingness, the deliverance of mind 
through voidness, and the signless deliverance of mind: there is a 
way in which these states are different in meaning and different 
in name, and there is a way in which they are one in meaning 
and different only in name. 

31. "What, friend, is the way in which these states are different 
in meaning and different in name? Here a bhikkhu abides per- 
vading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, 
likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so 
above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, 
he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind 
imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, 
without hostility and without ill will. He abides pervading one 
quarter with a mind imbued with compassion... He abides per- 
vading one quarter with a mind imbued with appreciative 
joy . . .He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with 
equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the 
fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to 
himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a 
mind imbued with equanimity, abundant, exalted, immeasur- 
able, without hostility and without ill will. This is called the 
immeasurable deliverance of mind. 

32. "And what, friend, is the deliverance of mind through 
nothingness? Here, with the complete surmounting of the base 
of infinite consciousness, aware that 'there is nothing,' a 
bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This 
is called the deliverance of mind through nothingness. 

33. "And what, friend, is the deliverance of mind through 
voidness? Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a 
tree or to an empty hut, reflects thus: 'This is void of a self or of 
what belongs to a self.' [298] This is called the deliverance of 
mind through voidness. 450 



The Greater Series of Questions and Answers 395 


34. "And what, friend, is the signless deliverance of mind? 
Jlere, with non-attention to all signs, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the signless concentration of mind. This is called the 


signless deliverance of mind. 451 This is the way in which these 
states are different in meaning and different in name. 

35. "And what, friend, is the way in which these states are one 
in meaning and different only in name? Lust is a maker of mea- 
surement, hate is a maker of measurement, delusion is a maker 
of measurement. 452 In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, 
these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm 
stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to 
future arising. Of all the kinds of immeasurable deliverance of 
mind, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the 
best. Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, 
void of hate, void of delusion. 453 

36. "Lust is a something, hate is a something, delusion is a 
something. 454 In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are 
abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done 
away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of 
all the kinds of deliverance of mind through nothingness, the 
unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best. 455 
Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void 
of hate, void of delusion. 

37. "Lust is a maker of signs, hate is a maker of signs, delusion 
is a maker of signs. 456 In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, 
these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm 
stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to 
future arising. Of all the kinds of signless deliverance of mind, 
the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best. 457 
Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void 
of hate, void of delusion. This is the way in which these states 
are one in meaning and different only in name." 458 

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The venerable Maha 
Kotthita was satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta's 
words. 


44 Culavedalla Sutta 
The Shorter Series of 
Questions and Answers 


[299] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels' 
Sanctuary. Then the lay follower Visakha went to the bhikkhunl 
Dhammadinna, 459 and after paying homage to her, he sat down 
at one side and asked her: 

(personality) 

2. "Lady, 'personality, personality' is said. What is called per- 
sonality by the Blessed One?" 

"Friend Visakha, these five aggregates affected by clinging 
are called personality by the Blessed One; that is, the material 
form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling aggregate 
affected by clinging, the perception aggregate affected by 
clinging, the formations aggregate affected by clinging, and 
the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. These five 
aggregates affected by clinging are called personality by the 
Blessed One." 460 

Saying, "Good, lady," the lay follower Visakha delighted and 
rejoiced in the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna's words. Then he 
asked her a further question: ■ 

3. "Lady, 'origin of personality, origin of personality' is said. 
What is called the origin of personality by the Blessed One?" 

"Friend Visakha, it is craving, which brings renewal of being, 
is accompanied by delight and lust, and delights in this and that; 
that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for being, and 
craving for non-being. This is called the origin of personality by 
the Blessed One." 


396 


The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 397 


4 "Lady, 'cessation of personality, cessation of personality' 
F.' g sa id. What is called the cessation of personality by the 
Blessed One? 

"Friend Visakha, it is the remainderless fading away and ceas- 
ing/ the giving U P/ relinquishing, letting go, and rejecting of that 
same craving. This is called the cessation of personality by the 
Blessed One." 

5. "Lady, 'the way leading to the cessation of personality, the 
way leading to the cessation of personality' is said. What is 
called the way leading to the cessation of personality by the 
Blessed One?" 

"Friend Visakha, it is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, 
right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right liveli- 
hood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration." 

6. "Lady, is that clinging the same as these five aggregates 
affected by clinging, or is the clinging something apart from the 
five aggregates affected by clinging?" 

"Friend Visakha, that clinging is neither the same as these five 
aggregates affected by clinging [300] nor is clinging something 
apart from the five aggregates affected by clinging. It is the 
desire and lust in regard to the five aggregates affected by cling- 
ing that is the clinging there." 461 


(personality view) 

7. "Lady, how does personality view come to be?" 

"Here, friend Visakha, an untaught ordinary person, who has 
no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in 
their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled 
and undisciplined in their Dhamma, regards material form as 
self, or self as possessed of material form, or material form as in 
self, or self as in material form. He regards feeling as self, or self 
as possessed of feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling. 
He regards perception as self, or self as possessed of perception, 
or perception as in self, or self as in perception. He regards for- 
mations as self, or self as possessed of formations, or formations 
as in self, or self as in formations. He regards consciousness as 
self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in 


398 Cttlavedalla Sutta: Sutta 44 


i30i 


I self, or self as in consciousness. That is how personality view 

I comes to be." 462 

1 8. "Lady, how does personality view not come to be?" 

1 "Here, friend Visakha, a well-taught noble disciple, who has 

regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their 
Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disci- 
plined in their Dhamma, does not regard material form as self, 
or self as possessed of material form, or material form as in 
self, or self as in material form. He does not regard feeling as 
self, or self as possessed of feeling, or feeling as in self, or self 
as in feeling. He does not regard perception as self, or self as 
possessed of perception, or perception as in self, or self as in 
perception. He does not regard formations as self, or self as 
possessed of formations, or formations as in self, or self as in 
formations. He does not regard consciousness as self, or self as 
possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self 
as in consciousness. That is how personality view does not 
come to be." 

(the noble eightfold path) 

9. "Lady, what is the Noble Eightfold Path?" 

"Friend Visakha, it is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, 
right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right liveli- 
hood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration." 

10. "Lady, is the Noble Eightfold Path conditioned or 
unconditioned?" , 

"Friend Visakha, the Noble Eightfold Path is [301] conditioned." 

11. "Lady, are the three aggregates included by the Noble 
Eightfold Path, or is the Noble Eightfold Path included by the 
three aggregates?" 463 

"The three aggregates are not included by the Noble 
Eightfold Path, friend Visakha, but the Noble Eightfold Path is 
included by the three aggregates. Right speech, right action, 
and right livelihood - these states are included in the aggregate 
of virtue. Right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentra- 
tion - these states are included in the aggregate of concentra- 
tion. Right view and right intention - these states are included 
in the aggregate of wisdom." 


The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 399 


Concentration) 

12 . "Lady, what is concentration? What is the basis of concentra- 
tion? What is the equipment of concentration? What is the 
development of concentration?" 

"Unification of mind, friend Visakha, is concentration; the 
four foundations of mindfulness are the basis of concentration; 
the four right kinds of striving are the equipment of concentra- 
tion; the repetition, development, and cultivation of these same 
states is the development of concentration therein." 464 

(formations) 

13. "Lady, how many formations are there?" 

"There are these three formations, friend Visakha: the bodily 
formation, the verbal formation, and the mental formation." 

14. "But, lady, what is the bodily formation? What is the ver- 
bal formation? What is the mental formation?" 

"In-breathing and out-breathing, friend Visakha, are the bodily 
formation; applied thought and sustained thought are the verbal 
formation; perception and feeling are the mental formation." 465 

15. "But, lady, why are in-breathing and out-breathing the 
bodily formation? Why are applied thought and sustained 
thought the verbal formation? Why are perception and feeling 
the mental formation?" 

"Friend Visakha, in-breathing and out-breathing are bodily, 
these are states bound up with the body; that is why in-breathing 
and out-breathing are the bodily formation. First one applies 
thought and sustains thought, and subsequently one breaks out 
into speech; that is why applied thought and sustained thought 
are the verbal formation. Perception and feeling are mental, 
these are states bound up with the mind; that is why perception 
and feeling are the mental formation. " v>6 


(the attainment of cessation) 

16. "Lady, how does the attainment of the cessation of percep- 
tion and feeling come to be?" 

"Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu is attaining the cessation of 



400 Cttlavedalla Sutta : Sutta 44 


i 302 


perception and feeling, it does not occur to him: 'I shall attain 
the cessation of perception and feeling,' or 'I am attaining the 
cessation of perception and feeling/ or 'I have attained the ces- 
sation of perception and feeling'; but rather his mind has previ- 
ously been developed in such a way that it leads him to that 
state." 467 [302] 

17. "Lady, when a bhikkhu is attaining the cessation of per- 
ception and feeling, which states cease first in him: the bodily 
formation, the verbal formation, or the mental formation?" 

"Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu is attaining the cessation of 
perception and feeling, first the verbal formation ceases, then 
the bodily formation, then the mental formation." 468 

18. "Lady, how does emergence from the attainment of the 
cessation of perception and feeling come to be?" 

"Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu is emerging from the attain- 
ment of the cessation of perception and feeling, it does not occur 
to him: 'I shall emerge from the attainment of the cessation of 
perception and feeling,' or 'I am emerging from the attainment 
of the cessation of perception and feeling/ or 'I have emerged 
from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling'; 
but rather his mind has previously been developed in such a 
way that it leads him to that state." 469 

19. "Lady, when a bhikkhu is emerging from the attainment 
of the cessation of perception and feeling, which states arise 
first in him: the bodily formation, the verbal formation, or the 
mental formation?" 

"Friend Visakha, whert a bhikkhu is emerging from the attain- 
ment of the cessation of perception and feeling, first the mental 
formation arises, then the bodily formation, then the verbal 
formation." 470 

20. "Lady, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the attainment 
of the cessation of perception and feeling, how many kinds of 
contact touch him?" 

"Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the 
attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, three 
kinds of contact touch him: voidness contact, signless contact, 
desireless contact." 471 

21. "Lady, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the attainment 
of the cessation of perception and feeling, to what does his mind 
incline, to what does it lean, to what does it tend?" 


The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 401 


i303 

Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the 
attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, his mind 
inclines to seclusion, leans to seclusion, tends to seclusion." 472 

(feeling) 

22. "Lady, how many kinds of feeling are there?" 

"Friend Visakha, there are three kinds of feeling: pleasant feel- 
ing, painful feeling, and neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling." 

23. "But, lady, what is pleasant feeling? What is painful feel- 
ing? What is neither painful-nor-pleasant feeling?" 

"Friend Visakha, whatever is felt bodily or mentally as pleas- 
ant and soothing is pleasant feeling. Whatever is felt bodily or 
mentally as painful and hurting is painful feeling. Whatever is 
felt bodily or mentally as neither soothing nor hurting [303] is 
neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. " 

24. "Lady, what is pleasant and what is painful in regard to 
pleasant feeling? What is painful and what is pleasant in regard 
to painful feeling? What is pleasant and what is painful in 
regard to neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?" 

"Friend Visakha, pleasant feeling is pleasant when it persists 
and painful when it changes. Painful feeling is painful when it 
persists and pleasant when it changes. Neither-painful-nor- 
pleasant feeling is pleasant when there is knowledge [of it] and 
painful when there is no knowledge [of it]." 

(underlying tendencies) 

25. "Lady, what underlying tendency underlies pleasant feeling? 
What underlying tendency underlies painful feeling? What under- 
lying tendency underlies neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?" 

"Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust underlies 
pleasant feeling. The underlying tendency to aversion underlies 
painful feeling. The underlying tendency to ignorance underlies 
neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. " 473 

26. "Lady, does the underlying tendency to lust underlie all 
pleasant feeling? Does the underlying tendency to aversion 
underlie all painful feeling? Does the underlying tendency to 
ignorance underlie all neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?" 

"Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust does not 


402 Cfilavedalla Sutta: Sutta 44 



underlie all pleasant feeling. The underlying tendency to 
aversion does not underlie all painful feeling. The underlying 
tendency to ignorance does not underlie all neither-painful-nor- 
pleasant feeling." 

27. "Lady, what should be abandoned in regard to pleasant 
feeling? What should be abandoned in regard to painful feeling? 
What should be abandoned in regard to neither-painful-nor- 
pleasant feeling?" 

"Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust should be aban- 
doned in regard to pleasant feeling. The underlying tendency 
to aversion should be abandoned in regard to painful feeling. The 
underlying tendency to ignorance should be abandoned in regard 
to neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling." 

28. "Lady, does the underlying tendency to lust have to be aban- 
doned in regard to all pleasant feeling? Does the underlying ten- 
dency to aversion have to be abandoned in regard to all painful 
feeling? Does the underlying tendency to ignorance have to be 
abandoned in regard to all neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?" 

"Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust does not 
have to be abandoned in regard to all pleasant feeling. The 
underlying tendency to aversion does not have to be abandoned 
in regard to all painful feeling. The underlying tendency to igno- 
rance does not have to be abandoned in regard to all neither- 
painful-nor-pleasant feeling. 

"Here, friend Visakha, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, 
secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 
With that he abandons lust, and the underlying tendency to lust 
does not underlie that. 474 

"Here a bhikkhu considers thus: 'When shall I enter upon and 
abide in that base that the noble ones now enter upon and abide 
in?' In one who thus generates a longing for the supreme libera- 
tions, [304] grief arises with that longing as condition. With that 
he abandons aversion, and the underlying tendency to aversion 
does not underlie that. 475 

"Here, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with 
the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters 
upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain- 
nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. With 


1304 


The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 403 


that he abandons ignorance, and the underlying tendency to 
ignorance does not underlie that." 476 

(COUNTERPARTS) 

29. "Lady, what is the counterpart of pleasant feeling?" 477 
"Friend Visakha, painful feeling is the counterpart of pleasant 

feeling." 

"What is the counterpart of painful feeling?" 

"Pleasant feeling is the counterpart of painful feeling." 

"What is the counterpart of neither-painful-nor -pleasant 
feeling?" 

"Ignorance is the counterpart of neither-painful-nor pleasant 
feeling." 478 

"What is the counterpart of ignorance?" 

"True knowledge is the counterpart of ignorance." 

"What is the counterpart of true knowledge?" 

"Deliverance is the counterpart of true knowledge." 

"What is the counterpart of deliverance?" 

"Nibbana is the counterpart of deliverance." 

"Lady, what is the counterpart of Nibbana?" 

"Friend Visakha, you have pushed this line of questioning too 
far; you were not able to grasp the limit to questions. 479 For the 
holy life, friend Visakha, merges in Nibbana, culminates in 
Nibbana, ends in Nibbana. If you wish, friend Visakha, go to the 
Blessed One and ask him about the meaning of this. As the 
Blessed One explains it to you, so you should remember it." 

(conclusion) 

30. Then the lay follower Visakha, having delighted and rejoiced 
in the bhikkhunl Dhamma dinna 's words, rose from his seat, and 
after paying homage to her, keeping her on his right, he went to 
the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, he sat down at 
one side and told the Blessed One his entire conversation with 
the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna. When he finished speaking, the 
Blessed One told him: 

31. "The bhikkhunl Dhammadinna is wise, Visakha, the 
bhikkhunl Dhammadinna has great wisdom. If you had asked 
me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you [305] in 


j 


f 

! 

I 

j 

| 

I 

! 

I 

i 


404 Culavedalla Sutta: Sutta 44 i 305 


the same way that the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna has explained 
it. Such is its meaning, and so you should remember it." 480 

That is what the Blessed One said. The lay follower Visakha was 
satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


45 Culadhammasamadana Sutta 
The Shorter Discourse on Ways of 
Undertaking Things 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, there are four ways of undertaking things. What 
are the four? There is a way of undertaking things that is pleasant 
now and ripens in the future as pain. There is a way of undertak- 
ing things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain. 
There is a way of undertaking things that is painful now and 
ripens in the future as pleasure. There is a way of undertaking 
things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure. 

3. "What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is 
pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain? Bhikkhus, there 
are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is 
this: 'There is no harm in sensual pleasures.' They take to gulp- 
ing down sensual pleasures and divert themselves with women 
wanderers who wear their hair bound in a topknot. They say 
thus: 'What future fear do these good recluses and brahmins see 
in sensual pleasures when they speak of abandoning sensual 
pleasures and describe the full understanding of sensual plea- 
sures? Pleasant is the touch of this woman wanderer's tender 
soft downy arm!' Thus they take to gulping down sensual plea- 
sures, and having done so, on the dissolution of the body, after 
death, they reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy 
destination, in perdition, even in hell. There they feel painful, 
racking, piercing feelings. They say thus: 'This is the future fear 
those good recluses and brahmins saw in sensual pleasures 
when they spoke of abandoning sensual pleasures and 
described the full understanding of sensual pleasures. For it is 
by reason of sensual pleasures, [306] owing to sensual pleasures. 


405 


406 Culadhammasamadana Sutta: Sutta 45 


i308 


that we are now feeling painful, racking, piercing feelings.' 

4. "Bhikkhus, suppose that in the last month of the hot season 
a maluva-creeper pod burst open and a maluva-creeper seed fell 
at the foot of a sala tree. Then a deity living in that tree became 
fearful, perturbed, and frightened; but the deity's friends and 
companions, kinsmen and relatives - garden deities, park deities 
tree deities, and deities inhabiting medicinal herbs, grass, and 
forest-monarch trees - gathered together and reassured that 
deity thus: 'Have no fear, sir, have no fear. Perhaps a peacock 
will swallow the maluva-creeper seed or a wild animal will eat it 
or a forest fire will bum it or woodsmen will carry it off or white 
ants will devour it or it may not even be fertile.' But no peacock 
swallowed that seed, no wild animal ate it, no forest fire burned 
it, no woodsmen carried it off, no white ants devoured it, and it 
was in fact fertile. Then, being moistened by rain from a rain- 
bearing cloud, the seed in due course sprouted and the maluva 
creeper's tender soft downy tendril wound itself around that sala 
tree. Then the deity living in the sala tree thought: 'What future 
fear did my friends and companions, kinsmen and relatives... see 
in that maluva-creeper seed when they gathered together and 
reassured me as they did? Pleasant is the touch of this maluva 
creeper's tender soft downy tendril!' Then the creeper enfolded 
the sala tree, made a canopy over it, draped a curtain all around 
it, and split the main branches of the tree. The deity who lived in 
the tree then realised: 'This is the future fear they saw in that 
maluva-creeper seed. [307] Because of that maluva-creeper seed I 
am now feeling painful, tacking, piercing feelings.' 

"So too, bhikkhus, there are certain recluses and brahmins 
whose doctrine and view is this: 'There is no harm in sensual plea- 
sures.'. . .They say thus: 'This is the future fear those good recluses 
and brahmins saw in sensual pleasures.. .that we are now feeling 
painful, racking, piercing feelings.' This is called the way of under- 
taking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain. 

5. "And what, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that 
is painful now and ripens in the future as pain? Here, bhikkhus, 
someone goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, 
not coming when asked, not stopping when asked. ..{as Sutta 12/ 
§45) [308]. ..He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water 
three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety 


The Shorter Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 407 


I lf way s he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mor- 
jjfying the body. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he 
te appears in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, 
jj! perdition, even in hell. This is called the way of undertaking 
things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain. 

6. "And what, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that 
is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, 
bhikkhus, someone by nature has strong lust, and he constantly 
experiences pain and grief born of lust; by nature he has strong 
bate, and he constantly experiences pain and grief born of hate; 
I by nature he has strong delusion, and he constantly experiences 
| pain and grief bom of delusion. Yet in pain and grief, weeping 
: with tearful face, he leads the perfect and pure holy life. On the 
; dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy 
destination, even in the heavenly world. This is called the way 
of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the 
; future as pleasure. 

| 7. "And what, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that 

; is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, 
| bhikkhus, someone by nature does not have strong lust, and he 
does not constantly experience pain and grief born of lust; by 
; nature he does not have strong hate, and he does not constantly 
experience pain and grief born of hate; by nature he does not 
| have strong delusion, [309] and he does not constantly experi- 
| ence pain and grief bom of delusion. Quite secluded from sen- 
| sual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters 
upon and abides in the first jhana...With the stilling of applied 
and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second 
, >jhana. . .With the fading away as well of rapture. . .he enters upon 
; and abides in the third jhana...With the abandoning of pleasure 
and pain... he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana...On 
; 'the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy 
! destination, even in the heavenly world. This is called the way 
°f undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the 
'tutu re as pleasure. These, bhikkhus, are the four ways of under- 
taking things." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
a ud delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



46 Mahadhammasamadana Sutta 
The Greater Discourse on Ways of 
Undertaking Things 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at Savatthl in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir/' 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, for the most part beings have this wish, desire, 
and longing: 'If only unwished for, undesired, disagreeable 
things would diminish and wished for, desired, agreeable things 
would increase!' Yet although beings have this wish, desire, and 
longing, unwished for, undesired, disagreeable things increase 
for them and wished for, desired, agreeable things diminish. 
Now, bhikkhus, what do you think is the reason for that?" 

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, 
[310] guided by the Blessed One, have the Blessed One as their 
resort. It would be good if the Blessed One would explain the 
meaning of these words. Having heard it from the Blessed One, 
the bhikkhus will remember it." 

"Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely to what I shall say." 

"Yes, venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

3. "Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person who has no 
regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their 
Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and 
undisciplined in their Dhamma, does not know what things 
should be cultivated and what things should not be cultivated, 
he does not know what things should be followed and what 
things should not be followed. Not knowing this, he cultivates 
things that should not be cultivated and does not cultivate things 
that should be cultivated, he follows things that should not be 
followed and does not follow things that should be followed- 

It is because he does this that unwished for, undesired, disagree- 
able things increase for him and wished for, desired, agreeable 


408 


|j j The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 409 

ngs diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one who 
es not see. 

B 4 . "The well-taught noble disciple who has regard for noble 
0 nes and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has 
egard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their 
}hamma, knows what things should be cultivated and what 
1 things should not be cultivated, he knows what things should be 
I -followed and what things should not be followed. Knowing this, 
fhe cultivates things that should be cultivated and does not culti- 
rvate things that should not be cultivated, he follows things that 
l should be followed and does not follow things that should not 
I he followed. It is because he does this that unwished for, unde- 
sired, disagreeable things diminish for him and wished for, 
desired, agreeable things increase. Why is that? That is what 
happens to one who sees. 

5. "Bhikkhus, there are four ways of undertaking things. What 
- toe the four? There is a way of undertaking things that is painful 
[ now and ripens in the future as pain. There is [311] a way of 
; undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as 
i pain. There is a way of undertaking things that is painful now and 
j ‘ripens in the future as pleasure. There is a way of undertaking 
I things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure. 

|(the ignorant person) 

6 . (1) "Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing this 
ray of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the 
Ifuture as pain, does not understand it as it actually is thus: 'This 
ray of undertaking things is painful now and ripens in the 
future as pain.' Not knowing it, not understanding it as it 
ctually is, the ignorant one cultivates it and does not avoid it; 
ecause he does so, unwished for, undesired, disagreeable 
a gs increase for him and wished for, desired, agreeable things 
diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one who does 
" 3 t see. 

j* 7 - (2) "Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing this 
a y of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the 
Wure as pain, does not understand it as it actually is thus: 'This 
Va y of undertaking things is pleasant now and ripens in the 
4ture as pain.' Not knowing it, not understanding it as it actually 


3 


410 Mahadhammasamadana Sutta: Sutta 46 


i 312 


is, the ignorant one cultivates it and does not avoid it; because 
he does so, unwished for... things increase for him and wished 
for... things diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one 
who does not see. 

8. (3) "Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing this 
way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the 
future as pleasure, does not understand it as it actually is thus: 
'This way of undertaking things is painful now and ripens in the 
future as pleasure.' Not knowing it, not understanding it as it 
actually is, the ignorant one does not cultivate it but avoids it; 
because he does so, unwished for... things increase for him and 
wished for. . .things diminish. Why is that? That is what happens 
to one who does not see. 

9. (4) "Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing the 
way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in 
the future as pleasure, does not understand it as it actually is 
thus: 'This way of undertaking things is pleasant now and 
ripens in the future as pleasure.' Not knowing it, not under- 
standing it as it actually is, the ignorant one does not cultivate it 
but avoids it; because he does so, [312] unwished for... things 
increase for him and wished for... things diminish. Why is that? 
That is what happens to one who does not see. 

(the wise person) 

10. (1) "Now, bhikkhus, £>ne who is wise, knowing this way of 
undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future 
as pain, understands it as it actually is thus: 'This way of under- 
taking things is painful now and ripens in the future as pain.' 
Knowing it, understanding it as it actually is, the wise one does 
not cultivate it but avoids it; because he does so, unwished for, 
undesired, disagreeable things diminish for him and wished for, 
desired, agreeable things increase. Why is that? That is what 
happens to one who sees. 

11. (2) "Now, bhikkhus, one who is wise, knowing this way of 
undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future 
as pain, understands it as it actually is thus: 'This way of under- 
taking things is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain.' 
Knowing it, understanding it as it actually is, the wise one does 


1313 The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 411 

not cultivate it but avoids it; because he does so, unwished 
for... things diminish for him and wished for... things increase. 
Why is that? That is what happens to one who sees. 

12. (3) "Now, bhikkhus, one who is wise, knowing this way of 
undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future 
as pleasure, understands it as it actually is thus: 'This way of 
undertaking things is painful now and ripens in the future as 
pleasure.' Knowing it, understanding it as it actually is, the wise 
one does not avoid it but cultivates it; because he does so, 
unwished for things... diminish for him and wished for... things 
increase. Why is that? That is what happens to one who sees. 

13. (4) "Now, bhikkhus, one who is wise, knowing this way 
of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the 
future as pleasure, understands it as it actually is thus: 'This 
way of undertaking things is pleasant now and ripens in the 
future as pleasure.' Knowing it, understanding it as it actually 
is, the wise one does not avoid it but cultivates it; because he 
does so, unwished for... things diminish for him and wished 
for... things increase. Why is that? That is what happens to one 
who sees. [313] 

(the four ways) 

14. (1) "What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is 
painful now and ripens in the future as pain? Here, bhikkhus, 
someone in pain and grief kills living beings, and he experiences 
pain and grief that have killing of living beings as condition. In 
pain and grief he takes what is not given... misconducts himself 
in sensual pleasures... speaks falsehood... speaks maliciously... 
speaks harshly. ..gossips. ..is covetous. ..has a mind of ill 
will... holds wrong view, and he experiences pain and grief that 
have wrong view as condition. On the dissolution of the body, 
after death, he reappears in a state of deprivation, in an unhap- 
py destination, in perdition, even in hell. This is called the way 
of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the 
future as pain. 

15. (2) "What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that 
is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain? Here, bhik- 
khus, someone in pleasure and joy kills living beings, and he 


\ 


i 315 


412 MaMdhammasamadana Sutta: Sutta 46 


experiences pleasure and joy that have killing of living beings as 
condition. In pleasure and joy he takes what is not given... 
[314]... holds wrong view, and he experiences pleasure and joy 
that have wrong view as condition. On the dissolution of the 
body, after death, he reappears in a state of deprivation, in an 
unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. This is called the 
way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in 
the future as pain. 

16. (3) "What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that 
is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, 
bhikkhus, someone in pain and grief abstains from killing living 
beings, and he experiences pain and grief that have abstention 
from killing living beings as condition. In pain and grief he 
abstains from taking what is not given... from misconduct in 
sensual pleasures... from speaking falsehood .. .from speaking 
maliciously. . .from speaking harshly. . .from gossiping. . .he is not 
covetous... he does not have a mind of ill will... [315]... he holds 
right view, and he experiences pain and grief that have right 
view as condition. On the dissolution of the body, after death, 
he reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly 
world. This is called the way of undertaking things that is 
painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure. 

17. (4) "What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that 
is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, 
bhikkhus, someone in pleasure and joy abstains from killing liv- 
ing beings, and he experiences pleasure and joy that have 
abstention from killing hVing beings as condition. In pleasure 
and joy he abstains from taking what is not given... he holds 
right view, and he experiences pleasure and joy that have right 
view as condition. On the dissolution of the body, after death, 
he reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly 
world. This is called the way of undertaking things that is pleas- 
ant now and ripens in the future as pleasure. 


(the similes) 

18. (1) "Bhikkhus, suppose there were a bitter gourd mixed with 
poison, and a man came who wanted to live, not to die, who 
wanted pleasure and recoiled from pain, and they told him: 
'Good man, this bitter gourd is mixed with poison. Drink from it 


i 317 The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 413 


if you want; [316] as you drink from it, its colour, smell, and 
taste will not agree with you, and after drinking from it, you 
will come to death or deadly suffering/ Then he drank from it 
without reflecting and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, 
its colour, smell, and taste did not agree with him, and after 
drinking from it, he came to death or deadly suffering. Similar 
to that, I say, is the way of undertaking things that is painful 
now and ripens in the future as pain. 

19. (2) "Suppose there were a bronze cup of beverage pos- 
sessing a good colour, smell, and taste, but it was mixed with 
poison, and a man came who wanted to live, not to die, who 
wanted pleasure and recoiled from pain, and they told him: 
'Good man, this bronze cup of beverage possesses a good 
colour, smell, and taste, but it is mixed with poison. Drink from 
it if you want; as you drink from it, its colour, smell, and taste 
will agree with you, but after drinking from it, you will come to 
death or deadly suffering.’ Then he drank from it without 
reflecting and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, its 
colour, smell, and taste agreed with him, but after drinking from 
it, he came to death or deadly suffering. Similar to that, I say, is 
the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens 
in the future as pain. 

20. (3) "Suppose there were fermented urine mixed with vari- 
ous medicines, and a man came sick with jaundice, and they 
told him: 'Good man, this fermented urine is mixed with vari- 
ous medicines. Drink from it if you want; as you drink from it, 
its colour, smell, and taste will not agree with you, but after 
drinking from it, you will be well.' Then he drank from it after 
reflecting, and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, its 
colour, taste, and smell did not agree with him, but after drink- 
ing from it, he became well. Similar to that, I say, is the way of 
undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future 
as pleasure. 

21. (4) "Suppose there were curd, honey, ghee, and molasses 
mixed together, and a man with dysentery came, and they told 
him: 'Good man, [317] this is curd, honey, ghee, and molasses 
mixed together. Drink from it if you want; as you drink from it, 
its colour, smell, and taste will agree with you, and after drink- 
ing from it you will be well.' Then he drank from it after reflect- 
ing, and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, its colour, 


414 Mahadhammasamad&na Sutta: Sutta 46 


i 317 


smell, and taste agreed with him, and after drinking from it, he 
became well. Similar to that, I say, is the way of undertaking 
things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure. 

22. "Just as, in autumn, in the last month of the rainy season, 
when the sky is clear and cloudless, the sun rises above the 
earth dispelling all darkness from space with its shining and 
beaming and radiance, so too, the way of undertaking things 
that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure dispels 
with its shining and beaming and radiance any other doctrines 
whatsoever of ordinary recluses and brahmins." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 



47 Vimamsaka Sutta 
The Inquirer 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at SavatthI in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There he 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - "Venerable sir," 
they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an inquirer, not knowing 
how to gauge another's mind, 482 should make an investigation 
of the Tathagata in order to find out whether or not he is fully 
enlightened." 

3. "Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, 
guided by the Blessed One, have the Blessed One as their resort. 
It would be good if the Blessed One would explain the meaning 
of these words. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the 
bhikkhus will remember it." 

I "Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely to [318] what I 
shall say." 

"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

4. "Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an inquirer, not knowing how 
to gauge another's mind, should investigate the Tathagata with 
respect to two kinds of states, states cognizable through the eye 
and through the ear thus: 'Are there found in the Tathagata or 
not any defiled states cognizable through the eye or through the 
ear?' 483 When he investigates him, he comes to know: 'No 
defiled states cognizable through the eye or through the ear are 
found in the Tathagata.' 

5. "When he comes to know this, he investigates him further 
thus: 'Are there found in the Tathagata or not any mixed states 

, , cognizable through the eye or through the ear?' 484 When he 

II investigates him, he comes to know: 'No mixed states cognizable 

H through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata.' 

i 




416 Vlmamsaka Sutta: Sutta 47 


i3l9 


6. "When he comes to know this, he investigates him further 
thus: 'Are there found in the Tathagata or not cleansed states 
cognizable through the eye or through the ear?' When he inves- 
tigates him, he comes to know: 'Cleansed states cognizable 
through the eye or through Hie ear are found in the Tathagata.' 

7. "When he comes to know this, he investigates him further 
thus: 'Has this venerable one attained this wholesome state over 
a long time or did he attain it recently?' When he investigates 
him, he comes to know: 'This venerable one has attained this 
wholesome state over a long time; he did not attain it only 
recently.' 

8. "When he comes to know this, he investigates him further 
thus: 'Has this venerable one acquired renown and attained 
fame, so that the dangers [connected with renown and fame] are 
found in him?' For, bhikkhus, as long as a bhikkhu has not 
acquired renown and attained fame, the dangers [connected 
with renown and fame] are not found in him; but when he has 
acquired renown and attained fame, those dangers are found in 
him. 485 When he investigates him, he comes to know: 'This ven- 
erable one has acquired renown and attained fame, but the dan- 
gers [connected with renown and fame] are not found in him.' 

9. "When he comes to know this, [319] he investigates him 
further thus: 'Is this venerable one restrained without fear, not 
restrained by fear, and does he avoid indulging in sensual plea- 
sures because he is without lust through the destruction of lust?' 
When he investigates him, he comes to know: 'This venerable 
one is restrained without fear, not restrained by fear, and he 
avoids indulging in sensual pleasure because he is without lust 
through the destruction of lust.' 

10. "Now, bhikkhus, if others should ask that bhikkhu thus: 
'What are the venerable one’s reasons and what is his evidence 
whereby he says: "That venerable one is restrained without fear, 
not restrained by fear, and he avoids indulging in sensual plea- 
sures because he is without lust through the destruction of 
lust"?' - answering rightly, that bhikkhu would answer thus: 
'Whether that venerable one dwells in the Sangha or alone, 
while some there are well-behaved and some are ill-behaved 
and some there teach a group, 486 while some here are seen con- 
cerned about material things and some are unsullied by material 
things, still that venerable one does not despise anyone because 


0 f that. 487 And I have heard and learned this from the Blessed 
One's own lips: "I am restrained without fear, not restrained by 
fear, and I avoid indulging in sensual pleasures because I am 
without lust through the destruction of lust.'" 

11. "The Tathagata, bhikkhus, should be questioned further 
about that thus: 'Are there found in the Tathagata or not any 
defiled states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?' 
The Tathagata would answer thus: 'No defiled states cognizable 
through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata.' 

12. "If asked, 'Are there found in the Tathagata or not any 
mixed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?' the 
Tathagata would answer thus: 'No mixed states cognizable 
through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata.' 

13. "If asked, 'Are there found in the Tathagata or not 
cleansed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?' 
the Tathagata would answer thus: 'Cleansed states cognizable 
through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata. 
They are my pathway and my domain, yet I do not identify 
with them.' 488 

14. "Bhikkhus, a disciple should approach the Teacher who 
speaks thus in order to hear the Dhamma. The Teacher teaches 
him the Dhamma with its higher and higher levels, with its more 
and more sublime levels, with its dark and bright counterparts. 
As the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu in this way, 
through direct knowledge of a certain teaching here in that 
Dhamma, [320] the bhikkhu comes to a conclusion about the 
teachings. 489 He places confidence in the Teacher thus: 'The 
Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed 
by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.' 

15. "Now if others should ask that bhikkhu thus: 'What are 
the venerable one's reasons and what is his evidence whereby 
he says, "The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is 
well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the 
good way"?' - answering rightly, that bhikkhu would answer 
thus: 'Here, friends, I approached the Blessed One in order to 
hear the Dhamma. The Blessed One taught me the Dhamma 
with its higher and higher levels, with its more and more sub- 
lime levels, with its dark and bright counterparts. As the Blessed 
One taught the Dhamma to me in this way, through direct 
knowledge of a certain teaching here in that Dhamma, I came to 



-■:! 


Vtmamsaka Sutta: Sutta 47 


1 


■■ ! 1 Hit 


a conclusion about the teachings. I placed confidence in the 
Teacher thus: "The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the 
Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is 
practising the good way.'" 

16. "Bhikkhus, when anyone's faith has been planted, rooted, 
and established in the Tathagata through these reasons, terms, 
and phrases, his faith is said to be supported by reasons, rooted 
in vision, firm; 490 it is invincible by any recluse or brahmin or 
god or Mara or Brahma or by anyone in the world. That is how, 
bhikkhus, there is an investigation of the Tathagata in accor- 
dance with the Dhamma, and that is how the Tathagata is well 
investigated in accordance with the Dhamma." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


I if nr 



48 Kosambiya Sutta 
The Kosambians 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing at KosambI in Ghosita's Park. 

2. Now on that occasion the bhikkhus at KosambI had taken to 
quarrelling and brawling and were deep in disputes, stabbing 
each other with verbal daggers. They could neither convince 
each other nor be convinced by others; they could neither per- 
suade each other nor be persuaded by others. 491 

3. Then [321] a certain bhikkhu went to the Blessed One, and 
after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and 
informed him of what was happening. 

4. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: 
"Come, bhikkhu, tell those bhikkhus in my name that the 
Teacher calls them." - "Yes, venerable sir," he replied, and he 
went to those bhikkhus and told them: "The Teacher calls the 
venerable ones." 

"Yes, friend," they replied, and they went to the Blessed One, 
and after paying homage to him, they sat down at one side. The 
Blessed One then asked them: "Bhikkhus, is it true that you 
have taken to quarrelling and brawling and are deep in dis- 
putes, stabbing each other with verbal daggers; that you can nei- 
ther convince each other nor be convinced by others, that you 
can neither persuade each other nor be persuaded by others?" 

"Yes, venerable sir." 

5. "Bhikkhus, what do you think? When you take to quar- 
relling and brawling and are deep in disputes, stabbing each 
other with verbal daggers, do you on that occasion maintain acts 
of loving-kindness by body, speech, and mind in public and in 
private towards your companions in the holy life?" 

"No, venerable sir." 


419 


420 Kosambiya Sutta: Sutta 48 


1322 


"So, bhikkhus, when you take to quarrelling and brawling and 
are deep in disputes, stabbing each other with verbal daggers, on 
that occasion you do not maintain acts of loving-kindness by 
body, speech, and mind in public and in private towards your 
companions in the holy life. Misguided men, what can you pos- 
sibly know, what can you see, that you take to quarrelling and 
brawling and are deep in disputes, [322] stabbing each other 
with verbal daggers? That you can neither convince each other 
nor be convinced by others, that you can neither persuade each 
other nor be persuaded by others? Misguided men, that will 
lead to your harm and suffering for a long time," 

6. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus, there are these six memorable qualities that create 
love and respect and conduce to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to 
concord, and to unity. What are the six? 

"Here a bhikkhu maintains bodily acts of loving-kindness 
both in public and in private towards his companions in the 
holy life. This is a memorable quality that creates love and 
respect, and conduces to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to con- 
cord, and to unity. 

"Again, a bhikkhu maintains verbal acts of loving-kindness 
both in public and in private towards his companions in the 
holy life. This is a memorable quality that creates love and 
respect, and conduces to... unity. 

"Again, a bhikkhu maintains mental acts of loving-kindness 
both in public and in private towards his companions in the 
holy life. This is a memorable quality that creates love and 
respect, and conduces to., .unity. 

"Again, a bhikkhu uses things in common with his virtuous 
companions in the holy life; without making reservations, he 
shares with them any gain of a kind that accords with the 
Dhamma and has been obtained in a way that accords with the 
Dhamma, including even the contents of his bowl. This is a 
memorable quality that creates love and respect, and conduces 
to... unity. 

"Again, a bhikkhu dwells both in public and in private pos- 
sessing in common with his companions in the holy life those 
virtues that are unbroken, untorn, unblotched, unmottled, lib- 
erating, commended by the wise, not misapprehended, and 


The Kosambians 421 


conducive to concentration. This too is a memorable quality that 
creates love and respect, and conduces to. . .unity. 

"Again, a bhikkhu dwells both in public and in private pos- 
sessing in common with his companions in the holy life that 
view that is noble and emancipating, and leads one who prac- 
tises in accordance with it to the complete destruction of suffer- 
ing. 492 This too is a memorable quality that creates love and 
respect, and conduces to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to concord, 
and to unity. 

"These are the six memorable qualities that create love and 
respect, and conduce to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to concord, 
and to unity. 

7. "Of these memorable qualities, the highest, the most com- 
prehensive, the most conclusive is this view that is noble and 
emancipating, and leads the one who practises in accordance 
with it to the complete destruction of suffering. Just as the high- 
est, the most comprehensive, the most conclusive part of a pin- 
nacled building is the pinnacle itself, so too, [323] of these six 
memorable qualities, the highest... is this view that is noble and 
emancipating. . . 

8. "And how does this view that is noble and emancipating 
lead the one who practises in accordance with it to the complete 
destruction of suffering? 

"Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or 
to an empty hut, considers thus: 'Is there any obsession unaban- 
doned in myself that might so obsess my mind that I cannot 
know or see things as they actually are?' If a bhikkhu is 
obsessed by sensual lust, then his mind is obsessed. If he is 
obsessed by ill will, then his mind is obsessed. If he is obsessed 
by sloth and torpor, then his mind is obsessed. If he is obsessed 
by restlessness and remorse, then his mind is obsessed. If he is 
obsessed by doubt, then his mind is obsessed. If a bhikkhu is 
absorbed in speculation about this world, then his mind is 
obsessed. If a bhikkhu is absorbed in speculation about the other 
world, then his mind is obsessed. If a bhikkhu takes to quar- 
relling and brawling and is deep in disputes, stabbing others 
with verbal daggers, then his mind is obsessed. 

"He understands thus: 'There is no obsession unabandoned in 
myself that might so obsess my mind that I cannot know and see 


422 Kosambiya Sutta: Sutta 48 


1324 


things as they actually are. My mind is well disposed for awak- 
ening to the truths.' 493 This is the first knowledge attained by him 
that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people. 

9. "Again, a noble disciple considers thus: 'When I pursue, 
develop, and cultivate this view, do I obtain internal serenity, do 
I personally obtain stillness?' 

"He understands thus: 'When I pursue, develop, and cultivate 
this view, I obtain internal serenity, I personally obtain stillness.' 
This is the second knowledge attained by him that is noble, 
supramundane, not shared by ordinary people. 

10. "Again, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Is there any other 
recluse or brahmin outside [the Buddha's Dispensation] pos- 
sessed of a view such as I possess?' 

"He understands thus: 'There is no other recluse or brahmin 
outside [the Buddha's Dispensation] possessed of a view [324] 
such as I possess.' This is the third knowledge attained by him 
that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people. 

11. "Again, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Do I possess the 
character 494 of a person who possesses right view?' What is the 
character of a person who possesses right view? This is the 
character of a person who possesses right view: although he 
may commit some kind of offence for which a means of reha- 
bilitation has been laid down, 495 still he at once confesses, 
reveals, and discloses it to the Teacher or to wise companions 
in the holy life, and having done that, he enters upon restraint 
for the future. Just as ( a young, tender infant lying prone at 
once draws back when he puts his hand or his foot on a live 
coal, so too, that is the character of a person who possesses 
right view. 

"He understands thus: 'I possess the character of a person 
who possesses right view.' This is the fourth knowledge 
attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by 
ordinary people. 

12. "Again, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Do I possess the 
character of a person who possesses right view?' What is the 
character of a person who possesses right view? This is the char- 
acter of a person who possesses right view: although he may be 
active in various matters for his companions in the holy life, yet 
he has a keen regard for training in the higher virtue, training in 
the higher mind, and training in the higher wisdom. Just as a 


The Kosambians 423 


c0 w with a new calf, while she grazes watches her calf, so too, 
(fiat is the character of a person who possesses right view. 

"He understands thus: 'I possess the character of a person 
who possesses right view/ This is the fifth knowledge attained 
by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary 
people. [325] 

13. "Again, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Do I possess the 
strength 496 of a person who possesses right view?' What is the 
strength of a person who possesses right view? This is the 
strength of a person who possesses right view: when the 
Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata is being 
taught, he heeds it, gives it attention, engages it with all his 
mind, hears the Dhamma as with eager ears. 

"He understands thus: 'I possess the strength of a person who 
possesses right view.' This is the sixth knowledge attained by 
him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people. 

14. "Again, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Do I possess the 
strength of a person who possesses right view?' What is the 
strength of a person who possesses right view? This is the 
strength of a person who possesses right view: when the 
Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata is being 
taught, he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in 
the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. 497 

"He understands thus: 'I possess the strength of a person who 
possesses right view.' This is the seventh knowledge attained by 
him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people. 

15. "When a noble disciple is thus possessed of seven factors, 
he has well sought the character for realisation of the fruit of 
stream-entry. When a noble disciple is thus possessed of seven 
factors, he possesses the fruit of stream-entry." 498 


That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 




49 Brahmanimantanika Sutta 
The Invitation of a Brahma 


[326] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." - 
"Venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One said this: 

2. "Bhikkhus, on one occasion I was living at Ukkattha in the 
Subhaga Grove at the root of a royal sala tree. 499 Now on that 
occasion a pernicious view had arisen in Baka the Brahma thus: 
'This is permanent, this is everlasting, this is eternal, this is total, 
this is not subject to pass away; for this neither is born nor ages 
nor dies nor passes away nor reappears, and beyond this there 
is no escape.' 500 

3. "I knew with my mind the thought in the mind of Baka the 
Brahma, so just as quickly as a strong man might extend his 
flexed arm or flex his extended arm, I vanished from the root of 
the royal sala tree in the Subhaga Grove at Ukkattha and 
appeared in that Brahma-world. Baka the Brahma saw me com- 
ing in the distance and said: 'Come, good sir! Welcome, good 
sir! It is long, good sir, since you found an opportunity to come 
here. Now, good sir, this is permanent, this is everlasting, this is 
eternal, this is total, this is not subject to pass away; for this nei- 
ther is born nor ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears, 
and beyond this there is no escape.' 

4. "When this was said, I told Baka the Brahma: 'The worthy 
Baka the Brahma has lapsed into ignorance; he has lapsed into 
ignorance in that he says of the impermanent that it is perma- 
nent, of the transient that it is everlasting, of the non-eternal that 
it is eternal, of the incomplete that it is total, of what is subject to 
pass away that it is not subject to pass away, of what is born, 
ages, dies, passes away, and reappears, that it neither is born 
nor ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears; and when 


424 


f-327 


The Invitation of a Brahma 425 


(here is an escape beyond this, he says that there is no escape 
beyond this.' 

5 . "Then Mara the Evil One took possession of a member of 
(he Brahma's Assembly , 501 and he told me: 'Bhikkhu, bhikkhu, 
do not disbelieve him, do not disbelieve him; for this Brahma is 
the Great Brahma, [327] the Overlord, the Untranscended, of 
Infallible Vision, Wielder of Mastery, Lord Maker and Creator, 
Most High Providence, Master and Father of those that are and 
ever can be. Before your time, bhikkhu, there were recluses and 
brahmins in the world who condemned earth through disgust 
with earth , 502 who condemned water through disgust with 
water, who condemned fire through disgust with fire, who con- 
demned air through disgust with air, who condemned beings 
through disgust with beings, who condemned gods through dis- 
gust with gods, who condemned Pajapati through disgust with 
Pajapati, who condemned Brahma through disgust with 
Brahma; and on the dissolution of the body, when their life was 
cut off, they became established in an inferior body . 503 Before 
your time, bhikkhu, there were also recluses and brahmins in 
the world who lauded earth through delight in earth , 504 who 
lauded water through delight in water, who lauded fire through 
delight in fire, who lauded air through delight in air, who lauded 
beings through delight in beings, who lauded gods through 
delight in gods, who lauded Pajapati through delight in 
Pajapati, who lauded Brahma through delight in Brahma; and 
on the dissolution of the body, when their life was cut off, they 
became established in a superior body . 505 So, bhikkhu, I tell you 
this: Be sure, good sir, to do only as the Brahma says; never 
overstep the word of the Brahma. If you overstep the word of 
the Brahma, bhikkhu, then, like a man trying to deflect an 
approaching beam of light with a stick, or like a man losing his 
hold on the earth with his hands and feet as he slips into a deep 
chasm, so it will befall you, bhikkhu. Be sure, good sir, to do 
only as the Brahma says; never overstep the word of the 
Brahma. Do you not see the Brahma's Assembly seated here, 
bhikkhu?' And Mara the Evil One thus called to witness the 
Brahma's Assembly . 506 

6 . "When this was said, I told Mara the Evil One: 'I know you. 
Evil One. Do not think: "He does not know me." You are Mara, 
Evil One, and the Brahma and the Brahma's Assembly and the 


426 Brahmanimantanika Suite: Suite 49 


i 328 


members of the Brahma's Assembly have all fallen into your 
hands, they have all fallen into your power. You, Evil One, 
think: "This one too has fallen into my hands, he too has fallen 
into my power"; but I have not fallen into your hands. Evil One, 
I have not fallen into your power.' 

7. "When this was said, Baka the Brahma told me: 'Good sir, I 
say of the permanent that it is permanent, [328] of the everlast- 
ing that it is everlasting, of the eternal that it is eternal, of the 
total that it is total, of what is not subject to pass away that it is 
not subject to pass away, of what neither is born nor ages nor 
dies nor passes away nor reappears that it neither is born nor 
ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears; and when there is 
no escape beyond this, I say that there is no escape beyond this. 
Before your time, bhikkhu, there were recluses and brahmins in 
the world whose asceticism lasted as long as your whole life. 
They knew, when there is an escape beyond, that there is an 
escape beyond, and when there is no escape beyond, that there 
is no escape beyond. So, bhikkhu, I tell you this: You will find 
no escape beyond, and eventually you will reap only weariness 
and disappointment. If you will hold to earth, you will be close 
to me, within my domain, for me to work my will upon and 
punish. 507 If you hold to water... to fire... to air... to beings... to 
gods... to Pajapati...to Brahma, you will be close to me, within 
my domain, for me to work my will upon and punish/ 

8. "'I know that too, Brahma. If I will hold to earth, I shall be 
close to you, within your domain, for you to work your will 
upon and punish. If I will hold to water. ..to fire. ..to air. ..to 
beings... to gods... to Pajapati...to Brahma, I shall be close to 
you, within your domain, for you to work your will upon and 
punish. Further, I understand your reach and your sway to 
extend thus: Baka the Brahma has this much power, this much 
might, this much influence.' 

'"Now, good sir, how far do you understand my reach and 
my sway to extend?' 

9. '"As far as moon and sun revolve 
Shining and lighting up the quarters. 

Over a thousandfold such world 
Does your sovereignty extend. 


i329 


The Invitation of a Brahma 427 


And there you know the high and low, 

And those with lust and free from lust. 

The state that is thus and otherwise. 

The coming and going of beings. 

Brahma, I understand your reach and your sway to extend thus: 
Baka the Brahma has this much power, this much might, [329] 
this much influence. 308 

10. "'But, Brahma, there are three other bodies, which you nei- 
ther know nor see, and which I know and see. There is the body 
called [the gods of] Streaming Radiance, from which you passed 
away and reappeared here. 509 Because you have dwelt here 
long, your memory of that has lapsed, and hence you do not 
know or see it, but I know and see it. Thus, Brahma, in regard to 
direct knowledge I do not stand merely at the same level as you, 
how then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you. 510 

"'There is the body called [the gods of] Refulgent Glory... 
There is the body called [the gods of] Great Fruit. You do not 
know or see that, but I know and see it. Thus, Brahma, in regard 
to direct knowledge I do not stand merely at the same level as 
you, how then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you. 

11. "'Brahma, having directly known earth as earth, and having 
directly known that which is not commensurate with the earth- 
ness of earth, I did not claim to be earth, I did not claim to be in 
earth, I did not claim to be apart from earth, I did not claim earth 
to be "mine," I did not affirm earth. 511 Thus, Brahma, in regard 
to direct knowledge I do not stand merely at the same level as 
you, how then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you. 

12-23. "'Brahma, having directly known water as water... fire 
as fire. ..air as air. ..beings as beings. ..gods as gods...Pajapati as 
Pajapati... Brahma as Brahma... the gods of Streaming Radiance 
as the gods of Streaming Radiance. . .the gods of Refulgent Glory 
as the gods of Refulgent Glory... the gods of Great Fruit as the 
gods of Great Fruit. ..the Overlord as the Overlord... all as all, 
and having directly known that which is not commensurate 
with the allness of all, I did not claim to be all, I did not claim to 
be in all, I did not claim to be apart from all, I did not claim all to 
be "mine," I did not affirm all. Thus, Brahma, in regard to direct 
knowledge, Ido not stand merely at the same level as yoxi, how 
then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you.' 


428 Bmhmanimantanika Sutta: Sutta 49 


i 330 


24. "'Good sir, [if you claim to directly know] that which is not 
commensurate with the allness of all, may your claim not turn 
out to be vain and empty!' 512 

25. "'The consciousness that makes no showing, 

Nor has to do with finiteness. 

Not claiming being with respect to all: 513 

that is not commensurate with the earthness of earth, that is not 
commensurate with the watemess of water... [330]... that is not 
commensurate with the allness of all.' 

26. "'Good sir, I shall vanish from you.' 

"'Vanish from me if you can, Brahma.' 

"Then Baka the Brahma, saying: 'I shall vanish from the recluse 
Gotama, I shall vanish from the recluse Gotama/ was unable to 
vanish. Thereupon I said: 'Brahma, I shall vanish from you.' 

"'Vanish from me if you can, good sir.' 

"Then I performed such a feat of supernormal power that the 
Brahma and the Brahma's Assembly and the members of the 
Brahma's Assembly could hear my voice but could not see me. 
After 1 had vanished, I uttered this stanza: 

27. "'Having seen fear in every mode of being 

And in being seeking for non-being, 

I did not affirm any mode of being, 

Nor did I cling to any delight [in being].' 514 
* 

28. "At that the Brahma and the Brahma's Assembly and the 
members of the Brahma's Assembly were struck with wonder 
and amazement, saying: 'It is wonderful, sirs, it is marvellous, 
the great power and great might of the recluse Gotama! We 
have never before seen or heard of any other recluse or brahmin 
who had such great power and such great might as has this 
recluse Gotama, who went forth from a Sakyan clan. Sirs, 
though living in a generation that delights in being, that takes 
delight in being, that rejoices in being, he has extirpated being 
together with its root.' 

29. "Then Mara the Evil One took possession of a member of 
the Brahma's Assembly, and he said to me: 'Good sir, if that is 
what you know, if that is what you have discovered, do not 


The Invitation of a Brahma 429 


guide your [lay] disciples or those gone forth, do not teach the 
Ohamxna to your [lay] disciples or to those gone forth, create no 
yearning in your [lay] disciples or in those gone forth. Before 
your time, bhikkhu, there were recluses and brahmins in the 
world claiming to be accomplished and fully enlightened, and 
they guided their [lay] disciples and those gone forth; they 
taught the Dhamma to their [lay] disciples and to those gone 
forth; they created yearning in their [lay] disciples and in those 
gone forth; and on the dissolution of the body, when their life 
was cut off, they became established in an inferior body. Before 
your time, bhikkhu, there were also recluses and brahmins in 
the world claiming to be accomplished and fully enlightened, 
[331] and they did not guide their [lay] disciples or those gone 
forth; they did not teach the Dhamma to their [lay] disciples or 
to those gone forth; they created no yearning in their [lay] disci- 
ples or in those gone forth; and on the dissolution of the body, 
when their life was cut off, they became established in a superior 
body. So, bhikkhu, I tell you this: Be sure, good sir, to abide 
inactive, devoted to a pleasant abiding here and now; this is bet- 
ter left undeclared, and so, good sir, inform no one else/ 515 
30. "When this was said, I told Mara the Evil One: 'I know 
you. Evil One. Do not think: "He does not know me." You are 
Mara, Evil One. It is not out of compassion for their welfare that 
you speak thus, it is without compassion for their welfare that 
you speak thus. You think thus. Evil One: "Those to whom the 
recluse Gotama teaches the Dhamma will escape from my 
sphere." Those recluses and brahmins of yours. Evil One, who 
claimed to be accomplished and fully enlightened, were not 
accomplished and fully enlightened. But I, who claim to be 
accomplished and fully enlightened, am accomplished and fully 
enlightened. If the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma to disciples 
he is such. Evil One, and if the Tathagata does not teach the 
Dhamma to disciples he is such. 516 If the Tathagata guides disci- 
ples he is such. Evil One, and if the Tathagata does not guide 
disciples he is such. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has 
abandoned the taints that defile, bring renewal of being, give 
trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and 
death; he has cut them off at the root, made them like a palm 
stump, done away with them so that they are no lobger subject 
to future arising. Just as a palm tree whose crown is cut off is 




■ 


430 Bfahmanimantanika Sutta: Sutta 49 


i 330 


incapable of further growth, so too, the Tathagata has aban- 
doned the taints that defile. . .cut them off at the root, made them 
like a palm stump, done away with them so that they are no 
longer subject to future arising/" 

31. Thus, because Mara was unable to reply, and because [it 
began] with the Brahma's invitation, this discourse is entitled 
"On the Invitation of a Brahma." 


1 




50 Maratajjaniya Sutta 
The Rebuke to Mara 


[332] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the venerable Maha 
Moggallana was living in the Bhagga country at Sumsumaragira 
in the Bhesakala Grove, the Deer Park. 

2. Now on that occasion the venerable Maha Moggallana was 
walking up and down in the open. And on that occasion Mara 
the Evil One went into the venerable Maha Moggallana 's belly 
and entered his bowels. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana 
considered thus: "Why is my belly so heavy? One would think it 
full of beans." Thus he left the walk and went into his dwelling, 
where he sat down on a seat made ready. 

3. When he had sat down, he gave thorough attention to him- 
self, and he saw that Mara the Evil One had gone into his belly 
and had entered his bowels. When he saw this, he said: "Come 
out. Evil One! Come out. Evil One! Do not harass the Tathagata, 
do not harass the Tathagata's disciple, or it will lead to your 
harm and suffering for a long time." 

4. Then Mara the Evil One thought: "This recluse does not 
know me, he does not see me when he says that. Even his 
teacher would not know me so soon, so how can this disciple 
know me?" 

5. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana said: "Even thus I 
know you, Evil One. Do not think: 'He does not know me.' You 
are Mara, Evil One. You were thinking thus. Evil One: 'This 
recluse does not know me, he does not see me when he says 
that. Even his teacher would not know me so soon, so how can 
this disciple know me?"' 

6. Then Mara the Evil One thought: "The recluse knew me, he 
saw me when he said that," whereupon he [333] came up from 
the venerable Maha Moggallana's mouth and stbod against the 
door bar. 


431 


432 Maratajjaniya Sutta: Sutta 50 


i 334 


7. The venerable Maha Moggallana saw him standing there 
and said: "I see you there too. Evil One. Do not think: 'He does 
not see me/ You are standing against the door bar. Evil One. 

8. "It happened once. Evil One, that I was a Mara named 
DusI, 517 and I had a sister named Kali. You were her son, so you 
were my nephew. 

9. "Now on that occasion the Blessed One Kakusandha, 
accomplished and fully enlightened, had appeared in the 
world. 518 The Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully 
enlightened, had an auspicious pair of chief disciples named 
Vidhura and Sanjlva. Among all the disciples of the Blessed One 
Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, there was 
none equal to the venerable Vidhura in teaching the Dhamma. 
That was how the venerable Vidhura came to have the designa- 
tion 'Vidhura.' 519 But the venerable Sanjlva, gone to the forest or 
to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, entered without difficulty 
upon the cessation of perception and feeling. 

10. "It happened once. Evil One, that the venerable Sanjlva 
had seated himself at the root of a certain tree and entered upon 
the cessation of perception and feeling. Some cowherds, shep- 
herds, and ploughmen passing by saw the venerable Sanjlva sit- 
ting at the root of the tree having entered upon the cessation of 
perception and feeling, and they thought: 'It is wonderful, sirs, it 
is marvellous! There is this recluse sitting here dead. Let us cre- 
mate him.' Then the cowherds, shepherds, and ploughmen col- 
lected grass, wood, and cowdung, and having piled it up 
against the venerable Sapjlva's body, they set fire to it and went 
on their way. 

11. "Now, Evil One, when the night had ended, the venerable 
Sanjlva emerged from the attainment. 520 He shook his robe, and 
then, it being morning, he dressed, and taking his bowl and 
outer robe, he went into the village for alms. The cowherds, 
shepherds, and ploughmen passing by saw the venerable 
Sanjlva wandering for alms, and they thought: 'It is wonderful, 
sirs, it is marvellous! This recluse who was sitting there dead 
has come back to life!' [334] That was how the venerable Sanjlva 
came to have the designation 'Sanjlva.' 521 

12. "Then, Evil One, the Mara DusI considered thus: 'There are 
these virtuous bhikkhus of good character, but I do not know 
their coming or their going. Let me now take possession of the 


The Rebuke to Mara 433 


brahmin householders, telling them: "Come now, abuse, revile, 
scold, and harass the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then 
perhaps, when they are abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed 
by you, some change will come about in their minds whereby 
the Mara Dusi may find an opportunity."' 522 

13. "Then, Evil One, the Mara Dusi took possession of those 
brahmin householders, telling them: 'Come now, abuse, revile, 
scold, and harass the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then 
perhaps, when they are abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed 
by you, some change will come about in their minds whereby 
the Mara DusT may find an opportunity.' Then, when the Mara 
Dusi had taken possession of the brahmin householders, they 
abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed the virtuous bhikkhus of 
good character thus: 523 'These bald-pated recluses, these 
swarthy menial offspring of the Kinsman's feet, 524 claim: "We 
are meditators, we are meditators!" and with shoulders droop- 
ing, heads down and all limp, they meditate, premeditate, out- 
meditate, and mismeditate. 525 Just as an owl on a branch waiting 
for a mouse meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and 
mismeditates, or just as a jackal on a river-bank waiting for fish 
meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates, or 
just as a cat by a door-post or a dust-bin or a drain, waiting for a 
mouse, meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismedi- 
tates, or just as a donkey unladen, standing by a door-post or a 
dust-bin or a drain, meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and 
mismeditates, so too, these bald-pated recluses, these swarthy 
menial offspring of the Kinsman's feet, claim: "We are medita- 
tors, we are meditators!" and with shoulders drooping, heads 
down and all limp, they meditate, premeditate, out-meditate, 
and mismeditate.' Now, Evil One, on that occasion most of those 
human beings, when they died, reappeared on the dissolution of 
the body, after death, in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy 
destination, in perdition, even in hell. [335] 

14. "Then the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and 
fully enlightened, addressed the bhikkhus thus: 'Bhikkhus, the 
Mara Dusi has taken possession of the brahmin householders, 
telling them: "Come now, abuse, revile, scoldy and harass the 
virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then perhaps, when they 
are abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed by you, some change 
will come about in their mind whereby the Mara Dusi may find 



434 Maratajjaniya S utta: Sutta 50 


1336 



an opportunity." Come, bhikkhus, abide pervading one quar- 
ter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the sec- 
ond, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, 
around, and everywhere, and to all as to yourselves, abide per- 
vading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with 
loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without 
hostility and without ill will. Abide pervading one quarter 
with a mind imbued with compassion... with a mind imbued 
with appreciative joy... with a mind imbued with equanimity... 
abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and with- 
out ill will/ 526 


15. "So, Evil One, when those bhikkhus had been thus advised 
and instructed by the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished 
and fully enlightened, then, gone to the forest or to the root of a 
tree or to an empty hut, they abided pervading one quarter with 
a mind imbued with loving-kindness... with a mind imbued 
with compassion... with a mind imbued with appreciative 
joy... with a mind imbued with equanimity... without hostility 
and without ill will. 

16. "Then, Evil One, the Mara DusI considered thus: 'Though I 
do as I am doing, still I do not know the coming or the going of 
these virtuous bhikkhus of good character. Let me now take 
possession of the brahmin householders, telling them: "Come 
now, honour, respect, revere, and venerate the virtuous 
bhikkhus of good character; [336] then perhaps, when they are 
honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by you, some 
change will come about in their minds whereby the Mara DusI 
may find an opportunity.'" 527 

17. "Then, Evil One, the Mara DusI took possession of those 
brahmin householders, telling them: 'Come now, honour, 
respect, revere, and venerate the virtuous bhikkhus of good 
character; then perhaps, when they are honoured, respected, 
revered, and venerated by you, some change will come about in 
their minds whereby the Mara DusI may find an opportunity.' 
Then, when the Mara DusI had taken possession of the brahmin 
householders, they honoured, respected, revered, and venerated 
the virtuous bhikkhus of good character. Now, Evil One, on that 
occasion most of those human beings, when they died, reap- 
peared on the dissolution of the body, after death, in a happy 
destination, even the heavenly world. 


The Rebuke to Mara 435 


18. "Then, Evil One, the Blessed One Kakusandha, accom- 
plished and fully enlightened, addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
'Bhikkhus, the Mara DusI has taken possession of those brahmin 
householders, telling them: "Come now, honour, respect, revere, 
and venerate the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then per- 
haps, when they are honoured, respected, revered, and venerated 
hy you, some change will come about in their minds whereby 
the Mara Dust may find an opportunity." Come, bhikkhus, 
abide contemplating foulness in the body, perceiving repulsive- 
ness in nutriment, perceiving disenchantment with all the 
world, contemplating impermanence in all formations.' 528 

19. "So, Evil One, when those bhikkhus had been thus 
addressed and instructed by the Blessed One Kakusandha, 
accomplished and fully enlightened, then, gone to the forest or 
to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, they abided contemplat- 
ing foulness in the body, perceiving repulsiveness in nutriment, 
perceiving disenchantment with all the world, contemplating 
impermanence in all formations. 

20. "Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One 
Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, dressed, and 
taking his bowl and outer robe, he went into the village for alms 
with the venerable Vidhura as his attendant. 

21. "Then the Mara DusI took possession of a certain boy, and 
picking up a stone, he struck the venerable Vidhura on the head 
with it and cut his head. With blood running from his cut head, 
[337] the venerable Vidhura followed close behind the Blessed 
One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened. Then the 
Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, 
turned around and looked at him with the elephant look: 'This 
Mara DusI knows no bounds.' And with that look. Evil One, the 
Mara DQsI fell from that place and reappeared in the Great Hell. 529 

22. "Now, Evil One, there are three names for the Great Hell: 
the hell of the six bases for contact, the hell of, the impalement 
with stakes, and the hell to be felt for oneself. 530 Then, Evil One, 
the wardens of hell came up to me and said: 'Gopd sir, when 
stake meets stake in your heart, then you will know: "I have 
been roasting in hell for a thousand years.'" 

23. "For many a year. Evil One, for many a century, for many 
a millennium, I roasted in that Great Hell. For ten millennia I 
roasted in the auxiliary of that Great Hell, experiencing the 


436 Maratajjamya Sutta: Sutta 50 i 337 


feeling called that of emergence from ripening. 531 My body had 
the same form as a human body. Evil One, but my head had the 
form of a fish's head. 

24. "What can hell be well compared to 
Wherein DusI roasted, assailant 
Of Vidhura the disciple 
And the brahmin Kakusandha? 532 
Stakes of steel, even a hundred. 

Each one suffered separately; 

These can hell be well compared to 
Wherein DusI roasted, assailant 
Of Vidhura the disciple 
And the brahmin Kakusandha. 

Dark One, you have much to suffer 
By assaulting such a bhikkhu. 

An Enlightened One's disciple 
Who directly knows this fact. 

25. "In the middle of the ocean 
There are mansions aeon-lasting. 

Sapphire-shining, fiery-gleaming | 

With a clear translucent lustre, 

Where iridescent sea-nymphs dance 
In complex, intricate rhythms. 

» 

Dark One, you have much to suffer. . . 

Who directly knows this fact. 

26. "I am one who, when exhorted 
By the Enlightened One in person. 

Shook Migara's Mother's Palace 
With his toe, the Order watching. 533 

Dark One, you have much to suffer. . . 

Who directly knows this fact. 


27. "I am one who, wielding firmly 
Strength of supernormal powers. 


The Rebuke to Mara 437 


f 1338 

Shook all Vejayanta Palace 
With his toe to incite the gods: 534 [338] 

Dark One, you have much to suffer. . . 
Who directly knows this fact. 

28. "I am one who, in that palace. 

Posed to Sakka this question: 

'Do you know then, friend, deliverance 
Due to craving's full destruction?' 
Whereupon Sakka then answered 
Truly to the question asked him: 535 

Dark One, you have much to suffer... 
Who directly knows this fact. 

29. "I am one who thought of posing 
Brahma this question 

In Sudhamma Hall in heaven: 

'Is there still found in you, friend. 

The wrong view you once accepted? 

Is the radiance of heaven 
Clearly seen by you as passing?' 
Brahma then answered my question 
Truthfully and in due sequence: 

'There is found in me no longer. 

Sir, the wrong view that once I held; 

All the radiance of heaven 
I now clearly see as passing; 

I disclaim my prior claim 
That it is permanent, eternal': 536 

Dark One, you have much to suffer. . . 
Who directly knows this fact. 

30. "I am one who, by liberation. 

Has touched the peak of Mount Sineru, 
Visited India and Pubbavideha 
And all the regions of the earth. 537 


438 Maratajjaniya Sutta: Sutta 50 


i 338 


Dark One, you have much to suffer 
By assaulting such a bhikkhu, 

An Enlightened One's disciple 
Who directly knows this fact. 

31. "There has never been found a fire 
Which intends, 'Let me bum the fool,' 
But a fool who assaults a fire 
Burns himself by his own doing. 

So it is with you, O Mara: 

By assaulting the Tathagata, 

Like a fool who plays with fire 
You only burn yourself alone. 

By assaulting the Tathagata, 

You generate much demerit. 

Evil One, do you imagine 
That your evil will not ripen? 

Doing thus, you store up evil 
Which will last long, O End-maker! 
Mara, shun the Enlightened One, 

Play no more your tricks on bhikkhus." 

So the bhikkhu chastened Mara 
In the Bhesakala thicket 
Whereupon the sombre spirit 
Disappeared right then and there. 


Part Two 

The Middle Fifty Discourses 

(MajjhimapannasapaU) 



1 

The Division on Householders 

( Gahapativagga ) 




51 Kandaraka Sutta 
To Kandaraka 


[339] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One 
was living at Campa on the banks of the Gaggara Lake with a 
large Sangha of bhikkhus. Then Pessa, the elephant driver's son, 
and Kandaraka the wanderer went to the Blessed One. Pessa, 
after paying homage to the Blessed One, sat down at one side, 
while Kandaraka exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, 
and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he 
stood at one side. 538 Standing there, he surveyed the Sangha of 
bhikkhus sitting in complete silence, 539 and then he said to the 
Blessed One: 

2. "It is wonderful. Master Gotama, it is marvellous how the 
Sangha of bhikkhus has been led to practise the right way by 
Master Gotama. Those who were Blessed Ones, accomplished 
and fully enlightened in the past, at most only led the Sangha of 
bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by Master Gotama 
now. And those who will be Blessed Ones, accomplished and 
fully enlightened in the future, at most will only lead the Sangha 
of bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by Master 
Gotama now." 540 

3. "So it is, Kandaraka, so it is! Those who were Blessed Ones, 
accomplished and fully enlightened in the past, at most only led 
the Sangha of bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by 
me now. And those who will be Blessed Ones, accomplished and 
fully enlightened in the future, at most will only lead the Sangha 
of bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by me now. 

"Kandaraka, in this Sangha of bhikkhus there are bhikkhus 
who are arahants with taints destroyed, who have lived the 
holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, 
reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and who 
are completely liberated through final knowledge. In this 


443 


444 Kandamka Sutta: Sutta 51 


i 340 


Sangha of bhikkhus there are bhikkhus in higher training, of 
constant virtue, living a life of constant virtue, sagacious, living 
a life of constant sagacity. They abide with their minds well 
established in the four foundations of mindfulness. 541 What 
four? Here, Kandaraka, [340] a bhikkhu abides contemplating 
the body as a body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having 
put away covetousness and grief for the world. He abides con- 
templating feelings as feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mind- 
ful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. He 
abides contemplating mind as mind, ardent, fully aware, and 
mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. 
He abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, 
fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and 
grief for the world." 

4. When this was said, Pessa, the elephant driver's son, said: 
"It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous how well the 
four foundations of mindfulness have been made known by the 
Blessed One: for the purification of beings, for the surmounting 
of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and 
grief, for the attainment of the true way, for the realisation of 
Nibbana. From time to time, venerable sir, we white-clothed lay 
people also abide with our minds well established in these four 
foundations of mindfulness. 542 Here, venerable sir, we abide 
contemplating the body as a body... feelings as feelings... mind 
as mind... mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, fully aware, and 
mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. 
It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous how amid man's 
tangle, corruption, and deceptions, the Blessed One knows the 
welfare and harm of beings. For humankind is a tangle but the 
animal is open enough. Venerable sir, I can drive an elephant to 
be tamed, and in the time it takes to make a trip back and forth 
in Campa, that elephant will show every kind of deception, 
duplicity, crookedness, and fraud [he is capable of]. 543 But those 
who are called our slaves, messengers, and servants behave in 
one way with the body, in another way by speech, while their 
minds work in still another way. It is wonderful, venerable sir, it 
is marvellous how amid man's tangle, corruption, and decep- 
tions, the Blessed One knows the welfare and harm of beings. 
For humankind is a tangle but the animal is open enough." 


To Kandaraka 445 


i 342 

5. "So it is, Pessa, so it is! [341] Humankind is a tangle but the 
animal is open enough. Pessa, there are four kinds of persons to 
be found existing in the world. 544 What four? Here a certain 
kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of tor- 
turing himself. Here a certain kind of person torments others 
and pursues the practice of torturing others. Here a certain kind 
of person torments himself and pursues the practice of tortur- 
ing himself, and he also torments others and pursues the prac- 
tice of torturing others. Here a certain kind of person does not 
torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself, and 
he does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing 
others. Since he torments neither himself nor others, he is here 
and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and he abides 
experiencing bliss, having himself become holy. 545 Which of 
these four kinds of persons satisfies your mind, Pessa?" 

"The first three do not satisfy my mind, venerable sir, but the 
last one satisfies my mind." 

6. "But, Pessa, why don't the first three kinds of persons satis- 
fy your mind?" 

"Venerable sir, the kind of person who torments himself and 
pursues the practice? of torturing himself, torments and tortures 
himself though he desires pleasure and recoils from pain; that is 
why this kind of person does not satisfy my mind. And the kind 
of person who torments others and pursues the practice of tor- 
turing others, torments and tortures others who desire pleasure 
and recoil from pain; that is why this kind of person does not 
satisfy my mind. And the kind of person who torments himself 
and pursues the practice of torturing himself, and who also 
torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others, tor- 
ments and tortures himself and others, both of whom desire 
pleasure and recoil from pain; that is why this kind of person 
does not satisfy my mind. [342] But the kind of person who does 
not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself 
and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of tor- 
turing others; who, since he torments neither himself nor others, 
is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and 
abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy - he does 
not torment and torture either himself or others, both of whom 
desire pleasure and recoil from pain. That is why this kind of 


446 Kandaraka Sutta: Sutta 51 


i343 


person satisfies my mind. And now, venerable sir, we depart 
We are busy and have much to do." 

"Now is the time, Pessa, to do as you think fit." 

Then Pessa, the elephant driver's son, having delighted and 
rejoiced in the Blessed One's words, rose from his seat, and after 
paying homage to the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, he 
departed. 

7. Soon after he had left, the Blessed One addressed the 
bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus, Pessa, the elephant driver's son, i s 
wise, he has great wisdom. If he had sat a while longer until I 
had expounded for him in detail these four kinds of persons, he 
would have greatly benefited. Still he has already greatly bene- 
fited even as it is." 546 

"This is the time. Blessed One, this is the time. Sublime One, 
for the Blessed One to expound in detail these four kinds of per- 
sons. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will 
remember it." 

"Then, bhikkhus, listen and attend closely to what I shall say." 

"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

8. "Bhikkhus, what kind of person torments himself and pur- 
sues the practice of torturing himself? 547 Here a certain person 
goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming 
when asked, not stopping when asked; he does not accept food 
brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; he 
receives nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, 
across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a 
pregnant woman, from a woman giving suck, from a woman 
lying with a man, from where food is advertised to be distrib- 
uted, from where a dog is waiting, from where flies are buzzing; 
he accepts no fish or meat, he drinks no liquor, wine, or ferment- 
ed brew. He keeps to one house, to one morsel; he keeps to two 
houses to two morsels;... he keeps to seven houses, to seven 
morsels. He lives on one saucerful a day, on two saucerfuls a 
day... on seven saucerfuls a day. He takes food once a day, [343] 
once every two days... once every seven days, and so on up to 
once every fortnight; he dwells pursuing the practice of taking 
food at stated intervals. He is an eater of greens or millet or wild 
rice or hide-parings or moss or ricebran or rice-scum or sesanum 1 
flour or grass or cowdung. He lives on forest roots and fruits, he 


i 344 


To Kandaraka 447 


feeds on fallen fruits. He clothes himself in hemp, in hemp- 
mixed cloth, in shrouds, in refuse rags, in tree bark, in antelope 
bide, in strips of antelope hide, in kusa-grass fabric, in bark fab- 
ric, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in animal wool, 
fn owls' wings. He is one who pulls out hair and beard, pursuing 
the practice of pulling out hair and beard. He is one who stands 
continuously, rejecting seats. He is one who squats continuously, 
devoted to maintaining the squatting position. He is one who 
uses a mattress of spikes; he makes a mattress of spikes his bed. 
He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times 
daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways he 
dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the 
body. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and 
pursues the practice of torturing himself. 

9. "What kind of person, bhikkhus, torments others and pur- 
sues the practice of torturing others? Here a certain person is a 
butcher of sheep, a butcher of pigs, a fowler, a trapper of wild 
beasts, a hunter, a fisherman, a thief, an executioner, a prison 
warden, or one who follows any other such bloody occupation. 
This is called the kind of person who torments others and pur- 
sues the practice of torturing others. 

10. "What kind of person, bhikkhus, torments himself and 
pursues the practice of torturing himself and also torments oth- 
ers and pursues the practice of torturing others? Here some per- 
son is a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin. 548 
Having had a new sacrificial temple built to the east of the city, 
and having shaved off his hair and beard, dressed himself in 
rough hide, and greased his body with ghee and oil, scratching 
his back with a deer's horn, he enters the sacrificial temple 
together with his chief queen and his brahmin high priest. There 
he lies down on the bare ground with the grass on it. The king 
lives on the milk in the first teat of a cow with a calf of the same 
colour [344] while the chief queen lives on the milk in the sec- 
ond teat and the brahmin high priest lives on the milk in the 
third teat; the milk in the fourth teat they pour onto the fire, 
and the calf lives on what is left. He says thus: 'Let so many 
bulls be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many bullocks be 
slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many heifers be slaughtered for 
sacrifice, let so many goats be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so 
many sheep be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many trees be 


448 Kandaraka Sutta: Sutta 51 


i345 


felled for the sacrificial posts, let so much grass be cut for the 
sacrificial grass.' And then his slaves, messengers, and servants 
make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, being spurred 
on by threats of punishment and by fear. This is called the kind 
of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of tor- 
turing himself and who torments others and pursues the prac- 
tice of torturing others. 

11. "What kind of person, bhikkhus, does not torment himself 
or pursue the practice of torturing himself and does not torment 
others or pursue the practice of tormenting others - the one who, 
since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now 
hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing 
bliss, having himself become holy? 549 

12. "Here, bhikkhus, a Tathagata appears in the world, accom- 
plished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and con- 
duct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons 
to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. 
He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its 
Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its 
princes and its people, which he has himself realised by direct 
knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, 
good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right mean- 
ing and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly per- 
fect and pure. 

13. "A householder or householder's son or one born in some 
other clan hears that Dhamma. On hearing the Dhamma he 
acquires faith in the Tathagata. Possessing that faith, he consid- 
ers thus: 'Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth 
is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the 
holy life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I 
shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go 
forth from the home life into homelessness.' On a later occa- 
sion, abandoning a small or a large fortune, [345] abandoning a 
small or a large circle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and 
beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from the home 
life into homelessness. 

14. "Having thus gone forth and possessing the bhikkhus 
training and way of life, abandoning the killing of living beingS/ 
he abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid 


i 346 


To Kandaraka 449 


aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living 
beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains 
from taking what is not given; taking only what is given, expect- 
ing only what is given, by not stealing he abides in purity. 
Abandoning incelibacy, he observes celibacy, living apart, 
abstaining from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse. 

"Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech; he 
speaks truth, adheres to truth, is trustworthy and reliable, one 
who is no deceiver of the world. Abandoning malicious speech, 
he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat else- 
where what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] 
from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has 
heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; 
thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter 
of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights 
in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord. 
Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he 
speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and love- 
able, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many and 
agreeable to many. Abandoning gossip, he abstains from gossip; 
he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what 
is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right 
time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, 
moderate, and beneficial. 

"He abstains from injuring seeds and plants. He practises eat- 
ing only in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night 
and outside the proper time. He abstains from dancing, singing, 
music, and theatrical shows. He abstains from wearing garlands, 
smartening himself with scent, and embellishing himself with 
unguents. He abstains from high and large couches. He abstains 
from accepting gold and silver. He abstains from accepting raw 
grain. He abstains from accepting raw meat. He abstains from 
accepting women and girls. He abstains from accepting men and 
women slaves. He abstains from accepting goats and sheep. He 
abstains from accepting fowl and pigs. He abstains from accept- 
ing elephants, cattle, horses, and mares. He abstains from accept- 
ing fields and land. He abstains from going on errands and run- 
ning messages. He abstains from buying and selling. He abstains 
from false weights, false metals, and false measures. [346] He 



450 Kandaraka S utta: Sutta 51 


1346 


abstains from cheating, deceiving, defrauding, and trickery. He 
abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plun- 
der, and violence. 

15. "He becomes content with robes to protect his body and 
with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes 
he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a bird, wherever 
it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too, the 
bhikkhu becomes content with robes to protect his body and 
with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes 
he sets out taking only these with him. Possessing this aggre- 
gate of noble virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that 
is blameless. 

16. "On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its 
signs and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, 
evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade 
him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye fac- 
ulty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a 
sound with the ear... On smelling an odour with the nose... On 
tasting a flavour with the tongue... On touching a tangible with 
the body... On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does 
not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind fac- 
ulty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and 
grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he 
guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind 
faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, he experi- 
ences within himself a bliss that is unsullied. 

17. "He becomes one who acts in full awareness when going 
forward and returning; who acts in full awareness when looking 
ahead and looking away; who acts in full awareness when flex- 
ing and extending his limbs; who acts in full awareness when 
wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; who 
acts in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, 
and tasting; who acts in full awareness when defecating and uri- 
nating; who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sit- 
ting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent. 

18. "Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, and this noble 
restraint of the faculties, and possessing this noble mindfulness 
and full awareness, he resorts to a secluded resting place: the 
forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a 
charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw. 


i 347 


To Kandaraka 451 


19. "On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits 
down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and 
establishing mindfulness before him. [347] Abandoning covetous- 
ness for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; 
he purifies his mind from covetousness. Abandoning ill will and 
hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate 
for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill 
will and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free 
from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully 
aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning 
restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind 
inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and 
remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond 
doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his 
mind from doubt. 

20. "Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfec- 
tions of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from 
sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters 
upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by 
applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born 
of seclusion. 

21. "Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, 
he enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self- 
confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sus- 
tained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. 

22. "Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, he abides 
in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling plea- 
sure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, 
on account of which noble ones announce: 'He has a pleasant 
abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.' 

23. "Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and 
with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, he enters 
upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain- 
nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. 

24. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, 
and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of 
the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past 
lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five 
births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty 


452 Kandaraka Sutta: Sutta 51 


i 348 


births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand 
births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world- 
expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: 
'There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, 
such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and 
pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reap- 
peared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, 
with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my 
experience of pleasure and pain, [348] such my life-term; and 
passing away from there, I reappeared here.' Thus with their 
aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. 

25. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, 
and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of 
the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine 
eye, which is purified and surpasses the Tiuman, he sees beings 
passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and 
ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. He understands how beings 
pass on according to their actions thus: 'These worthy beings 
who were ill-conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of 
noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in 
their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have 
reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in 
perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well- 
conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble 
ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their 
actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reap- 
peared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.' Thus 
with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the 
human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior 
and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he 
understands how beings pass on according to their actions. 

26. "When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, 
unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, 
and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of 
the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: 
'This is suffering'; he understands as it actually is: 'This is the 
origin of suffering'; he understands as it actually is: 'This is the 
cessation of suffering'; he understands as it actually is: 'This is 
the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' He understands as 


i 349 


To Kandaraka 453 


it actually is: 'These are the taints'; he understands as it actually 
is: 'This is the origin of the taints'; he understands as it actually 
is: 'This is the cessation of the taints'; he understands as it actu- 
ally is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints/ 

27. "When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from 
the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the 
taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowl- 
edge: 'It is liberated.' He understands: 'Birth is destroyed, the 
holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, 
there is no more coming to any state of being.' 

28. "This, bhikkhus, is called the kind of person who does not 
torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and 
who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing 
others [349] - the one who, since he torments neither himself nor 
others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, 
and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy." 

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied 
and delighted in the Blessed One's words. 


52 Atthakanagara Sutta 
The Man from Atthakanagara 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Venerable Ananda 
was living at Beluvagamaka near Vesall. 

2. Now on that occasion the householder Dasama of 
Atthakanagara had arrived at Pataliputta for some business or 
other. Then he went to a certain bhikkhu in Kukkuta's Park, and 
after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and asked 
him: "Where does the venerable Ananda live now, venerable 
sir? I wish to see the venerable Ananda." 

"The venerable Ananda is living at Beluvagamaka near Vesall, 
householder." 

3. When the householder Dasama had completed his business 
at Pataliputta, he went to the venerable Ananda at Beluva- 
gamaka near Vesall. After paying homage to him, he sat down 
at one side and asked him: 

"Venerable Ananda, has any one thing been proclaimed by 
the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully 
enlightened, wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and 
resolute, his unliberated mind comes to be liberated, his unde- 
stroyed taints come to be destroyed, and he attains the supreme 
security from bondage that he had not attained before?" 550 

"Yes, householder, one such thing has been proclaimed by the 
Blessed One." [350] 

"What is that one thing, venerable Ananda?" 

4. "Here, householder, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, 
secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and 
abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and 
sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion- 
He considers this and understands it thus: This first jhana is 
conditioned and volitionally produced. 551 But whatever is con- 
ditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to 


454 


i 351 


The Man from Atthakanagara 455 


cessation.' Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the 
taints. 552 But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints, 
then because of that desire for the Dhamma, that delight in the 
phamma, 553 with the destruction of the five lower fetters he 
becomes one due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure 
Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning 
from that world. 

"This is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One who knows 
and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein if a 
bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated 
mind comes to be liberated, his undestroyed taints come to be 
destroyed, and he attains the supreme security from bondage 
that he had not attained before. 

5. "Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a 
bhikkhu enters and abides in the second jhana... He considers 
this and understands it thus: 'This second jhana is conditioned 
and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and 
volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.' 
Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if 
he does not attain the destruction of the taints... without ever 
returning from that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One [351]... 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

6. "Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhik- 
khu... enters upon and abides in the third jhana... He considers 
this and understands it thus: 'This third jhana is conditioned 
and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and 
volitionally produced is -impermanent, subject to cessation.' 
Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if 
he does not attain the destruction of the taints... with out ever 
returning from that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One... 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

7. "Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain. ..a 
bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana... He consid- 
ers this and understands it thus: "This fourth jhana is conditioned 


456 Atthakanagara Sutta: Sutta 52 


i 351 

and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and voli- 
tionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.' Standing 
upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does 
not attain the destruction of the taints... without ever returning 
from that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One... 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

8. "Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a 
mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, like- 
wise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and 
everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all- 
encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, 
abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without 
ill will. He considers this and understands it thus: 'This deliver- 
ance of mind through loving-kindness is conditioned and voli- 
tionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally 
produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.' Standing upon 
that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not 
attain the destruction of the taints... without ever returning from 
that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One... 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

9. "Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a 
mind imbued with compassion... without ill will. He considers 
this and understands it thus: 'This deliverance of mind through 
compassion is conditioned and volitionally produced. But what- 
ever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, 
subject to cessation.' Standing upon that, he attains the destruc- 
tion of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the 
taints. . .without ever returning from that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One.- 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.. -he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

10. "Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a 
mind imbued with appreciative joy. ..without ill will- 


i 352 


The Man from A tthakanagara 457 


considers this and understands it thus: 'This deliverance of 
mind through appreciative joy is conditioned and volitionally 
produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced 
is impermanent, subject to cessation.' Standing upon that, he 
attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the 
destruction of the taints. . .without ever returning from that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One... 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

11. "Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a 
mind imbued with equanimity... without ill will. He considers 
this and understands it thus: 'This deliverance of mind through 
equanimity is conditioned and volitionally produced. But what- 
ever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, 
[352] subject to cessation.' Standing upon that, he attains the 
destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction 
of the taints. . .without ever returning from that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One... 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

12. "Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of 
form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, 
with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that 'space 
is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infi- 
nite space. He considers this and understands it thus: 'This 
attainment of the base of infinite space is conditioned and voli- 
tionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally 
produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.' Standing upon 
that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not 
attain the destruction of the taints... without ever returning from 
that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One... 
Wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

13. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 
space, aware that 'consciousness is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters upon 
and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. He considers 


1353 


458 Atthakanagara Sutta: Sutta 52 


this and understands it thus: 'This attainment of the base of L n fj_ 
nite consciousness is conditioned and volitionally produced. But 
whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is imperma- 
nent, subject to cessation.' Standing upon that, he attains the 
destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of 
the taints. . .without ever returning from that world. 

"This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One. 
wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute... he 
attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not 
attained before. 

14. "Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite 
consciousness, aware that 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu enters 
upon and abides in the base of nothingness. He considers this 
and understands it thus: 'This attainment of the base of nothing- 
ness is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is 
conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject 
to cessation.' Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of 
the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints, 
then because of that desire for the Dhamma, that delight in the 
Dhamma, with the destruction of the five lower fetters he 
becomes one due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure 
Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning 
from that world. 

"This too^is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One who 
knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein if 
a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated 
mind comes to be liberated, his undestroyed taints come to be 
destroyed, and he attains the supreme security from bondage 
that he had not attained before." 554 

15. When venerable Ananda had spoken, the householder 
Dasama of Atthakanagara said to him: "Venerable Ananda, just 
as if a man seeking one entrance to a hidden treasure came all 
at once upon eleven [353] entrances to a hidden treasure, so too, 
while I was seeking one door to the Deathless, I have come all 
at once to hear of eleven doors to the Deathless. 555 Just as if a 
man had a house with eleven doors and when that house 
caught on fire, he could flee to safety by any one of these eleven 
doors, so I can flee to safety by any one of these eleven doors to 
the Deathless. Venerable sir, these sectarians will even seek a 


i 353 


The Man from Atthakanagara 459 


teacher's fee for their teachers; why shouldn't I make an offer- 
ing to the venerable Ananda?" 

16. Then the householder Dasama of Atthakanagara assem- 
bled the Sangha of bhikkhus from Pataliputta and Vesall, and 
with his own hands he served and satisfied them with various 
kinds of good food. He presented a pair of cloths to each 
bhikkhu, and he presented a triple robe to the venerable 
Ananda, and he had a dwelling worth five hundred 556 built for 
the venerable Ananda. 




53 Sekha Sutta 

The Disciple in Higher Training 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha's Park. 

2. Now on that occasion a new assembly hall had recently been 
built for the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu and it had not yet been 
inhabited by any recluse or brahmin or human being at all. Then 
the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu went to the Blessed One. After pay- 
ing homage to him, they sat down at one side and said to him: 

"Venerable sir, a new assembly hall has recently been built 
here for the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu and it has not yet been 
inhabited by any recluse or brahmin or human being at all. 
Venerable sir, let the Blessed One be the first to use it. When the 
Blessed One has used it first, then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu 
will use it afterwards. That will lead to their welfare and happi- 
ness for a long time." 557 [354] 

3. The Blessed«Qne consented in silence. .Then, when they saw 
that he had consented, they got up from their seats, and after 
paying homage to him, keeping him on their right, they went to 
the assembly hall. They covered it completely with coverings 
and prepared seats, and they put out a large water jug and hung 
up an oil-lamp. Then they went to the Blessed One, and after 
paying homage to him, they stood at one side and said: 

"Venerable sir, the assembly hall has been covered completely 
with coverings and seats have been prepared, a large water jug 
has been put out and an oil-lamp hung up. Now is the time for 
the Blessed One to do as he thinks fit." 

4. Then the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and 
outer robe, he went with the Sangha of bhikkhus to the assem- 
bly hall. When he arrived, he washed his feet and then entered 
the hall and sat down by the central pillar facing the east. And 
the bhikkhus washed their feet and then entered the hall and sat 


460 


i 355 


The Disciple in Higher Training 461 


down by the western wall facing the east, with the Blessed One 
before them. And the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu washed their feet 
and entered the hall and sat down by the eastern wall facing the 
west, with the Blessed One before them. 

5. Then, when the Blessed One had instructed, urged, roused, 
and encouraged the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu with talk on the 
Dhamma for much of the night, he said to the venerable Ananda: 

"Ananda, speak to the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu about the dis- 
ciple in higher training who has entered upon the way. 558 My 
back is uncomfortable. I will rest it." 

“Yes, venerable sir,” the venerable Ananda replied. 

Then the Blessed One prepared his patchwork cloak folded in 
four and lay down on his right side in the lion's pose, with one 
foot overlapping the other, mindful and fully aware, after not- 
ing in his mind the time for rising. 

6. Then the venerable Ananda addressed Mahanama the 
Sakyan thus: 

"Mahanama, here a noble disciple is possessed of virtue, 
guards the doors of his sense faculties, is moderate in eating, 
and devoted to wakefulness; he possesses seven good qualities; 
and he is one who obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, 
the four jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a 
pleasant abiding here and now. [355] 

7. "And how is a noble disciple possessed of virtue? Here a 
noble disciple is virtuous, he dwells restrained with the restraint 
of the Patimokkha, he is perfect in conduct and resort, and see- 
ing fear in the slightest fault, he trains by undertaking the train- 
ing precepts. This is how a noble disciple is possessed of virtue. 

8. "And how does a noble disciple guard the doors of his 
sense faculties? On seeing a form with the eye, a noble disciple 
does not grasp at its signs and’features. Since, if he left the eye 
faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness 
and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its 
restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint 
of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear... On 
smelling an odour with the nose... On tasting a flavour with 
the tongue... On touching a tangible with the body... on cogniz- 
ing a mind-object with the mind, a noble disciple does not 
grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty 
unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief 


462 Sekha Sutta: Sutta 53 


i 356 


might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he 
guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the 
mind faculty. That is how a noble disciple guards the doors of 
his sense faculties. 

9. "And how is a noble disciple moderate in eating? Here, 
reflecting wisely, a noble disciple takes food neither for amuse- 
ment nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty 
and attractiveness, but only for the endurance and continuance 
of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy 
life, considering: 'Thus I shall terminate old feelings without 
arousing new feelings and I shall be healthy and blameless and 
shall live in comfort.' That is how a noble disciple is moderate 
in eating. 

10. "And how is a noble disciple devoted to wakefulness? 
Here, during the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, 
a noble disciple purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the 
first watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sit- 
ting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the middle 
watch of the night he lies down on the right side in the lion's 
pose with one foot overlapping the other, mindful and fully 
aware, after noting in his mind the time for rising. After rising, 
in the third watch of the night, while walking back and forth and 
sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. That is how a 
noble disciple is devoted to wakefulness. [356] 

11. "And how does a nobiie disciple possess' seven good quali- 
ties? Here a noble disciple has faith; he places his faith in the 
Tathagata's enlightenment thus: 'The Blessed One is accom- 
plished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and con- 
duct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of per- 
sons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, 
blessed/ 

12. "He has shame; he is ashamed of misconduct in body, 
speech, and mind, ashamed of engaging in evil unwholesome 
deeds. 

13. "He has fear of wrongdoing; he is afraid of misconduct in 
body, speech, and mind, afraid of engaging in evil unwhole- 
some deeds. 559 

14. "He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, 
and consolidates what he has learned. Such teachings as are 
good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end. 


1357 


The Disciple in Higher Training 463 


with the right meaning and phrasing, and affirm a holy life that 
is utterly perfect and pure - such teachings as these he has 
learned much of, remembered, recited verbally, investigated 
with the mind and penetrated well by view. 

15. "He is energetic in abandoning unwholesome states and in 
undertaking wholesome states; he is steadfast, firm in striving, 
not remiss in developing wholesome states. 

16. "He has mindfulness; he possesses the highest mindful- 
ness and skill; he recalls and recollects what was done long ago 
and spoken long ago. 560 

17. "He is wise; he possesses wisdom regarding rise and dis- 
appearance that is noble and penetrative and leads to the com- 
plete destruction of suffering. 561 That is how a noble disciple 
possesses seven good qualities. 

18. "And how is a noble disciple one who obtains at will, 
without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the 
higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now? 
Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from 
unwholesome states, a noble disciple enters upon and abides in 
the first jhana...With the stilling of applied and sustained 
thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhana...With 
the fading away as well of rapture. . .he enters upon and abides 
in the third jhana...With the abandoning of pleasure and 
pain... he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has 
neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to 
equanimity. That is how a noble disciple is one who obtains at 
will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute 
the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now. 

19. "When a noble disciple has thus become one who is pos- 
sessed of virtue, who guards the doors of his sense faculties, 
who is moderate in eating, who is devoted to wakefulness, who 
possesses seven good qualities, [357] who obtains at will, with- 
out trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the high- 
er mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now, he is 
called one in higher training who has entered upon the way. His 
eggs are unspoiled; he is capable of breaking out, capable of 
enlightenment, capable of attaining the supreme security from 
bondage. 

"Suppose there were a hen with eight or ten or twelve eggs, 
which she had covered, incubated, and nurtured properly. 562 


464 Sekha Sutta: Sutta 53 


i 358 


Even though she did not wish: 'Oh, that my chicks might pierce 
their shells with the points of their claws and beaks and hatch 
out safely!' yet the chicks are capable of piercing their shells 
with the points of their claws and beaks and hatching out safely. 
So too, when a noble disciple has thus become one who is pos- 
sessed of virtue... he is called one in higher training who has 
entered upon the way. His eggs are unspoiled; he is capable of 
breaking out, capable of enlightenment, capable of attaining the 
supreme security from bondage. 

20. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose 
purity is due to equanimity, 563 this noble disciple recollects his 
manifold past lives... (as Sutta 51, §24)... Thus with their aspects 
and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. This is his 
first breaking out like that of the hen's chicks from their shells. 

21. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose 
purity is due to equanimity, with the divine eye, which is puri- 
fied and surpasses the human, this noble disciple sees beings 
passing away and reappearing... (as Sutta 51, §25). ..he under- 
stands how beings pass on according to their actions. This is his 
second breaking out like that of the hen's chicks from their shells. 

22. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness 
whose purity is due to equanimity, by realising for himself 
with direct knowledge, this noble disciple here and now enters 
upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by 
wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. 
[358] This is his third breaking out like that of the hen's chicks 
from their shells. 564 * 

23. “When a noble disciple is possessed of virtue, that is his 
conduct. When he guards the doors of his sense faculties, that is 
his conduct. When he is moderate in eating, that is his conduct. 
When he is devoted to wakefulness, that is his conduct. When 
he possesses seven good qualities, that is his conduct. When he 
is one who obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four 
jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant 
abiding here and now, that is his conduct. 565 

24. "When he recollects his manifold past lives... with their 
aspects and particulars, that is his true knowledge. When, with 
the divine eye... he sees beings passing away and reappearing 
and understands how beings pass on according to their actions, 
that is his true knowledge. When, by realising for himself with 



i 359 


The Disciple in Higher Training 465 


direct knowledge, he here and now enters upon and abides in the 
deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taint- 
less with the destruction of the taints, that is his true knowledge. 

25. "This noble disciple is thus said to be perfect in true 
knowledge, perfect in conduct, perfect in true knowledge and 
conduct. And this stanza was uttered by the Brahma 
Sanankumara: 

'The noble clan is held to be 
The best of people as to lineage; 

But best of gods and humans is one 
Perfect in true knowledge and conduct.' 

% 

"Now that stanza was well sung by the Brahma Sanan- 
kumara, not ill-sung; it was well spoken, not ill-spoken; it has a 
meaning, and is not meaningless; and it was approved by the 
Blessed One." 566 

26. Then the Blessed One rose and addressed the venerable 
Ananda thus: "Good, good, Ananda! It is good that you have 
spoken to the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu about the disciple in 
higher training who has entered upon the way." [359] 

That is what the venerable Ananda said. The Teacher approved. 
The Sakyans of Kapilavatthu were satisfied and delighted in the 
venerable Ananda 's words. 


54 Potaliya Sutta 
To Potaliya 


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was liv- 
ing in the country of the Anguttarapans at a town of theirs 
named Apana. 

2. Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and 
taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Apana for alms. When 
he had wandered for alms in Apana and had returned from his 
almsround, after his meal he went to a certain grove for the day's 
abiding. Having entered the grove, he sat down at the root of a 
tree. 

3. Potaliya the householder, while walking and wandering for 
exercise, wearing full dress with parasol and sandals, also went 
to the grove, and having entered the grove, he went to the 
Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this cour- 
teous and amiable talk was finished, he stood at one side. The 
Blessed One said to him: "There are seats, householder, sit down 
if you like." 

When this was said, the householder Potaliya thought: "The 
recluse Gotama addresses me as 'householder,'" and angry and 
displeased, he remained silent. 

A second time the Blessed One said to him: "There are seats, 
householder, sit down if you like." And a second time the house- 
holder Potaliya thought: "The recluse Gotama addresses me as 
'householder,'" and angry and displeased, he remained silent. 

A third time the Blessed One said to him: "There are seats, 
householder, sit down if you like." When this was said, the 
householder Potaliya thought: "The recluse Gotama addresses 
me as 'householder,'" and angry and displeased, he said to the 
Blessed One: [360] "Master Gotama, it is neither fitting nor prop- 
er that you address me as 'householder.'" 

"Householder, you have the aspects, marks, and signs of a 
householder." 


466 


i 360 


To Potaliya 467 


"Nevertheless, Master Gotama, I have given up all my works 
and cut off all my affairs." 

"In what way have you given up all your works, householder, 
and cut off all your affairs?" 

"Master Gotama, I have given all my wealth, grain, silver, and 
gold to my children as their inheritance. Without advising or 
admonishing them, I live merely on food and clothing. That is 
how I have given up all my works and cut off all my affairs." 

"Householder, the cutting off of affairs as you describe it is 
one thing, but in the Noble One's Discipline the cutting off of 
affairs is different." 

"What is the cutting off of affairs like in the Noble One's 
Discipline, venerable sir? It would be good, venerable sir, if the 
Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma, showing what the 
cutting off of affairs is like in the Noble One's Discipline." 

"Then listen, householder, and attend closely to what I shall say." 

"Yes, venerable sir," Potaliya the householder replied. The 
Blessed One said this: 

4. "Householder, there are these eight things in the Noble 
One's Discipline that lead to the cutting off of affairs. What are 
the eight? With the support of the non-killing of living beings, 
the killing of living beings is to be abandoned. With the support 
of taking only what is given, the taking of what is not given is to 
be abandoned. With the support of truthful speech, false speech 
is to be abandoned. With the support of unmalicious speech, 
malicious speech is to be abandoned. With the support of 
refraining from rapacious greed, 567 rapacious greed is to be 
abandoned. With the support of refraining from spiteful scold- 
ing, spiteful scolding is to be abandoned. With the support of 
refraining from angry despair, angry despair is to be aban- 
doned. With the support of non-arrogance, arrogance is to be 
abandoned. These are the eight things, stated in brief without 
being expounded in detail, that lead to the cutting off of affairs 
in the Noble One's Discipline." 

5. "Venerable sir, it would be good if, out of compassion, the 
Blessed One would expound to me in detail these eight things 
that lead to the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One's 
Discipline, which have been stated in brief by the Blessed One 
without being expounded in detail." 

"Then listen, householder, and attend closely to what I shall say." 


468 Potaliya Sutta: Sutta 54 


i 363 


"Yes, venerable sir," Potaliya the householder replied. The 
Blessed One said this: [361] 

6. "'With the support of the non-killing of living beings, the 
killing of living beings is to be abandoned/ So it was said. And 
with reference to what was this said? Here a noble disciple con- 
siders thus: 'I am practising the way to the abandoning and cut- 
ting off of those fetters because of which I might kill living 
beings. If I were to kill living beings, I would blame myself for 
doing so; the wise, having investigated, would censure me for 
doing so; and on the dissolution of the body, after death, 
because of killing living beings an unhappy destination would 
be expected. But this killing of living beings is itself a fetter and 
a hindrance. 568 And while taints, vexation, and fever might 
arise through the killing of living beings, there are no taints, 
vexation, and fever in one who abstains from killing living 
beings.' So it is with reference to this that it was said: 'With the 
support of the non-killing of living beings, the killing of living 
beings is to be abandoned.' 

7. "'With the support of taking only what is given, the taking 
of what is not gi vert is to be abandoned.' So it was said. . . 

8. "'With the support of truthful speech, false speech is to be 
abandoned.' So it was said . . . [362] 

9. "'With the support of unmalicious speech, malicious speech 
is to be abandoned.' So it was said. . . 

10. "'With the support of refraining from rapacious greed, 
rapacious greed is to be abandoned.' So it was said... 

11. "'With the support of refraining from spiteful scolding, 
spiteful scolding is to be abandoned.' So it was said. . .[363] 

12. "'With the support of refraining from angry despair, angry 
despair is to be abandoned.' So it was said... 

13. "'With the support of non-arrogance, arrogance is to be 
abandoned.' So it was said. And with reference to what was this 
said? Here a noble disciple considers thus: 'I am practising the 
way to the abandoning and cutting off of those fetters because of 
which I might be arrogant. If I were to be arrogant, I would 
blame myself for this; the wise, having investigated, would cen- 
sure me for this; and on the dissolution of the body, after death, 
because of being arrogant an unhappy destination would be 
expected. But this arrogance is itself a fetter and a hindrance. 
And while taints, vexation, and fever might arise through arro- 


To Potaliya 469 


i 364 


gance, there are no taints, vexation, and fever for one who is not 
arrogant.' So it is with reference to this that it was said: 'With the 
support of non-arrogance, arrogance is to be abandoned.' 569 [364] 

14. "These eight things that lead to the cutting off of affairs in 
the Noble One's Discipline have now been expounded in detail. 
But the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One's Discipline has 
not yet been achieved entirely and in all ways." 

"Venerable sir, how is the cutting off of affairs in the Noble 
One's Discipline achieved entirely and in all ways? It would be 
good, venerable sir, if the Blessed One would teach me the 
Dhamma, showing me how the cutting off of affairs in the 
Noble One's Discipline is achieved entirely and in all ways." 

"Then listen, householder, and attend closely to what I shall 
say." 

"Yes, venerable sir," Potaliya the householder replied. The 
Blessed One said this: 

15. "Householder, suppose a dog, overcome by hunger and 
weakness, was waiting by a butcher's shop. 570 Then a skilled 
butcher or his apprentice would cut out a skeleton of meatless 
bones smeared with blood and toss it to the dog. What do you 
think, householder? Would that dog get rid of his hunger and 
weakness by gnawing such a skeleton of meatless bones 
smeared with blood?" 

"No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because that skeleton consist- 
ed only of meatless bones smeared with blood. Eventually that 
dog would reap weariness and disappointment." 

"So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Sensual 
pleasures have been compared to a skeleton by the Blessed One; 
they provide much suffering and much despair, while the dan- 
ger in them is great.' Having seen this thus as it actually is with 
proper wisdom, he avoids the equanimity that is diversified, 
based on diversity, and develops the equanimity that is unified, 
based on unity, 571 where clinging to the material things of the 
world utterly ceases without remainder. 

16. "Householder, suppose a vulture, a crow, or a hawk seized 
a piece of meat and flew away, and then vultures, crows, and 
hawks flew up and pecked and clawed it. What do you think, 
householder? If that vulture, crow, or hawk does not quickly let 
go of that piece of meat, wouldn't it incur death or deadly suf- 
fering because of that?" 



470 Potaliya Sutta: Sutta 54 i 365 



"Yes, venerable sir." 


"So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Sensual 
pleasures have been compared to a piece of meat by the Blessed 
One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the 
danger in them is great.' [365] Having seen this thus as it actually 
is with proper wisdom... clinging to the material things of the 
world utterly ceases without remainder. 

17. "Householder, suppose a man took a blazing grass torch 
and went against the wind. What do you think, householder? If 
that man does not quickly let go of that blazing grass torch, 
wouldn't that blazing grass torch burn his hand or his arm or 
some other part of his body, so that he might incur death or 
deadly suffering because of that?" 

"Yes, venerable sir." 

"So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Sensual 
pleasures have been compared to a grass torch by the Blessed 
One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the 
danger in them is great.' Having seen this thus as it actually is 
with proper wisdom...clinging to the material things of the 
world utterly ceases without remainder. 

18. "Householder, suppose there were a charcoal pit deeper 
than a man's height full of glowing coals without flame or 
smoke. Then a man came who wanted to live and not to die, 
who wanted pleasure and recoiled from pain, and two strong 
men seized him by both arms and dragged him towards that 
charcoal pit. What do you think, householder? Would that man 
twist his body this way and that?" 

"Yes, venerable sir. Why is that? Because that man knows that 
if he falls into that charcoal pit, he will incur death or deadly 
suffering because of that." 

"So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Sensual 
pleasures have been compared to a charcoal pit by the Blessed 
One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the 
danger in them is great.' Having seen this thus as it actually is 
with proper wisdom... clinging to the material things of the 
world utterly ceases without remainder. 

19. "Householder, suppose a man dreamt about lovely parks, 
lovely groves, lovely meadows, and lovely lakes, and on waking 
he saw nothing of it. So too, householder, a noble disciple con- 
siders thus: 'Sensual pleasures have been compared to a dream 



i 367 


To Potaliya 471 


by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much 
despair, while the danger in them is great.' Having seen this 
thus as it actually is with proper wisdom... clinging to the mate- 
rial things of the world utterly ceases without remainder. 

20. "Householder, suppose a man borrowed goods on loan 
[366] - a fancy carriage and fine-jewelled earrings - and preceded 
and surrounded by those borrowed goods he went to the mar- 
ketplace. Then people, seeing him, would say: 'Sirs, that is a rich 
man! That is how the rich enjoy their wealth!' Then the owners, 
whenever they saw him, would take back their things. What do 
you think, householder? Would that be enough for that man to 
become dejected?" 

"Yes, venerable sir. Why is that? Because the owners took 
back their things." 

"So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Sensual 
pleasures have been compared to borrowed goods by the 
Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, 
while the danger in them is great.' Having seen this thus as it 
actually is with proper wisdom... clinging to material things of 
the world utterly ceases without remainder. 

21. "Householder, suppose there were a dense grove not far 
from some village or town, within which there was a tree laden 
with fruit but none of its fruit had fallen to the ground. Then a 
man came needing fruit, seeking fruit, wandering in search of 
fruit, and he entered the grove and saw the tree laden with fruit. 
Thereupon he thought: 'This tree is laden with fruit but none of 
its fruit has fallen to the ground. I know how to climb a tree, so 
let me climb this tree, eat as much fruit as I want, and fill my 
bag.' And he did so. Then a second man came needing fruit, 
seeking fruit, wandering in search of fruit, and taking a sharp 
axe, he too entered the grove and saw that tree laden with fruit. 
Thereupon he thought: 'This tree is laden with fruit but none of 
its fruit has fallen to the ground. I do not know how to climb a 
tree, so let me cut this tree down at its root, eat as much fruit as I 
want, and fill my bag.' And he did so. What do you think, 
householder? If that first man who had climbed the tree doesn't 
come down quickly, when the tree falls, wouldn't he break his 
hand or his foot or some other part of his body, [367] so that he 
might incur death or deadly suffering because of that?" 

"Yes, venerable sir." 


472 Potaliya Sutta: Sutta 54 


i367 


"So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: 'Sensual 
pleasures have been compared to a fruit tree by the Blessed One; 
they provide much suffering and much despair, while the dan- 
ger in them is great.' Having seen this thus as it actually is with 
proper wisdom, he avoids the equanimity that is diversified, 
based on diversity, and develops the equanimity that is unified, 
based on unity, where clinging to the material things of the 
world utterly ceases without remainder. 

22. "Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose 
purity is due to equanimity, this noble disciple recollects his 
manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births... (as Sutta 51, 
§24 )... Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his 
manifold past lives. 

23. "Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose 
purity is due to equanimity, with the divine eye, which is puri- 
fied and surpasses the human, this noble disciple sees beings 
passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and 
ugly, fortunate and unfortunate... (as Sutta 51, §25 ). ..and he 
understands how beings pass on according to their actions. 

24. "Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose 
purity is due to equanimity, by realising for himself with direct 
knowledge, this noble disciple here and now enters upon and 
abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom 
that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. 

25. "At this point, householder, the cutting off of affairs in the 
Noble One's Discipline has been achieved entirely and in all 
ways. What do you think, householder? Do you see in yourself 
any cutting off of affairs like this cutting off of affairs in the Noble 
One's Discipline when it is achieved entirely and in all ways?" 

"Venerable sir, who am I that I should possess any cutting off 
of affairs entirely and in all ways like that in the Noble One's 
Discipline? I am far indeed, venerable sir, from that cutting off 
of affairs in the Noble One's Discipline when it has been 
achieved entirely and in all ways. For, venerable sir, though the 
wanderers of other sects are not thoroughbreds, we imagined 
that they are thoroughbreds; 572 though they are not thorough- 
breds, we fed them the food of thoroughbreds; though they are 
not thoroughbreds, we set them in the place of thoroughbreds. 
But though the bhikkhus are thoroughbreds, we imagined that 
they are not thoroughbreds; though they are thoroughbreds, we 


i 368 


To Potaliya 473 


fed them the food of those who are not thoroughbreds; though 
they are thoroughbreds, we set them in the place of those who 
are not thoroughbreds. But now, venerable sir, [368] as the wan- 
derers of other sects are not thoroughbreds, we shall understand 
that they are not thoroughbreds; as they are not thoroughbreds, 
we shall feed them the food of those who are not thorough- 
breds; as they are not thoroughbreds, we shall set them in the 
place of those who are not thoroughbreds. But as the bhikkhus 
are thoroughbreds, we shall understand that they are thorough- 
breds; as they are thoroughbreds, we shall feed them the food of 
thoroughbreds; as they are thoroughbreds, we shall set them in 
the place of those who are thoroughbreds. Venerable sir, the 
Blessed One has inspired in me love for recluses, confidence in 
recluses, reverence for recluses. 

26. "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clea